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    Solutions2008 Solutions2008 Presentation Transcript

    • February 8, 2008 Solutions
    • Objectives
      • Define solution, solubility, insoluble, solute and solvent
      • Name the universal solvent
      • Distinguish between an aqueous solution and a tincture
      • Identify the factors that affect rate of solubility
    • Solution
      • A mixture that appears to be a single substance but is made up of 2 or more substances that are evenly distributed throughout the mixture
      • Homogeneous
      • Best mixed of the mixtures
      • Particles are dissolved
    • Solutions are made up of
      • Solutes – the substance that is dissolved
      • Solvents – the substance that does the dissolving. It is always present in greater amount.
    • Can be more than 2 substances
      • Soda – carbon dioxide gas, sugar, flavorings, food coloring are dissolved in water.
      • Usually solutions are substances dissolved in a liquid but solutions may also be gasses and solids.
    • How Does a Solution Form?
      • Solvent molecules attracted to surface ions.
      • Each ion is surrounded by solvent molecules.
      • Solubility – the physical property of being able to dissolve
      • Insoluble – a substance that can not be dissolved
      • Water is the universal solvent. Most things will dissolve in water. It is called an aqueous solution .
      • Sometimes the solvent is alcohol. In this case it is called a tincture .
    • Solution rates vary
      • Temperature
      • Surface area
      • Movement
      • Pressure
    • Temperature
      • The solubility of solid solutes in liquid solvents increases with increasing temperature.
    • Temperature
      • The opposite is true of gases. Higher temperature drives gases out of solution.
        • Carbonated soft drinks are more “bubbly” if stored in the refrigerator.
        • Warm lakes have less O 2 dissolved in them than cool lakes.
    • Surface area
      • The larger the surface area of a solid, the faster the rate of dissolving. The surface area of an object increases when it is broken down into smaller pieces.
    • Movement
      • When a substance dissolves, it fills the available spaces between the closest water molecules. Stirring increases the rate the empty spaces can be filled.
    • Pressure
      • The solubility of liquids and solids does not change with pressure.
      • Increased pressure increases the solubility of gases.