The President and Executive Branch What is the main job of the president? Generally, the job of the President (and the Executive branch) is to… …“Take care that the laws be faithfully executed” (carried out, enforced) Ex. Branch enforces laws, treaties and court decisions
Powers of the President The president is given several powers in Article II of the Constitution to help him perform these duties.
Presidential Powers can be grouped into 5 categories… Executivepowers Diplomatic powers Legislative powers Military powers Judicial powers
Additionally, Presidential powers can be one of two types: “Expressed”: Directly stated in the Constitution “Implied” Not directly stated, but “created” by the president to help him do his job “Uphold Constitution, preserve and defend United States” Based on vague language in Article II…
Appointment power Who can the president appoint to the executive branch? Who must approve? Is this power expressed or implied? **Prez/VP only elected members of Ex. Branch
Executive Orders “Presidential rules that have the force of law” Must be constitutional and agree with current law “Implied” Power Example: President Bush used an executive order to set up a wiretapping program to catch terrorists after September 11th, 2001.
Executive Privilege “Right of the President to withhold information from the courts, Congress or the public” Most often used when secrecy is needed (wartime, national security, etc.) “Implied”power that has been limited by judicial review **One well-known example deals with President Nixon
Treaties/Executive agreements Presidents can negotiate treaties and executiveagreements On issues such as peace, disarmament, trade, or immigration Treaties = “agreements with other nations that require Senate approval (2/3rds)” (EXPRESSED) Executive agreements = agreement between heads of state (does not require Senate approval) (IMPLIED) **Why would a president use an executive agreement instead of a treaty?
Appointing ambassadors/diplomats Presidents have the power to appoint those who work in/with foreign nations “Expressed” power Subject to Senate approval (2/3rds) **Why might the Senate, especially after the elections of 2006, be very picky in who it confirms to these positions?
Recall these pictures… What might they have in common?
Mahmud Abbas Palestinian Authority Kim Jong-Il North Korea Fidel Castro – Cuba King Wangchuck – Bhutan The island of Taiwan What’s the connection?
Presidential Diplomatic Powers 400 The common connection between the leaders/nations of Bhutan, Cuba, North Korea, Taiwan and the Palestinian territories… A: What is these are 5 “nations” whose governments are not currently recognized by the United States? S2C13 Jeopardy Review
Recognition What is recognition **Can be used to express approval or disapproval of a nation’s actions
Sanctions In addition to refusing to recognize a country’s government, the president may choose to place sanctions on a nation… Sanctions: Rules or actions that restrict trade, finances, or travel with another country as a punishment for its actions… “Implied” power… The new US sanctions against Iran are a good example of the use of this power.
State of the Union Address When does it take place? Who watches the speech? What is the purpose?
State of the Union Address This is how the president can have an effect on laws at the beginning of the lawmaking process… He can also have an even larger impact on laws at the end of the process by using…
The “Veto” (“I object”) The President not only makes suggestions for laws, but also has the (almost) final say in whether a bill passes… All bills which pass Congress end up on his desk… He has 3 options… He can sign it (becomes law), do nothing, or veto it… A veto means the bill is sent back to Congress with the president’s objections. What option does Congress have when a president vetoes their bill?
Military Powers What does it mean to be cic? “Directs the armed forces” What does it mean to..? Should we stay in Afgh?
Article II, Sec. 2 of the Constitution gives the President the right to grant… Pardons What are pardons? Reprieves How is a reprieve different?
Examples **Many presidents have used this power during their terms…presidents average around 400 pardons per term… Gerald Ford granted a pardon to Richard Nixon for anything he might have done during the Watergate scandal… George Bush Sr. pardoned 5 officials involved in the Iran-Contra scandal. Bill Clinton issued 395 pardons…140 of which were granted on the last day of his term in office.
Amnesty “What is amnesty? Should amnesty be given to illegal immigrants? What about people who owe taxes if they agree to pay?
Review 1) What is executive privilege? 2) What is the difference between a treaty and an executive agreement? 3) When a president accepts or approves another country’s government, it is called… 4) What is a veto? 5) What are the two parts of the War Powers Act? 6) What is the difference between a pardon and a reprieve?
Choose a question and answer it on your FrontPage sheet… Should US soldiers be permitted to use forms of torture against prisoners of war? What is the most important need facing this country this year? Should the US invade Iran if that nation tries to make nuclear weapons, or should we try to deal with them diplomatically? Should there be a law that provides health insurance to all American children under the age of 18? Should the government be able to randomly listen in on your cell conversations or read your email? Should illegal aliens (immigrants) already in this country be allowed a path to become citizens? Should the president be given as much power as possible to fight the war on terrorism?