Classroom management issue Why did the class ignore Miss Jia’s presence?
Our hypothesis.. Miss Jia did not employ proper classroom management skills, leading to discipline issues and negative relationship with the students, and this in turn affects the students opportunity to learn, and consequently their cognitive development.
A classroom is multidimensional in that many events occur over time, many purposes are served, and many people with different styles and desires participate. The sheer quantity of elements, in other words, is large. In addition, many events in a classroom occur simultaneously. While phrasing a question, a teacher must monitor different levels of involvement in work, search for an appropriate student to answer, anticipate interruptions, and judge whether particular students are violating classroom rules. Similarly, selecting a student to answer a question has potential consequences for that student's achievement and attitudes, the learning of other students, the direction and momentum of the discussion, and the student's perceptions of the teacher. The simultaneous occurrence of multiple elements shortens the time frame and confers an immediacy to the flow of classroom experience. Decisions must be made rapidly with little time for reflection. At the same time, these qualities of classroom life together with a high frequency of interruptions make the course of events at a given moment unpredictable. (Doyle, 1979, p. 44)
The crowded, complex, and potentially chaotic classroom As highlighted by Walter Doyle (1986, 2006), Classroom are multidimensional Activities occur simultaneously Things happen quickly (immediacy) Events are often unpredictable This is little privacy Classroom have histories
Classrooms have little privacy Students make judgement about how the teacher manages discipline issue (Piaget’s Cognitive constructivism). In Scene 2 (John was accused of cheating), the students may perceive Miss Jia as being unreasonable and distrustful. In Scene 3, they may conclude that Miss Jia is biased i.e. practise favouritism towards Annie.
Classrooms have history Students remember how the teacher handled a discipline issue, which affects their behaviour in the future. (Memory) In Scene 3, John learned that Miss Jia is “very blur”, and hence she would not take any disciplinary action against late-coming. Consequently, John is always late.
Classroom management and Learning We hypothesized that poor classroom management minimizes students’ learning opportunities and hence their cognitive development.
Classroom management and Learning Kunter et al. (2007) studied on the relationship between effective classroom management and subject-related interest. The findings, students’ personal experiences of rule clarity and teacher monitoringhave a slightly positive effect on the development of math-related interest in secondary mathematics classrooms. Implication: Higher interest results in active and in-depth learning behaviour.
Classroom management and Learning Effective classroom management has been shown to increase student engagement, decrease disruptive behaviours, and enhance use of instructional time, all of which results in improved student achievement. (Wang et al., 1993)
Cognitive processing skills and on-task behaviour Willis D. Copeland (1987) studied the relationship between the teachers’ classroom management skill (their cognitive abilities of vigilance and multi-task) and students’ on-task behaviour. He found that these cognitive skills are ” important factor in determining success in creating..high on-task behaviour. “ However, not the exclusive factors (there are other factors contributing to it as well)
Cognitive processing skills and on-task behaviour Vigilance and multiple-attention are important classroom management skills to increase on-task behaviour. High on-task behaviour allows more opportunity for cognitive development, and hence improve students’ cognitive-based test results.
How can Miss Jia improve on her classroom management skills? Solution: Creating a positive environment for learning
Creating a positive environment for learning General strategies Authoritarian classroom management style Permissive classroom management style Authoritative classroom management style
Creating a positive environment for learning 2. Getting students to cooperate Develop a positive relationship with the students Get students to share and assume responsibilities Reward appropriate behaviour (Operant conditioning –positive reinforcement)
Creating a positive environment for learning 3. Creating, teaching, and maintaining rules and procedures Setting reasonable rules, provide understanding rationales for them, and enforce them consistently Kounin’s management style
Kounin’s theory on classroom management With-it-ness: Awareness of what is happening, and handle it before it escalates. Overlapping: Multi-tasking Continuity and smoothness in lesson Engage students in a variety of challenging activities(Vygotsky’s theory of Zones of Proximal Development)
Kounin’s theory on classroom management Cognitive psychologists termed the information processing skills of “withitness” and “overlapping” as vigilance and multiple attention.
Conclusion Our hypothesis that “Miss Jia did not employ proper classroom management skills, leading to discipline issues and negative relationship with the students, and this in turn affects the students opportunity to learn, and consequently their cognitive development” has been widely studied and supported.
Conclusion Miss Jia can improve on this by creating a positive learning environment through Adopting authoritative classroom management style Getting students to cooperate Setting rules and procedures And applying Kounin’s classroom management theory.