Online Everywhere:
 Evolving Mobile Instant
   Messaging Practice

                        Donald J. Patterson
           ...
Online Everywhere:
     Evolving Mobile Instant
       Messaging Practice
Christopher Baker Xianghua Ding Samuel J. Kaufma...
Introduction



          •    This work:

               •   Results of an online user survey

               •   447 mob...
Introduction




 •   What is “status”?

     •   A manually entered short message

     •   Native to Instant Messaging

...
Introduction




 •   What is “status”?

     •   A manually entered short message

     •   Native to Instant Messaging

...
Outline




          •   Methodology

          •   Results

              •   Interruption Management

              •  ...
Outline




          •   Methodology

          •   Results

              •   Interruption Management

              •  ...
Methodology


•   Conducted an online user survey on:

    •   “Demographics”

    •   “Mobile Computer Usage”

    •   “I...
Methodology


•   Conducted an online user survey on:

    •   “Demographics”

    •   “Mobile Computer Usage”

    •   “I...
Methodology


•   Conducted an online user survey on:

    •   “Demographics”

    •   “Mobile Computer Usage”

    •   “I...
Methodology




              6
Methodology

      604 People Started




                           6
Methodology



    447 People Eligible




                          6
Methodology




  384 People Finished




                        6
Methodology




86% Completion Rate




                      6
Methodology




86% Completion Rate



          23 min
          to complete




                        6
Methodology

•   Participants were predominantly in California

•   “Mobility” = Mobile Laptop Users

    •   > 85% used t...
Methodology

•   Participants were predominantly in California

•   “Mobility” = Mobile Laptop Users

    •   > 85% used t...
Methodology

•   Participants were predominantly in California

•   “Mobility” = Mobile Laptop Users

    •   > 85% used t...
Outline




          •   Methodology

          •   Results

              •   Interruption Management

              •  ...
Outline




          •   Methodology

          •   Results

              •   Interruption Management

              •  ...
Interruption Management - Recipient




                                      9
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   92% reported being interrupted by IM




                                        ...
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   92% reported being interrupted by IM

•   Are mobile interruptions a problem?



...
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   92% reported being interrupted by IM

•   Are mobile interruptions a problem?

  ...
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   92% reported being interrupted by IM

•   Are mobile interruptions a problem?

  ...
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   92% reported being interrupted by IM

•   Are mobile interruptions a problem?

  ...
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   92% reported being interrupted by IM

•   Are mobile interruptions a problem?

  ...
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   92% reported being interrupted by IM

•   Are mobile interruptions a problem?

  ...
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   92% reported being interrupted by IM

•   Are mobile interruptions a problem?

  ...
Interruption Management - Recipient

 •   92% reported being interrupted by IM

 •   Are mobile interruptions a problem?

...
Interruption Management - Recipient

 •   92% reported being interrupted by IM

 •   Are mobile interruptions a problem?

...
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   92% reported being interrupted by IM

•   Are mobile interruptions a problem?

  ...
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   92% reported being interrupted by IM

•   Are mobile interruptions a problem?

  ...
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   Mobile interruptions are a problem:

    •   43% had specific strategies for mana...
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   Mobile interruptions are a problem:

    •   43% had specific strategies for mana...
Interruption Management - Recipient

•   Mobile interruptions are a problem:

    •   43% had specific strategies for mana...
Interruption Management - Initiator

                                                   Reason for Last IM
  •   What was ...
Interruption Management - Initiator

                                                   Reason for Last IM
  •   What was ...
Interruption Management - Initiator

                                                   Reason for Last IM
  •   What was ...
Interruption Management - Initiator

                                                   Reason for Last IM
  •   What was ...
Interruption Management - Initiator

                                                    Reason for Last IM
   •   What wa...
Interruption Management - Initiator

                                                   Reason for Last IM
  •   What was ...
Interruption Management - Initiator

                                                   Reason for Last IM
  •   What was ...
Interruption Management - Initiator

•   90% report being aware of their own status

    •   92% indicated they had receiv...
Interruption Management - Initiator

•   90% report being aware of their own status

    •   92% indicated they had receiv...
Interruption Management - Initiator

•   90% report being aware of their own status

    •   92% indicated they had receiv...
Interruption Management - Summary

•   Initiator

    •   “Busy” is interpreted as “don’t expect a fast reply”

    •   77...
Interruption Management - Analysis




•   Social Frictions in Mobile IM

    •   A personal computer isn’t private any mo...
Outline




          •   Methodology

          •   Results

              •   Interruption Management

              •  ...
Outline




          •   Methodology

          •   Results

              •   Interruption Management

              •  ...
Custom Status in IM

                                             Custom Status Type

                                    ...
Custom Status in IM

                                             Custom Status Type

                                    ...
Custom Status in IM

                                             Custom Status Type

                                    ...
Custom Status in IM

                                             Custom Status Type

                                    ...
Custom Status in IM

                                              Custom Status Type

                                   ...
Custom Status in IM

                                             Custom Status Type

                                    ...
Custom Status in IM

      •     Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines
                                                 ...
Custom Status in IM

      •     Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines
                                                 ...
Custom Status in IM

      •     Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines
                                                 ...
Custom Status in IM

      •     Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines
                                                 ...
Custom Status in IM

      •     Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines
                                                 ...
Custom Status in IM

      •     Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines
                                                 ...
Custom Status in IM

      •     Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines
                                                 ...
Custom Status in IM - Analysis


  •   People want to reveal appropriate information

  •   People want to reveal an inter...
Outline




          •   Methodology

          •   Results

              •   Interruption Management

              •  ...
Outline




          •   Methodology

          •   Results

              •   Interruption Management

              •  ...
The Dark Side of Mobile IM

 •   5% had “bad” experiences with revealing location




                                    ...
The Dark Side of Mobile IM

 •   5% had “bad” experiences with revealing location

 “somehow I forgot to tell my mom that ...
The Dark Side of Mobile IM

 •   5% had “bad” experiences with revealing location




      “My wife was upset when she kn...
The Dark Side of Mobile IM

 •   5% had “bad” experiences with revealing location




       “Studying at a location and f...
The Dark Side of Mobile IM

 •   5% had “bad” experiences with revealing location




 •   1% reported physically threaten...
The Dark Side of Mobile IM

    •   Mobile IM is not one big happy social network

    •   14% reporting feeling obligated...
The Dark Side of Mobile IM - Analysis

    •   We see two mobile IM personas

        •   1) Daily IMs, to friends, lots o...
Outline




          •   Methodology

          •   Results

              •   Interruption Management

              •  ...
Outline




          •   Methodology

          •   Results

              •   Interruption Management

              •  ...
Conclusion

  •   We conducted a 447 user survey about the state of
      mobile instant messaging

  •   IM is evolving

...
http://luci.ics.uci.edu
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Online Everywhere: Evolving Instant Messaging Practice

  1. 1. Online Everywhere: Evolving Mobile Instant Messaging Practice Donald J. Patterson University of California - Irvine Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences Department of Informatics Laboratory for Ubiquitous Computing and Interaction http://www.ics.uci.edu/~djp3 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/ 1
  2. 2. Online Everywhere: Evolving Mobile Instant Messaging Practice Christopher Baker Xianghua Ding Samuel J. Kaufman Kah Liu Andrew Zaldivar Donald J. Patterson University of California - Irvine Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences Department of Informatics Laboratory for Ubiquitous Computing and Interaction http://www.ics.uci.edu/~djp3 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/ 9/22/2008 UBICOMP 2008 1
  3. 3. Introduction • This work: • Results of an online user survey • 447 mobile instant messaging users • Focused on status setting behavior • Research Agenda: • Build better tools to support communication of mobile context 2
  4. 4. Introduction • What is “status”? • A manually entered short message • Native to Instant Messaging • One message to all buddies 3
  5. 5. Introduction • What is “status”? • A manually entered short message • Native to Instant Messaging • One message to all buddies 3
  6. 6. Outline • Methodology • Results • Interruption Management • Custom Status Messages • The Dark Side • Conclusions 4
  7. 7. Outline • Methodology • Results • Interruption Management • Custom Status Messages • The Dark Side • Conclusions 4
  8. 8. Methodology • Conducted an online user survey on: • “Demographics” • “Mobile Computer Usage” • “Instant Messenger Usage” • “Instant Messenger Interruptions” • “Managing Interruptions” • “Mobility” 5
  9. 9. Methodology • Conducted an online user survey on: • “Demographics” • “Mobile Computer Usage” • “Instant Messenger Usage” • “Instant Messenger Interruptions” • “Managing Interruptions” • “Mobility” 53 Total Questions 5
  10. 10. Methodology • Conducted an online user survey on: • “Demographics” • “Mobile Computer Usage” • “Instant Messenger Usage” • “Instant Messenger Interruptions” • “Managing Interruptions” • “Mobility” • Two-pass coding 53 Total Questions • Statistical analysis 5
  11. 11. Methodology 6
  12. 12. Methodology 604 People Started 6
  13. 13. Methodology 447 People Eligible 6
  14. 14. Methodology 384 People Finished 6
  15. 15. Methodology 86% Completion Rate 6
  16. 16. Methodology 86% Completion Rate 23 min to complete 6
  17. 17. Methodology • Participants were predominantly in California • “Mobility” = Mobile Laptop Users • > 85% used their device while on-the-go • No evidence of cell-phone IM Age Gender Role Training 31+ Not Reported Alumni Grad Phys. Sci. Soc. Sci. Male Other 21-30 18-20 Inter. Female Undergrad Humanities 3% Art 3% 7
  18. 18. Methodology • Participants were predominantly in California • “Mobility” = Mobile Laptop Users • > 85% used their device while on-the-go • No evidence of cell-phone IM 60%! Age Gender Role Training 31+ Not Reported Alumni Grad Phys. Sci. Soc. Sci. Male Other 21-30 18-20 Inter. Female Undergrad Humanities 3% Art 3% 7
  19. 19. Methodology • Participants were predominantly in California • “Mobility” = Mobile Laptop Users • > 85% used their device while on-the-go • No evidence of cell-phone IM 60%! < 26% C.S. ! Age Gender Role Training 31+ Not Reported Alumni Grad Phys. Sci. Soc. Sci. Male Other 21-30 18-20 Inter. Female Undergrad Humanities 3% Art 3% 7
  20. 20. Outline • Methodology • Results • Interruption Management • Custom Status Messages • The Dark Side • Conclusions 8
  21. 21. Outline • Methodology • Results • Interruption Management • Custom Status Messages • The Dark Side • Conclusions 8
  22. 22. Interruption Management - Recipient 9
  23. 23. Interruption Management - Recipient • 92% reported being interrupted by IM 9
  24. 24. Interruption Management - Recipient • 92% reported being interrupted by IM • Are mobile interruptions a problem? 9
  25. 25. Interruption Management - Recipient • 92% reported being interrupted by IM • Are mobile interruptions a problem? • 25% had seen a presentation interrupted by IM 9
  26. 26. Interruption Management - Recipient • 92% reported being interrupted by IM • Are mobile interruptions a problem? • 25% had seen a presentation interrupted by IM • 5% had had their presentation interrupted by IM 9
  27. 27. Interruption Management - Recipient • 92% reported being interrupted by IM • Are mobile interruptions a problem? • 25% had seen a presentation interrupted by IM • 5% had had their presentation interrupted by IM • Have you received an embarrassing IM? 9
  28. 28. Interruption Management - Recipient • 92% reported being interrupted by IM • Are mobile interruptions a problem? • 25% had seen a presentation interrupted by IM • 5% had had their presentation interrupted by IM • Have you received an embarrassing IM? • 78% had received one! 9
  29. 29. Interruption Management - Recipient • 92% reported being interrupted by IM • Are mobile interruptions a problem? • 25% had seen a presentation interrupted by IM • 5% had had their presentation interrupted by IM • Have you received an embarrassing IM? • 78% had received one! • 80% had been around to see one! 9
  30. 30. Interruption Management - Recipient • 92% reported being interrupted by IM • Are mobile interruptions a problem? • 25% had seen a presentation interrupted by IM • 5% had had their presentation interrupted by IM • Have you received an embarrassing IM? Embarrasing IM’s • 78% had received one! Relationship Revealed Other • 80% had been around to see one! Sexual Language Disparaging Secret Disclosure 9
  31. 31. Interruption Management - Recipient • 92% reported being interrupted by IM • Are mobile interruptions a problem? • 25% had seen a presentation interrupted by IM • 5% had had their presentation interrupted by IM • Have you received an embarrassing IM? Embarrasing IM’s • 78% had received one! Relationship Revealed Other • 80% had been around to see one! Sexual Language Disparaging “It contained bad language and I was Secret Disclosure around my family” 9
  32. 32. Interruption Management - Recipient • 92% reported being interrupted by IM • Are mobile interruptions a problem? • 25% had seen a presentation interrupted by IM • 5% had had their presentation interrupted by IM • Have you received an embarrassing IM? Embarrasing IM’s • 78% had received one! Relationship Revealed Other • 80% had been around to see one! Sexual Language “a surprise birthday party invitation Disparaging and the person whose birthday it was Secret Disclosure was standing right next to me” 9
  33. 33. Interruption Management - Recipient • 92% reported being interrupted by IM • Are mobile interruptions a problem? • 25% had seen a presentation interrupted by IM • 5% had had their presentation interrupted by IM • Have you received an embarrassing IM? Embarrasing IM’s • 78% had received one! Relationship Revealed Other • 80% had been around to see one! Sexual Language “‘Are you still in the meeting with those losers?’ popped up on the Disparaging screen while i was; in fact; still in the Secret Disclosure meeting with those losers.” 9
  34. 34. Interruption Management - Recipient • 92% reported being interrupted by IM • Are mobile interruptions a problem? • 25% had seen a presentation interrupted by IM • 5% had had their presentation interrupted by IM • Have you received an embarrassing IM? Embarrasing IM’s • 78% had received one! Relationship Revealed Other • 80% had been around to see one! Sexual Language Disparaging Secret Disclosure 9
  35. 35. Interruption Management - Recipient • Mobile interruptions are a problem: • 43% had specific strategies for managing interruptions • 15% indicated that they had quit using IM for an extended period 10
  36. 36. Interruption Management - Recipient • Mobile interruptions are a problem: • 43% had specific strategies for managing interruptions • 15% indicated that they had quit using IM for an extended period Managing Interruptions Screen/Block Buddies Sensory Corral Fake Status Deactivate IM 10
  37. 37. Interruption Management - Recipient • Mobile interruptions are a problem: • 43% had specific strategies for managing interruptions • 15% indicated that they had quit using IM for an extended period Managing Interruptions Why did you stop IM’ing? Other Screen/Block Buddies Sensory Corral Technical Problem Fake Status Distraction Not Online Deactivate IM Inappropriate Tool 10
  38. 38. Interruption Management - Initiator Reason for Last IM • What was the reason for the last IM? General Info. Specific Info. Pass Time Social Coordination 11
  39. 39. Interruption Management - Initiator Reason for Last IM • What was the reason for the last IM? General Info. Specific Info. “just catching up” Pass Time Social “I hadn’t spoken with them in a while” “just wanted to say hi” Coordination 11
  40. 40. Interruption Management - Initiator Reason for Last IM • What was the reason for the last IM? General Info. Specific Info. Pass Time Social Coordination “making dinner plans” “coordinating airport pickup” “transportation discussion” 11
  41. 41. Interruption Management - Initiator Reason for Last IM • What was the reason for the last IM? General Info. Specific Info. Pass Time Social Coordination “just bored” “I was encrypting files; which involves long gaps of waiting so I wanted a bit of a diversion” 11
  42. 42. Interruption Management - Initiator Reason for Last IM • What was the reason for the last IM? General Info. Specific Info. Pass Time Social “check to see if some mail of mine arrived” “Let her know info about Mom” Coordination 11
  43. 43. Interruption Management - Initiator Reason for Last IM • What was the reason for the last IM? General Info. Specific Info. Pass Time Social Coordination “Question about class.” “advice on fixing a laptop” 11
  44. 44. Interruption Management - Initiator Reason for Last IM • What was the reason for the last IM? • 18% of responses included “just” General Info. • 77% of the responses appeared flexible Specific Info. • Could have been delayed. Pass Time Social • Could have asked someone else Coordination 11
  45. 45. Interruption Management - Initiator • 90% report being aware of their own status • 92% indicated they had received messages when indicating “busy” • 89% report being aware of buddy status • 93% indicated they would IM even when buddies were busy 12
  46. 46. Interruption Management - Initiator • 90% report being aware of their own status • 92% indicated they had received messages when indicating “busy” • 89% report being aware of buddy status • 93% indicated they would IM even when buddies were busy What is going on here? 12
  47. 47. Interruption Management - Initiator • 90% report being aware of their own status • 92% indicated they had received messages when indicating “busy” • 89% report being aware of buddy status • 93% indicated they would IM even when buddies were busy What is going on here? “I may attend to the ’idle/active’ flag; as it’s a more reliable indicator of presence at the keyboard; but even then I often just leave a message to be read later.” 12
  48. 48. Interruption Management - Summary • Initiator • “Busy” is interpreted as “don’t expect a fast reply” • 77% of IM’s don’t have to be sent immediately • Recipients: • Interruptions through mobile IM are a problem • disrupting • causing embarrassment • People strategize on how to manage mobile IM interruptions • Those strategies sometimes require abandoning IM 13
  49. 49. Interruption Management - Analysis • Social Frictions in Mobile IM • A personal computer isn’t private any more • A virtual desktop isn’t a place anymore • The assumption that a buddy is flexible isn’t as appropriate • This is consistent with a mental model of a desktop to desktop communication 14
  50. 50. Outline • Methodology • Results • Interruption Management • Custom Status Messages • The Dark Side • Conclusions 15
  51. 51. Outline • Methodology • Results • Interruption Management • Custom Status Messages • The Dark Side • Conclusions 15
  52. 52. Custom Status in IM Custom Status Type Place Humor Mood • What were people putting in there Explicit Avail. Activity custom status lines? MicroBlog 16
  53. 53. Custom Status in IM Custom Status Type Place Humor Mood • What were people putting in there Explicit Avail. Activity custom status lines? MicroBlog “baking” (so friends can know I’m available but busy) 16
  54. 54. Custom Status in IM Custom Status Type Place Humor Mood • What were people putting in there Explicit Avail. Activity custom status lines? MicroBlog “never regret something that once made you smile” (express my emotions/thoughts at the time) 16
  55. 55. Custom Status in IM Custom Status Type Place Humor Mood • What were people putting in there Explicit Avail. Activity custom status lines? MicroBlog “i'm at work until 9:00pm. call me if you need me.” (to let my friends know what i'm doing) 16
  56. 56. Custom Status in IM Custom Status Type Place Humor Mood • What were people putting in there Explicit Avail. Activity custom status lines? MicroBlog “my hobby is people; i glue seashells on them” (its funny; duh) 16
  57. 57. Custom Status in IM Custom Status Type Place Humor Mood • What were people putting in there Explicit Avail. Activity custom status lines? MicroBlog “At work.” (Because it is not there in the drop down list.) 16
  58. 58. Custom Status in IM • Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines Num. of People Who Wouldn’t Pick it In seat 22, Langson Library, UCI campus At Langson Library, UCI campus At UCI On campus In California At the library Researching Galileo for HIST 60 Doing homework Working Working on campus Doing homework in the library 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 0 39 78 117 156 Uncomfortable Comfortable 17
  59. 59. Custom Status in IM • Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines Num. of People Who Wouldn’t Pick it In seat 22, Langson Library, UCI campus At Langson Library, UCI campus At UCI On campus In California At the library Researching Galileo for HIST 60 Doing homework Working Working on campus Doing homework in the library 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 0 39 78 117 156 Uncomfortable Comfortable 17
  60. 60. Custom Status in IM • Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines Num. of People Who Wouldn’t Pick it In seat 22, Langson Library, UCI campus At Langson Library, UCI campus At UCI On campus In California At the library Researching Galileo for HIST 60 Doing homework Working Working on campus Doing homework in the library 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 0 39 78 117 156 Uncomfortable Comfortable 17
  61. 61. Custom Status in IM • Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines Num. of People Who Wouldn’t Pick it In seat 22, Langson Library, UCI campus At Langson Library, UCI campus At UCI On campus In California At the library Researching Galileo for HIST 60 Doing homework Working Working on campus Doing homework in the library 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 0 39 78 117 156 Uncomfortable Comfortable 17
  62. 62. Custom Status in IM • Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines Num. of People Who Wouldn’t Pick it In seat 22, Langson Library, UCI campus At Langson Library, UCI campus At UCI On campus In California At the library Researching Galileo for HIST 60 Doing homework Working Working on campus Doing homework in the library 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 0 39 78 117 156 Uncomfortable Comfortable 17
  63. 63. Custom Status in IM • Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines Num. of People Who Wouldn’t Pick it In seat 22, Langson Library, UCI campus At Langson Library, UCI campus At UCI On campus In California At the library Researching Galileo for HIST 60 Doing homework Working Working on campus Doing homework in the library 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 0 39 78 117 156 Uncomfortable Comfortable 17
  64. 64. Custom Status in IM • Hypothetical Context-Aware Status Lines Num. of People Who Wouldn’t Pick it In seat 22, Langson Library, UCI campus At Langson Library, UCI campus At UCI On campus In California At the library Researching Galileo for HIST 60 Doing homework Working Working on campus Doing homework in the library 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 0 39 78 117 156 Uncomfortable Comfortable • People choose the most appropriate status line • Previous place/activity custom status were consistent 17
  65. 65. Custom Status in IM - Analysis • People want to reveal appropriate information • People want to reveal an interpretation of sensors, not the raw data • Custom Status Messages look like the merger of: • Place disclosure • Activity disclosure • Interruptibility disclosure 18
  66. 66. Outline • Methodology • Results • Interruption Management • Custom Status Messages • The Dark Side • Conclusions 19
  67. 67. Outline • Methodology • Results • Interruption Management • Custom Status Messages • The Dark Side • Conclusions 19
  68. 68. The Dark Side of Mobile IM • 5% had “bad” experiences with revealing location 20
  69. 69. The Dark Side of Mobile IM • 5% had “bad” experiences with revealing location “somehow I forgot to tell my mom that I was leaving [a city in the Americas] to travel to a small village in the Atacama desert for a week. When I came online she was not exactly thrilled with where I was. 20
  70. 70. The Dark Side of Mobile IM • 5% had “bad” experiences with revealing location “My wife was upset when she knew I was at home instead of at school” 20
  71. 71. The Dark Side of Mobile IM • 5% had “bad” experiences with revealing location “Studying at a location and friends came over and were distracting me” 20
  72. 72. The Dark Side of Mobile IM • 5% had “bad” experiences with revealing location • 1% reported physically threatening scenarios • Threatened through IM then noticed their location was revealed on the status line 20
  73. 73. The Dark Side of Mobile IM • Mobile IM is not one big happy social network • 14% reporting feeling obligated to use mobile IM • Feelings of obligation positively correlate with • Being in a committed personal relationship • Being male • Using mobile IM weekly rather than daily • Being interrupted in a presentation • Receiving embarrassing IMs 21
  74. 74. The Dark Side of Mobile IM - Analysis • We see two mobile IM personas • 1) Daily IMs, to friends, lots of custom messages which invite social contact • 2) Would just assume stop using IM, doesn’t talk to friends, occasional user, lots of bad IM experiences • Design implications: • Don’t automatically reveal context • Don’t assume all of your users are happily crafting a digital social space 22
  75. 75. Outline • Methodology • Results • Interruption Management • Custom Status Messages • The Dark Side • Conclusions 23
  76. 76. Outline • Methodology • Results • Interruption Management • Custom Status Messages • The Dark Side • Conclusions 23
  77. 77. Conclusion • We conducted a 447 user survey about the state of mobile instant messaging • IM is evolving • Evolution is causing frictions as people adapt to • less private displays • less confidence about where a buddy’s computer is • more risk to multi-tasking when receive an IM • There are lots of opportunities for automating and improving the user experience with context-aware status 24
  78. 78. http://luci.ics.uci.edu 25

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