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Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
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Photosynthesis

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  • 1. Photosynthesis By: Matt Goebel, Julia Douglas, Brandon Schroeder, and Courtney Rodgers
  • 2. Photosynthesis
    • Light energy into chemical energy
      • Occurs in Chloroplasts (or prokaryotic equivalent)
    • Light from sun has range of wavelengths
    • -Different colors
  • 3. Photosynthesis
    • Chlorophyll are the main photosynthetic pigment
      • Light is trapped here
      • Embedded in the Chloroplast’s membrane
    • Different colors, different absorption from chlorophyll
    • Remaining colors reflected back
      • green leaves
  • 4. Photosynthesis
    • Light energy used to produce ATP and split water molecule
      • Light captured by Chlorophyll
      • Light energy trapped into Chemical energy (electrons)
      • Chemical energy used to form ATP
      • Split water molecule used for:
        • Organic molecules (Ex. Glucose)
        • Oxygen given off
  • 5. Photosynthesis
    • Hydrogen combined with carbon dioxide used to form organic compounds (Ex. Sugar)
      • Bonds formed by energy from ATP
      • Different combinations of C, H, O and N
      • Plants are able to form all the organic compounds they need
  • 6. Photosynthesis
    • Photosynthesis can be measured by:
      • Depletion of substrate
        • Because: rate of photosynthesis changes, the measure of water/carbon dioxide being used changes
      • Increase in biomass
        • Because: rate of photosynthesis changes, rate of organic molecules created change, biomass change
  • 7. Photosynthesis
    • Factors affecting photosynthesis:
      • Temperature
      • Light Intensity
      • Carbon Dioxide Concentration
    • Temperature affects photosynthesis
      • Increases with kinetic energy of reactants
      • Maximum at “optimal” temperature
      • Decreases as enzymes begin to denature
  • 8. Photosynthesis
    • Carbon Dioxide Concentration
      • As the CO2 increases, so does the reaction
      • Maximum rate of photosynthesis is reached
      • Saturation point with CO2 is met and no longer affects plant’s rate of photosynthesis
  • 9. Photosynthesis
    • Light Intensity
      • At low levels, photosynthesis cant occur at high rate
      • Increase in light intensity, increase rate of photosynthesis
      • Light intensity keeps increasing until rate of photosynthesis can’t increase anymore
      • Too high intensity can damage cell
  • 10. Absorption
    • All chlorophyll absorb red & blue
    • Measured in Photons
      • Pigment absorbs photon through electrons
      • Too much energy/ not enough energy and the energy can't be absorbed
      • Electron at high energy level is called an excited proton
    • Accessory pigments absorb other wavelengths and then transfers them to chlorophyll
  • 11. Light-dependent reactions
    • Light-dependent reactions MUST have light
    • 2 parts:
      • Photosystem II
      • Photosystem I
  • 12. Photosystem II
    • Electron acceptor: accepts excited electrons from chlorophyll
      • Plastoquinne (hydrophobic)
      • Become photoactivated
    • Accepts 2 electrons and becomes reduced plastoquinne
    • Causes photolysis of water
      • Generates Oxygen
    • Reduced plastoquinne has energy for photosynthesis
  • 13. Photosystem II
  • 14. Photophoshorylation & Chemiosmosis
    • Photophoshorylation
      • ATP from light energy
      • Main = non-cyclic
      • Energy pumps proteins across tykaloid membrane
    • Chemiosmosis
      • Proteins travel back over gradient
      • ATP becomes ADP
      • Plastocyanin takes electrons
  • 15. Photosystem I
    • Product is NADPH
    • Electrons are photoactivated
      • Electrons are passed along chain of freedoxin (protein)
    • Electron from photosystem I replaced by electrons from plastocyanin
      • Used to reduce NADPH
    • Electrons move back up chain -> ATP
  • 16. Photosystem I
  • 17. Structure of Chloroplasts
    • Chloroplast envelope: double membrane
    • Internal membranes -> Tykaloids
    • Stroma: clear fluid around tykaloids
    • Grana: stacks of tykaloids
  • 18. Action Spectrum
    • Rate of absorption
  • 19. Absorption Spectra
    • % of absorbancy
  • 20. Limiting Factors
    • Only 1 factor actually limits photosynthesis
      • Factor furthest from optimum
    • Factors:
      • Light intensity
      • Carbon Dioxide concentration
      • Temperature

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