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  • 1. February 8, 2008 Solutions
  • 2. Objectives
    • Define solution, solubility, insoluble, solute and solvent
    • Name the universal solvent
    • Distinguish between an aqueous solution and a tincture
    • Identify the factors that affect rate of solubility
  • 3. Solution
    • A mixture that appears to be a single substance but is made up of 2 or more substances that are evenly distributed throughout the mixture
  • 4.
    • Homogeneous
    • Best mixed of the mixtures
    • Particles are dissolved
  • 5. Solutions are made up of
    • Solutes – the substance that is dissolved
    • Solvents – the substance that does the dissolving. It is always present in greater amount.
  • 6. Can be more than 2 substances
    • Soda – carbon dioxide gas, sugar, flavorings, food coloring are dissolved in water.
    • Usually solutions are substances dissolved in a liquid but solutions may also be gasses and solids.
  • 7. How Does a Solution Form?
    • Solvent molecules attracted to surface ions.
    • Each ion is surrounded by solvent molecules.
  • 8.
    • Solubility – the physical property of being able to dissolve
    • Insoluble – a substance that can not be dissolved
  • 9.
    • Water is the universal solvent. Most things will dissolve in water. It is called an aqueous solution .
    • Sometimes the solvent is alcohol. In this case it is called a tincture .
  • 10. Solution rates vary
    • Temperature
    • Surface area
    • Movement
    • Pressure
  • 11. Temperature
    • The solubility of solid solutes in liquid solvents increases with increasing temperature.
  • 12. Temperature
    • The opposite is true of gases. Higher temperature drives gases out of solution.
      • Carbonated soft drinks are more “bubbly” if stored in the refrigerator.
      • Warm lakes have less O 2 dissolved in them than cool lakes.
  • 13. Surface area
    • The larger the surface area of a solid, the faster the rate of dissolving. The surface area of an object increases when it is broken down into smaller pieces.
  • 14. Movement
    • When a substance dissolves, it fills the available spaces between the closest water molecules. Stirring increases the rate the empty spaces can be filled.
  • 15. Pressure
    • The solubility of liquids and solids does not change with pressure.
    • Increased pressure increases the solubility of gases.