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Cell phone

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  • 1. Cell Phone Use While Driving By: Amanda Letoski & Joe Dorzinsky
  • 2. Exploration: Cell Phone Use While Driving Facts
    • Cell Phone use while driving is common but controversial.
    • Some jurisdictions have made the use of a cell phone while driving illegal.
    • Others have enacted laws to ban handheld mobile phone use, but allow use of a hands-free device.
  • 3. Exploration: Cell Phone Use While Driving Facts
    • Handheld Cell Phones: 6 states (Calif., Conn., N.J., N.Y., Ore. and Wash.), D.C. and the Virgin Islands prohibit all drivers from using handheld cell phones while driving.
      • All laws are primary enforcement —an officer may cite a driver for using a handheld cell phone without any other traffic offense taking place.
  • 4. Exploration: Cell Phone Use While Driving Facts
    • All Cell Phone Use: No state bans all cell phone use (handheld and hands-free) for all drivers, but many prohibit all cell phone use by certain drivers:
      • School Bus Drivers: Bus drivers in 17 states and D.C. may not use a cell phone when passengers are present.
  • 5. Exploration: Cell Phone Use While Driving Facts
    • Text Messaging: 23 states, D.C. and Guam ban text messaging for all drivers. 18 states, D.C., and Guam have primary enforcement. In the other five, texting bans are secondary.
    • Crash Data Collection: Many states include a category for cell phone/electronic equipment distraction on police accident report forms. Recently proposed federal legislation would require states to collect this data in order to qualify for certain federal funding.
  • 6. Exploration: Cell Phone Use While Driving Facts
    • The National Safety Council announced today that it estimates at least 28% of all traffic crashes – or at least 1.6 million crashes each year – are caused by drivers using cell phones and texting. NSC estimates that 1.4 million crashes each year are caused by drivers using cell phones and a minimum of 200,000 additional crashes each year are caused by drivers who are texting.
  • 7. Questions
    • Overall Question: Is cell phone use while driving a major problem today that should be strictly enforced?
    • Research Question: Will the law on cell phone use while driving reduce accidents if it is strictly enforced?
    • Research Hypothesis: Cell phone use while driving does cause accidents.
  • 8. Related Factors
    • Factors that contribute to accidents:
      • Cell Phone Use
      • Road Rage
      • Changing the Radio
      • Other – weather, passengers, not paying attention
    • 89% agreed with the law being put into effect on cell phone use
    • 71% included cell phone use as a contributer to accidents
  • 9. Data Collection
    • Target Audience: Random sample of 38 employees from FNCB & Olympus
    • Sampling Plan: Randomly distributed the survey to business professionals
    • Summary of Respondents: Passed out 50 surveys, and received 23 back from FNCB and 15 from Olympus
    • Method of Survey: Printed out survey and handed them out
  • 10. Data Preparation-Survey
    • Have you ever been in a car accident?
  • 11. Data Preparation-Survey
    • What is the number one cause of accidents today?
      • (a) Road Rage (b) Cell Phone Use (c) Changing the Radio (d) All the above (e) Other______
  • 12. Data Preparation-Survey
    • Do you ever talk or text while driving?
    • How often would you say you use your cell phone while driving?
    • (a) Yes (b) no
    • (a) always (b) sometimes
    • (c) never
  • 13. Data Preparation-Survey
    • What would you say you use your cell phone for the most?
  • 14. Data Preparation-Survey
    • Would you say that a lot of accidents are caused by cell phone use?
  • 15. Data Preparation-Survey
    • Do you agree with the current laws being put into effect to eliminate people using their cell phones while driving?
  • 16. First Hypothesis Test
    • Are more than half the accidents today caused by cell phones?
      • Null:  <=.50 More than half the accidents today are not caused by cell phones.
      • Alt:  >.50 More than half the accidents today
      • are caused by cell phones.
  • 17. One Sample Proportion Test
  • 18. Are more than half the accidents today caused by cell phones?
    • Reject the null hypothesis
      • T- stat. > T – crit.
      • P value <  -level
      • Therefore more than half the accidents are caused by cell phone use.
  • 19. Second Hypothesis Test
    • Do more than half the people agree that enforced laws on cell phone use while driving will reduce accidents?
      • Null:  <=.50 More than half the people do not agree that enforced laws on cell phones will reduce accidents.
      • Alt:  >.50 More than half the people do agree that enforced laws on cell phones will reduce accidents.
  • 20. One Sample Proportion Test
  • 21. Do more than half the people agree that enforced laws on cell phone use while driving will reduce accidents?
    • Reject the null hypothesis
      • T- stat. > T – crit.
      • P value <  -level
      • Therefore, More than half the people do agree that enforced laws on cell phones will reduce accidents.
  • 22. Simple Linear Regression Test
    • Is there a relationship between individuals that think laws enforced on cell phone use while driving will reduce accidents and the percentage of effectiveness of the law?
    • X = individuals that think laws on cell phone use while driving will reduce accidents
    • Y = the percentage of effectiveness the law on cell phones will be if enforced
  • 23. Simple Linear Regression
    • Null: There is not a relationship between individuals that think laws enforced on cell phone use while driving will reduce accidents and the percentage of effectiveness of the law.
    • Alt: There is a relationship between individuals that think laws enforced on cell phone use while driving will reduce accidents and the percentage of effectiveness of the law.
  • 24. Simple Linear Regression Model
  • 25. Simple Linear Regression
    • R squared = 67.46%
    • Standard Error = 0.26
    • Significance Level = 0.00
    • P-value = 0.02
    • Effective (x) = 1.18
    • Intercept (y) = 0.18
    • The p-value is less than alpha (0.05)
  • 26. Simple Linear Regression Conclusion
    • We will reject the null, that proves that there is relationship between the people that agree with the law being enforced on cell phone use while driving and the % of effectiveness the law will be.
  • 27. Effective Line fit Plot
  • 28. Conclusions
    • Based on the tests, there were obvious factors contributing to the fact that cell phone use while driving does cause accidents
    • Therefore, enforced laws on cell phone use while driving will help reduce accidents caused by cell phones
  • 29. Suggestions for Improving Study
    • Sample different ages
    • Survey different states
    • Survey different countries
    • Ask a question concerning who had an accident due to the use of a cell phone?
    • Ask a question regarding location(city, rural, etc.)
  • 30. QUESTIONS??

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