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How To Write Arguementative Writing
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How To Write Arguementative Writing

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  • 1. WRITING TO ARGUE
  • 2. At the end of this lesson, you will be able to say…
    • I can identify when it is appropriate to use formal language
    • 3. I can identify bias
    • 4. I can use a balanced planning format to present an argument.
    • 5. I can give an opinion that can be presented in the conclusion of a balanced argument
  • What is Argument?
    Arguments are normally cleverly structured by using linked paragraphs, careful choice of language and ideas that flow and lead to a powerful conclusion.
    As a writer you might be asked to develop an argument and you should carefully craft your ideas to make it as powerful as possible. Looking at arguments that other writers have written can help you develop the skills needed to achieve the best grade.
  • 6. What is bias?
    • Someone is only putting forward one side of an argument.
    • 7. An advert, for example, will only tell you the good things about a product, and may exaggerate those!
    • 8. Remember, a writer may only be telling you one side of a story, so always think about what a writer may not be telling you and don’t always believe what you read!
  • Key skills in writing an argument
    Structuring ideas for the greatest impact.
    Making sure that your writing builds up to a powerful conclusion.
    No weaknesses in your argument.
    Always try to prove that you are right.
  • 9. Biased Writing
    This is an account of a football match after Manchester United lost 4-0 !
    “Arsenal were so lucky!! The superb and skilful Man United players were beaten by the lucky, cheating Arsenal players. The referee was totally biased, he allowed four goals that were all offside. I have never seen so much luck and cheating in all my life.”
    How can you tell this is biased?
    Who was this written by? Who might they support?
  • 10. Unbiased Writing
    In order to be fair and unbiased toward all members of the potential audience, it is important that the author uses language that does not stereotype or unfairly categorize any group of people or individuals.
    Besides offending potential readers, an author who uses sexist or racist language also damages ones credibility in the eyes of the audience.
    Even if the use of unbiased language is a mistake, that mistake which may seem small on paper, can have much larger implications and consequences.
  • 11. Unbiased Writing
    One of the more common forms of unbiased language is gender bias. For example, the sentence, “Any student interested in playing basketball should see his coach by this afternoon,”
    Where is the bias in the final statement?
  • 12. How do you write a balanced argument?
    Title
    A simple statement or question to draw attention to the issue.
    Introduction – Paragraph 1
    Short opening, explaining how the issue came about. That is the thesis statement. Do not put any views of your own in this section.
  • 13. How do you write a balanced argument?
    Points ‘for’ – Paragraph 2
    Start this section with ‘Firstly’ or ‘The first reason is’. Write about your first point in favour of the argument but do not put your own point of view yet.
    Points ‘for’ – Paragraph 3
    Begin your next point with ‘Furthermore’ or ‘Indeed, it could be said that…’ but still do not give your own opinion.
    Points ‘for’ – Paragraph 4
    Use ‘Perhaps’ or ‘In addition’ to begin your final point in favour of the argument. Try to give evidence to support the point if you can.
  • 14. How do you write a balanced argument?
    Points ‘Against’ – Paragraph 5
    Begin with ‘However’ and put your first point against the argument without giving your own view.
    Points ‘Against’ – Paragraph 6
    Continue to put your points ‘against’, introducing them with formal words such as ‘Despite’, ‘On the other hand’ or ‘In contrast’.
    Points ‘Against’ – Paragraph 7
    Use ‘Finally’ to begin your last point. Still do not give your opinion.
  • 15. How do you write a balanced argument?
    Conclusion – Paragraph 8
    Begin with ‘To sum up the argument’ or ‘Above all else’ or ‘In conclusion. At last you can give your own views if you wish, and conclude either in favour of or against the issue. Or finish with a question to challenge your readers to make up their own minds!
  • 16. Argumentative framework
    I believe that ................................................................................
    There are many reasons to support my argument and these include ................................................................................
    The first reason is ......................................................................
    OR Firstly, ...................................................
    Furthermore, ................................................
    OR it could be said that…, ......................................................................
  • 17. Argumentative framework
    In addition, ..................................................
    OR Perhaps ..............................................
    To sum up the argument, .....................................................................
    OR In a nutshell, .....................................................................
    This is the second format of writing the essay.
    Difference: can put your counter-arguements in the three points.
  • 18. ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST WORK EXPERIENCE
    Sequence the arguments into a clear structure that builds up a powerful overall view.
    Think about the arguments that you do or don’t want to use and what order the points should be in to achieve the biggest impact on the reader.
  • 19. Argue for or against– you are not being asked to present both sides.
    When you have organised your ideas and included points that you have come up with have a go answering the question
    ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST WORK EXPERIENCE
  • 20. Think PALL always when planning
    Purpose – why are you writing?
    Audience – who is this for?
    Language – what type of language should you use? – formal, informal, technical, descriptive
    Layout – structure, paragraphs, look on the page
    P
    A
    L
    L
  • 21. PALL (Example)
    Work experience is now compulsory for most students. Write an article for an educational magazine, in which you argue for or against compulsory work experience.
    P = argue
    A= teachers
    L = formal and connectives
    L= article, heading, paragraphs
  • 22. Write an article for an educational magazine, in which you argue for or against compulsory work experience.
    TOP TIPS:
    You should show that you have thought carefully about your structure and the order of your arguments.
    Use PALL to plan
    Use connectives to develop your arguments.
    Make paragraphs powerful and tightly written.
  • 23. Conclusion
    Tips for making your writing more formal
    Do
    • Make your writing clear and to the point.
    • 24. Try linking ideas with:
    • 25. In addition
    • 26. Nevertheless
    • 27. On the other hand
    • 28. By contrast
    • 29. Although
    • 30. Alternatively
    • 31. Include some complex sentences in your writing. Try using semi-colons if you feel confident about using them correctly.
  • Conclusion
    Don't
    • Don't use 'Well' or 'You know' or 'Anyway' or 'Like I just said' or any phrase that sounds like you are having a friendly chat.
    • 32. Avoid using: 'And', 'But', 'Because' or 'So' at the beginning of a sentence.
    • 33. Keep exclamation marks to a minimum!!!
    • 34. Words like 'nice' and 'a lot' have no power. Think more descriptive words eg 'delicious' or 'endless'.
    • 35. Clichés are colourful phrases that people use all the time in speech. Avoid phrases such as 'pretty as a picture', 'big as a house', 'skinny as a rake'.