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Sawing 71

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  • 1.  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ١-‫א‬  E‫א‬‫א‬F  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١٤٢٥ 
  • 2. ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬      W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ،‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬   ??? ‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ W    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      
  • 3. ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o K‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬ o K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬o     W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  WE٢٥٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   E٢٥٦F   W‫א‬‫א‬   E٦٤F‫א‬‫א‬   E٦٤F‫א‬‫א‬  E٦٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  • 4.  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١
  • 5. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬ {‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o KE٦٤F W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٢-
  • 6. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬     ‫א‬        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬  E١F‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ (١) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬  W‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ W ‫א‬  K١ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   E‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  E٢F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ (٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬  E٣F  WE‫א‬F‫א‬ K٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   E‫א‬F‫א‬،E‫א‬F (٣) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ -٣-
  • 7. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٤F‫א‬ (٤) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،    ‫א‬         ‫ א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬ ‫ א‬ ‫ א‬‫ א‬ ،  ‫ א‬‫ א‬‫א‬ (5) ‫ א‬ K     ‫ א‬  ، ‫ א‬ ‫ א‬        . ‫ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻴﺩﻭﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٥( : ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ‬  ‫٥. ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﺽ‬ ‫١. ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬  ‫٦. ﺍﻷﺴﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫٢. ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺏ‬  ‫٧. ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﻊ‬ ‫٣. ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻑ‬  ‫٨. ﺍﻟﻁﻭل ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻲ‬ ‫٤. ﺍﻟﺫﻴل‬  -٤-
  • 8. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬ K١  W‫א‬ (٦) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  ، E٦F ‫א‬   W‫א‬ EF  J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٧) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،E٧F‫א‬W‫א‬J ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬E٨F‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٨) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬     W‫א‬‫א‬  W ‫א‬،E٩F‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J  (٩) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، EK١F ‫א‬   W ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ K (١٠) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ -٥-
  • 9. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ K٢     ، ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬  E١F ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬WE١F‫א‬  ‫א‬    J   J    ‫א‬     ‫א‬  EF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ٠  ٤٥٠J ١٠٠    ٤{٥J ١٠ ١  ٤٥٠J ٨٠    ٥{٣J ١٦ ٢  ٤٥٠J ٨٠    ١٠J ٢٥ ٣  ٤٥٠J ٨٠    ١٤J ٣٥{٥ ٤  ٣١٥J ٨٠    ٢٥J ٥٠ ٥  ٢٥٠J ٨٠    ٤٠J ٧١   ، E٣١٥F  ‫א‬ ‫א‬         ٨  E٤F  K‫א‬E٢٥F‫א‬E٣١٥F‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ K٣ E‫א‬ F ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬EF ‫א‬    ،    W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  E١١F   W ‫א‬ E‫א‬F ‫א‬  ∎  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١١) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ -٦-
  • 10. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W ‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬F ‫א‬  ∎  KE١٢F‫א‬ (١٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬    W‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ∎  KE١٣F‫א‬  (١٣) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ -٧-
  • 11. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  KE١٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (١٤) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ -٨-
  • 12. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،    ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،      ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   Workbench‫א‬  W،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬FJ  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬{EK٨٥J KK٨F‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬E١٥F‫א‬J    ‫א‬ K ١   K ٢   K ٣  K ٤    ‫א‬ K ٥   K ٦  ‫א‬ K ٧  K ٨ ‫א‬E١٥F‫א‬ -٩-
  • 13. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬J    E١٦F ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬E١٦F‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬       ‫א‬J  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E١٧F‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬      ، ‫א‬  E١٧F ‫א‬  ‫א‬EAngle viceF ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬      KE١٨F ‫א‬‫א‬E١٨F‫א‬  ‫א‬   - ١٠ -
  • 14. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫ א‬K١  Bench Vice‫א‬  ‫א‬‫ א‬K٢ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ E١٩F ‫א‬  - ‫א‬ K٣  ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬   K٤  ‫א‬‫ א‬K٥  E١٩F‫א‬ ‫א‬ W‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ .٦  K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬□  K‫א‬‫א‬□ ‫א‬E١٩F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬□  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬□ ‫א‬‫א‬E٦F‫א‬‫א‬ □ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬J    ‫א‬E٢٠F‫א‬W‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬  W  J ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   K‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠F‫א‬ - ١١ -
  • 15. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  J ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬  KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J ‫א‬  KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،  K‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬       E٢١F E٢١F‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  KEJ ٢٢F‫א‬ EJ ٢٢F ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬  E٢٢F‫א‬ - ١٢ -
  • 16. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬  E‫א‬ F ‫א‬      ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬         ،  EF ‫א‬  EJ ٢٣F ‫א‬ K ‫א‬       ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ، E١F  EJ ٢٣F ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K<١KK  K‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٣F‫א‬  W‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ E٢٤F ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬      K‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  K‫א‬    E٢٤F‫א‬ - ١٣ -
  • 17. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ،     ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   K‫א‬E٢٥F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٥F‫א‬   {‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬-‫أ‬   ،    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬□ EJ ٢٦F ‫א‬   W ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،    ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬   K‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J  KEJ ٢٦F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J E٢٦F‫א‬  KEJ ٢٨F‫א‬ - ١٤ -
  • 18. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬    E‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ،  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٢٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٢٨F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٨F‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٧F‫א‬    KE٢٩F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     KE٣٠F‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٠F‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٩F‫א‬ - ١٥ -
  • 19. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬،‫א‬ WFlatness‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    E٣١F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KEJ ٣١F‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W Squareness‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KEJ ٣١F‫א‬  W Parallelism ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J   E٣٢F‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٣٢F‫א‬   Dimensions ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  J  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W and Angles E٣٤F  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  KE٣٣F  E٣٣F‫א‬  W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٣٤F‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  E٣٤F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٦ -
  • 20. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬  W‫א‬ E F ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  □  EJ ٣٥F ‫א‬     ‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬   □  KEJ ٣٥F‫א‬‫א‬  E٣٥F‫א‬   W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   E٣٦F‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬  E٣٦F‫א‬  KE٣٧F‫א‬،‫א‬    W‫א‬  E٣٧F‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬      EJ ٣٨F ‫א‬    ‫א‬     EJ ٣٨F ‫א‬         ‫א‬      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٣٨F‫א‬ - ١٧ -
  • 21. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -‫أ‬  K‫א‬ -١  K‫א‬ -٢  K‫א‬ -٣  K‫א‬ -٤  W‫א‬ -‫ب‬  K‫א‬ -١  K‫א‬ -٢  K‫א‬ -٣  K‫א‬EF‫א‬ -٤  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -‫ج‬  K‫א‬J ١  K‫א‬J ٢  K‫א‬J ٣ KJ ٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫؟‬‫א‬  ‫؟‬‫א‬W٣  ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤  ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٥ - ١٨ -
  • 22. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١ K‫א‬‫א‬K،١±‫א‬‫א‬ K٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣                     - ١٩ -
  • 23. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١ KK،١±‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣                       - ٢٠ -
  • 24. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  KW‫א‬‫א‬  K١KK±‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                         - ٢١ -
  • 25. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K١KK±‫א‬    E،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  W ‫א‬‫ א‬K١  KW‫א‬J   ٩٨W‫א‬W‫א‬  KK٥W‫א‬  K١٢W‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬ .٢ KEF  K KEF K‫א‬١KK  K   K  K‫א‬K  KK  KE١١F،E٨{٥FK  KEF KEF  W‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  K‫א‬‫א‬  - ٢٢ -
  • 26.  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢
  • 27. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o   KE٦٤F W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  - ٢٤ -
  • 28. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬   ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬  K K١ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )١( : ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻲ‬  KJ ٢  KEFJ ٣  KJ ٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬، ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٢( : ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ‬  K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬ - ٢٥ -
  • 29. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٣F‫א‬٠{٠٠١٠{١  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٣( : ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬  K . ( ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺒﻁ ) ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺩﻴل‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،  K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬ .(‫١- ﻀﺒﻌﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ )ﺤﺩﻴﺔ‬  ‫א‬ .(‫٢- ﻀﺒﻌﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ )ﺤﺩﻴﺔ‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ .‫٣- ﻀﺒﻌﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻨﺼﺎﻑ ﺃﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٤( : ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ . (‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ )ﻀﺒﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬E٥F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ - ٢٦ -
  • 30. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ﻤﺴﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺍﻴﺎ‬ -١  K‫א‬EF .‫ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ -٢  K‫א‬‫א‬E٦F‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،  K‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬WE٦F‫א‬  ،٥٢٠H‫א‬‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬٥٢٠H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Steel Rule ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٧F‫א‬  K١٠٠٠،٦٠٠،٣٠٠،١٥٠ . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٧( : ﻤﺴﻁﺭﺓ ﻓﻭﻻﺫﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ‬ - ٢٧ -
  • 31. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،١٠‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ KE٠{٥F‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٠{٥F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬ W‫א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٨F‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،E٨F  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٩F‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،١٠ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٩F‫א‬   - ٢٨ -
  • 32. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W ‫א‬‫א‬J    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E١٠F‫א‬،ETrammer lF  ،‫א‬‫א‬EDividerF‫א‬  KEJ ١٠F‫א‬     K ‫א‬WE١٠F‫א‬                  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E١١F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬WE١١F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬J   ‫א‬W‫א‬  ‫א‬  KE١٢F‫א‬،‫א‬    ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٢١( : ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﺴﻁﺭﺓ‬ . ‫ﻜﺩﻟﻴل ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ - ٢٩ -
  • 33. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬KKK٤٣،٢‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣F‫א‬  K١‫א‬      .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٣١( : ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻨﻲ‬          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W   ‫א‬‫א‬J   ،‫א‬‫א‬  KE١٤F‫א‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٤١( : ﻭﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬                ‫א‬ J  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF   KE١٥F‫א‬    . ‫ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٥١( : ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺫﻭ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺩﻟﻴﻠﻲ‬        - ٣٠ -
  • 34. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬EF  KE١٦F‫א‬،   ‫א‬‫א‬J    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٦١(: ﺍﻨﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﺔ‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   Outside Caliper ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬    ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F  EJ ١٧F‫א‬،‫א‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٧١( :ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     KEJ ١٧F‫א‬         - ٣١ -
  • 35. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    Inside Caliper‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ EJ ١٨F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  KE١٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٨١-ﺃ( : ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ‬  K٠{٥      Divider  ‫א‬  E١٩F‫א‬  W ‫א‬   ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬  J   ‫א‬‫א‬EJ ١٩F  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    . ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٩١( :ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻘ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ - ٣٢ -
  • 36. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬J    ‫א‬‫א‬EJ ١٩F ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬   KE٢٠F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬          ‫א‬WE٢٠F‫א‬  Trammel ‫א‬ ‫א‬٤J ٣  K ‫א‬‫א‬  E١F،‫א‬ ‫א‬E٢١F‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬،E٢F ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬EF‫א‬  KE٣F‫א‬       . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )١٢( : ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺴﻡ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺘﻕ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KE٢٢F‫א‬‫א‬ . ‫ﻡ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺘﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٢٢( : ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻘ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ - ٣٣ -
  • 37. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ ،‫א‬،٠{٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  KE٠{٠٢FE٠{٠٥FE٠{١F   ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣F‫א‬  KE١FE١٠F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫- א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫- א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫- א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -  ‫א‬‫ א‬K١  ‫א‬‫ א‬K٢  ‫א‬‫ א‬K٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥  ‫א‬‫ א‬K٦  E‫א‬F‫א‬ K٧ ‫٨. א‬ K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٣F‫א‬      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫- א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬WE‫א‬F‫א‬ - - ٣٤ -
  • 38. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫- א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬٢J ٤  ‫א‬  WEF    E‫א‬F‫א‬ J    WE٠{١F  ‫א‬E٩F‫א‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٤٢( : ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ ﻗﺩﻤﺔ )ﻭﺭﻨﻴﺔ( ﺩﻗﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ١,٠ﻤﻡ‬  E‫א‬F  KE٢٤F‫א‬،‫א‬  E١F‫א‬‫א‬،E٠{٩F‫א‬  E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬F‫א‬E٠{١F‫א‬‫א‬KE٠{١Z٠{٩J ١F  ٠{١‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J  E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬WE١F  KE٢٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬ ،EF‫א‬Z‫א‬ EF‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ .(‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٥٢( : ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻗﺩﻤﺔ )ﻭﺭﻨﻴﺔ( ﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ )ﺩﻗﺔ ١,٠ ﻤﻡ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J     KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   - ٣٥ -
  • 39. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE٢F  KE٤F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬J  K٠{١X‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬  K٢{٤Z٠{١X ٤H٢H٠Z ‫א‬E٢٦F‫א‬WE٢F  K H‫א‬‫א‬Z ‫א‬‫א‬  K٠{١X‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬  K٣{٢Z٠{١X٢H٣H٠Z    .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٦٢( : ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻗﺩﻤﺔ )ﻭﺭﻨﻴﺔ( ﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ ﺩﻗﺔ ١,٠ ﻤﻡ‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬WE٣F  KE٢٧F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬Z ٦Z٠{١X‫א‬‫א‬H  ٠{١X٨H٢H  ٠{٨H٢H٦٠Z   K٦٢{٨Z  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٠{١X٥H١H٥Z .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٧٢( : ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻗﺩﻤﺔ )ﻭﺭﻨﻴﺔ( ﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ ﺩﻗﺔ ١,٠ ﻤﻡ‬  K٥١{٥Z٠{٥H١H٥٠Z  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٠{١X٣H٠H١Z  K١٠{٣Z٠{٣H٠H١٠Z  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٠{١X٣H٢H٢Z - ٣٦ -
  • 40. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K٢٢{٣Z٠{٣H٢H٢٠Z  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٠{١X٥H١H١٠Z  K١٠١{٥Z٠{٥H١H١٠٠Z  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٠{١X٧H٠H٤Z  K٤٠{٧Z٠{٧H٠H٤٠Z  ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ J   W٠{٠٥  E‫א‬F‫א‬١٩  E٢٨F‫א‬،٢٠  ‫א‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٨٢( : ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻨﻴﺔ( ﺒﺩﻗﺔ ٥٠,٠ﻤﻡ‬  ‫א‬E 19 FE‫א‬F 20 1 19 E 0.05 = = − 1 FWE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 20 20  KE٠{٠٥F‫א‬K  KE٠{٠٢F‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ ،٢٥E‫א‬F‫א‬١٢W‫א‬‫א‬  KE٣٢F‫א‬ FK‫א‬EFE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KE‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬  W  .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٢٣( : ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻨﻴﺔ( ﺒﺩﻗﺔ ٢٠,٠ ﻤﻡ‬   - ٣٧ -
  • 41. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K٠{٠٢Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬WE١F  KE٣٣F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٠{٠٢X١٦H٢H٣Z  ٠{٣٢H٢H٣٠Z .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٣٣( : ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻗﺩﻤﺔ )ﻭﺭﻨﻴﺔ( ﺩﻗﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ٢٠,٠ ﻤﻡ‬  K٣٢{٣٢Z        KE٣٤F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬WE٢F  ‫א‬‫א‬  K٠{٠٢X٥H٠{٥H٨H١Z  K٠{١H٠{٥H٨H١٠Z  K١٨{٦٠Z  ٠,٠٢ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٤٣( : ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻗﺩﻤﺔ )ﻭﺭﻨﻴﺔ( ﺩﻗﺔ‬        W‫א‬‫א‬ ،٥٠E‫א‬F‫א‬٤٩  WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٥F‫א‬  ٠{٠٢Z١Z٤٩J ١  ٥٠٥٠     . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٥٣( : ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ ﻭﺭﻨﻴﺔ ﺩﻗﺔ ٢٠,٠ﻤﻡ‬  - ٣٨ -
  • 42. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،E–٣٧F‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE–٣٧F‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٧٣( : ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻨﻴﺔ‬  KE–٣٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  KE–٣٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١  KE٠{٠٢FEF  KE٠{١FEF  K‫א‬  K‫א‬ EF‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٩F‫א‬ EF‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٨F‫א‬  KE٠{٠٢F  KE٠{١F - ٣٩ -
  • 43. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   Metric Micrometer  ‫א‬‫א‬ E٠{٠٢F‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٠{٠١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤٠F‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫- א‬  ،٢٥–‫א‬‫א‬،٥٠–٢٥‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬E٧٥–٥٠F ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫- א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٠{٥F  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ - ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ -  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ -  K٥٠ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EFW‫- א‬  K‫א‬  . ‫١- ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬  . ‫٢- ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺩﺍﻥ‬  . ‫٣- ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ‬ . ‫٤- ﺼﻤﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻔل‬ . ‫٥- ﺠﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬ . ‫٦- ﺠﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻱ‬ . ‫٧- ﺍﻟﺴﻘﺎﻁﺔ‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٠٤( : ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬ - ٤٠ -
  • 44. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬J   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )١٤( : ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬  KE٤١F‫א‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‬           W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٤٢F‫א‬  ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٢٤( : ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬  . ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ‬           W‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٤٣F‫א‬   ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٣٤( : ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‬ - ٤١ -
  • 45. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬KE٠{٥F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬E٠{٥F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E٤٤F‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٢٥–  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬       . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٤٤( : ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬        ‫א‬‫א‬KE٤٥F‫א‬،E٥٠F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K٠{٠١‫א‬E٠{٠١FZ٠{٥  ٥٠   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٥٤( : ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻱ‬  KE٠{٠١F - ٤٢ -
  • 46. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E٤٦F‫א‬  ٠{٠١X٤٩+٠{٥H٥Z  EF‫א‬‫א‬  K٥{٩٩Z    ٠{٠١X٢H٠H٢Z  EF‫א‬‫א‬  K٢{٠٢Z    ٠{٠١X٣٧H٠H١١Z  EF‫א‬‫א‬  K١١{٣٧Z    .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٦٤( : ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﺘﺭﻱ‬   ‫א‬ ‫١- ﺤﺩﺩ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٧٤( ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺴﻌﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻥ )٥٢ – ٠٥ ( ﻤﻡ‬ .( ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٧٤( ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﺴﻌﺔ )٥٢ – ٠٥ﻤﻡ‬ ‫٢- ﺤﺩﺩ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٨٤( ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺴﻌﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻥ )٠٥ – ٥٧ ( ﻤﻡ‬ .( ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٨٤( ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﺴﻌﺔ )٠٥ – ٥٧ﻤﻡ‬         - ٤٣ -
  • 47. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF  KE‫א‬F  EF  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٤٩F‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K  ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٩٤( : ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ )ﻀﺒﻌﺎﺕ( ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻨﺼﺎﻑ‬      .‫ﺃﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF ‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥٠F‫א‬  KE٥١F‫א‬،   . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )١٥( : ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﻟﻭﻟﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٠٥( : ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ )ﻀﺒﻌﺎﺕ( ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺍﻟﺏ‬              - ٤٤ -
  • 48. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٦٠F‫א‬‫א‬١L٦٠Z‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥٢F‫א‬  KE٢FE١F E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٢٥( : ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬            E–٥٣F‫א‬W‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K  ‫א‬‫א‬E–٥٣F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬      ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٣٥( : ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤﺩ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ - ٤٥ -
  • 49. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥٤F‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬F‫א‬          ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٤٥( : ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻤﺩﺓ‬  Bevel Protractor  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E–٥٥F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ E–٥٥F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K٠{٥‫א‬K‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٥٥( : ﻤﺴﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺍﻴﺎ‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،E٥٦F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٦٥( : ﻤﺴﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺍﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل‬ - ٤٦ -
  • 50. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   Combination Set  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥٧F‫א‬  K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J    . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٧٥( : ﻁﻘﻡ ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥٨F‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬J  E–٥٨F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬J  KE–٥٨F  ،٥٤٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE–٥٨F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ . ‫ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٨٥( : ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﻁﻘﻡ ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻤل‬    KE–٢٨F‫א‬EF  KE–٥٨F‫א‬،٥٤٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE–٥٨F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J - ٤٧ -
  • 51. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K٥٢٠  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬J   KJ   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   - ٤٨ -
  • 52. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،E١F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KEF ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )١( : ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻐﻭﻟﺔ‬   W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫- א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٤٩ -
  • 53. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ،E٢F ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٢( : ﻤﺴﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬  ‫א‬،  ،  K‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٣F‫א‬،   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٣( : ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٤F‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٤( : ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻁﻊ‬ - ٥٠ -
  • 54. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  W،E٥F‫א‬،‫א‬   K‫א‬‫ א‬K١  K‫א‬‫ א‬K٢  K‫ א‬K٣  K‫ א‬K٤  K‫א‬‫ א‬K٥ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٥( : ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬،‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،E٦F‫א‬،‫א‬ ،E٣F‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬ E٥F‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬‫א‬ ،E٧FE٦F  K٥٤٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٦( : ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ - ٥١ -
  • 55. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٧F‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٧( : ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻜﺎﺭ‬ ،E٧F‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،  ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٨( : ﺸﻨﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬  KE٨F ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٩( : ﻁﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ، ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٩F‫א‬ - ٥٢ -
  • 56. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ،E١٠F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٠١( : ﻁﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،E١١F ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )١١( : ﺒﻼﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻭﻴﺔ‬  ٠   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٢١( : ﻋﻮارض ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬،E١٢F - ٥٣ -
  • 57. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ،E١٣F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،  K‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٣١(: زاوﻳﺔاﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E١F‫א‬WE١٤F‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬،E٢F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٤١( : ﻤﻠﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬  KE٥F‫א‬،E٤F‫א‬‫א‬،E٣F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ - ٥٤ -
  • 58. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ECF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،E١٥F‫א‬،(C) ‫א‬‫א‬، ،‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (C) ‫ﺸﻜل )٥١( : ﻤﺭﺒﻁ ﺤﺭﻑ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬ EvF‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،E١٦F‫א‬،E٥٩٠F  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (v) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٦١( : ﺯﻫﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺕ ﺤﺭﻑ‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ E٥٠FE٢١{٢٢F‫א‬٣L٤ ‫א‬‫א‬،E١٥٠٠F E٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KE٢٢٧F  KE١٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٧١(: ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺭﻗﺔ‬ - ٥٥ -
  • 59. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     K‫א‬،‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬          ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٨١(: وﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺎت اﻷﺑﻌﺎد‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ KE١٨F‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٩١( : ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ اﻟﺨﻄﻮط اﻟﻌﻤﻮدﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻤﺴﻄﺮة‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E١٩F‫א‬،‫א‬  - ٥٦ -
  • 60. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٢٠F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E٥١٥F‫א‬‫א‬J  ،‫א‬‫א‬E٥١٥F‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٢١F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٠٢(: ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ ورﺳﻢ‬  K‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮط‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،E١٠F  K  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )١٢(: ﻤﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﻁﺭﺓ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬،EC F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE٢٢F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫- א‬ K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ -  ‫א‬‫א‬‫- א‬ K‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫- א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٢٢( : ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ اﻟﺪاﺋﺮة‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ - ٥٧ -
  • 61. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٣٢( : ﺿﺒﻂ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺴﻡ‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬J  K ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬J   KE٢٣F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E٥١٥F‫א‬ ‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ)٤٢(:ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‬  KE٢٤F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ - ٥٨ -
  • 62. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W،‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬  K  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫- א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫- א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  KE٢٥F‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - WE٢٥F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬،E٢٦F‫א‬   W‫א‬   ‫א‬،‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٦٢( ﺣﺎﻻت ﻓﺘﺤﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﺼﻑ ﻗﻁﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻐﻭﻟﺔ‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -  KE٢٧F‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٧٢(: ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ اﻟﺴﻨﺒﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -  - ٥٩ -
  • 63. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٢٧F‫א‬،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E،F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،E٢٨F‫א‬  K‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ J ،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ﺸﻜل )٨٢( : ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺱ‬  K‫א‬E،،F ‫א‬‫א‬،E،F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬EJ F‫א‬EF‫א‬،EJ F‫א‬،EF‫א‬   ٠‫א‬‫א‬،E،F‫א‬EJ FEJ F‫א‬J E٢،١F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،E١،٢،٣،٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٤،٣F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E0F‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  - ٦٠ -
  • 64. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬،E٢٩F    K‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE٢٩F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬  KE٣٠F‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٠٣( : ﻣﺮآﺰة اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ اﻟﻤﻘ ّﻢ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻲ‬  ٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  - ٦١ -
  • 65. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KE‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،  K‫א‬،‫א‬  E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    E‫א‬F  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )١٣( : ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻋﺪة ﻤﺸﻐﻭﻻﺕ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  E٣١F‫א‬،‫א‬  ٠‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٢٣( : ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ اﻷﻃﺮاف اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬  K‫א‬، ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬ ٠‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE٣٢F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ )٣٣( : ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE٣٣F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٦٢ -
  • 66. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ،،‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ،E٣٤F‫א‬E‫א‬F ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ)٤٣(: ﺷﺤﺬ ﺷﻮآﺎت اﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﺤﺠﺎﺭ اﻟﺠﻠﺦ‬  K٠E٢٠J ١٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬،٠٦٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٥٣( : ﺷﺤﺬ اﻟﺴﻨﺒﻚ‬  KE٣٥F  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F  KE٣٦F‫א‬٠٦٠  ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٦٣( : ﺷﺤﺬ ﺳﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘ ّﻢ‬  ‫ﺴ‬  K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  - ٦٣ -
  • 67. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬        - ٦٤ -
  • 68. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬،K…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬     W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J   K،‫א‬‫א‬ J  K‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J .‫- أﻋﺪ أدوات اﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺑﻌﺪ اﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﻣﻦ اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻬﺎ إﻟﻰ أﻣﺎآﻨﻬﺎ اﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ - ٦٥ -
  • 69.  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٣
  • 70. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  ‫א‬ o  ‫א‬‫א‬ o ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o   KE٦٤F  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٦٧ -
  • 71. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬١J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KE١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬WE١F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬٢J ١  W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  K،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٦٨ -
  • 72. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬J ٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١–٢  W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬J ١J ١J ٢ K‫א‬J ٢J ١J ٢ K‫א‬J ٣J ١J ٢   ‫א‬‫א‬١–١–٢  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  WE٢F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J ١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J ٢  K‫א‬  ‫א‬W‫א‬J ٣ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٢( : أﺟﺰاء اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺎر اﻟﻴﺪوي‬  K‫א‬‫א‬E٥F  ‫א‬WJ ٤   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W  W‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬ .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٣( : اﻹﻃﺎر)اﻟﻬﻴﻜﻞ( اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ - ٦٩ -
  • 73. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬،E٤F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K٣٥٠٢٥٠‫א‬   K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬WE٤F‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬J  WE٥F‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ -١  K‫א‬ -٢  K‫א‬ -٣  K‫٤- א‬ K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬WE٥F‫א‬ ،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K،  ‫א‬E٦F‫א‬  W‫א‬     K‫א‬WE٦F‫א‬ - ٧٠ -
  • 74. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬Z  ‫א‬ K٣٠٠،٢٥٠،٢٠٠W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬   WW‫א‬Z  ١٦،١٢  W‫א‬W‫א‬Z  K٠{٨،٠{٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧F‫א‬  W‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧F‫א‬  E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬٢٥{٤‫א‬  KE١F‫א‬‫א‬  E‫א‬٢٥{٤‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬WE١F   ‫א‬ ٢٥{٤‫א‬  ‫א‬  E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٦–١٤    ‫א‬  ٢٢     ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٣٢ EF - ٧١ -
  • 75. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  KE٨F‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬  . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٨( : ﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻥ‬  ‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬  ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )١١( :ﺍﻷﺴﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  (‫)ﺃ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،E–٩F‫א‬ ٩F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E– (‫)ﺏ‬  W‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ) ٩ – ﺃ – ﺏ( : ﺍﻟﻨﺼل ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻑ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺩﻭﺝ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﺩ‬  E١٠F‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬     .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ) ٠١ ( : ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﺼﻞ‬      - ٧٢ -
  • 76. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬Z  ‫א‬E١١F‫א‬  ‫א‬  KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬        ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬Z ‫א‬E١٢F‫א‬  KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ . ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٢١( : اﻷﺳﻨﺎن اﻟﻤﻤﻮﺟﺔ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬G  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E١٣F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٣١( : ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬        . ‫ﻨﺼل ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬ - ٧٣ -
  • 77. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬G ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬E٢F‫א‬،‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬WE٢F‫א‬  EF‫א‬  ‫א‬      ٠{٠٨  ١{٦–١{٤    ١{٢–١{٠  ٢{١–١{٨     ‫א‬‫א‬–  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬Z ، E‫א‬F ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ F ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٤١( : ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻡ‬  KE١٤F‫א‬  ‫א‬WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬Z  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE١٥F‫א‬      .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٥١( : اﻟﺮﺑﻂ اﻟﻌﺮﺿﻲ . اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬  - ٧٤ -
  • 78. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  E١٦F‫א‬،‫א‬   K  ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٦١(: ﻧﻤﺎذج ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺸﺎر اﻟﺘﺨﺮﻳﻢ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  K  ‫א‬ - ‫א‬،E ١٧F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    K‫א‬ ‫א‬WE١٧F‫א‬  ‫اﻟﺜﺎ ﺖ‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬E ١٨F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٨١( : ﻣﻨﺸﺎر ﺷﻖ اﻟﻤﺠﺎري‬ - ٧٥ -
  • 79. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬    ‫א‬   J   K  K‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J    K‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٩١( :رﺑﻂ ﻗﻄﻊ‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬     .‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﺘﻮازﻳﺔ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E – ١٩F‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬E–١٩F‫א‬،‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٠٢(: ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪات رﺑﻂ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﻳﺮة‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،E٢٠F  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٢١F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )١٢(: ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﻮاﺳﻴﺮ‬ - ٧٦ -
  • 80. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬،E ٢٢F‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٢F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،  ‫א‬   E٢٣F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٣٢( : اﻟﻮﻗﻮف اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫ﻟﻠ ﺸ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٢٤F‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٤F‫א‬ - ٧٧ -
  • 81. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢٥F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ . ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٥٢( : اﺑﺘﺪاء اﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،E٢٦F‫א‬ .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٦٢( : ﻧﺸﺮ اﻷﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  - ٧٨ -
  • 82. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ -‫أ‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧F‫א‬  ‫א‬ -١ ‫א‬ -٢ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ)٧٢(:أﺟﺰاء ﻣﻨﺸﺎر اﻟﺸﻠﺔ‬ ‫א‬ -٣ .‫اﻟﺸﺮﻳﻄﻲ‬ ‫א‬ -٤ ‫א‬ -٥  W‫א‬J   ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬    E ٢٨ F ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬K‫א‬E‫א‬F  WE٢٨F ‫א‬  . ‫א‬‫ א‬   ،E ٢٩ F ‫א‬         ‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬، ٢٥ J ٣‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬     ١٠   K  ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٩٢(: ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﻣﺴﻨﻦ‬ - ٧٩ -
  • 83. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬     ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،   ‫א‬       ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬  E٣٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫١- א‬ .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٠٣( : أﺟﺰاء اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺎر اﻷﻓﻘﻲ‬ ‫٢- א‬ ‫א‬ -٣ ‫٤- א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ -‫أ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬ -‫ب‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٨٠ -
  • 84. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E٣١F‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  KE٣١F‫א‬    . ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )١٣( : ﻣﻨﺸﺎر اﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬        ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  KE٣٢F‫א‬   .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٢٣( : ﺣﺮآﺔ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬   ‫א‬   E٣٤F،E٣٣F ‫א‬   EF   ‫א‬    K٦–٠{٥‫א‬٣١٥–٥٠‫א‬‫א‬        WE٣٤F‫א‬ WE٣٣F‫א‬ K‫א‬ K‫א‬ - ٨١ -
  • 85. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KJ   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٥F‫א‬  W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J ١ ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٥F  W‫א‬EFJ ٢  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J ٣  K‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬EUFW‫א‬J ٤   KE٥F‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬J ٥  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J ٦  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J ٧  K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J ٨  K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J ٩ - ٨٢ -
  • 86. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٦F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬   K‫א‬ .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٦٣(: اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺎر اﻟﺘﺮددي اﻟﻬﻴﺪروﻟﻴﻜﻲ‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  KE٣٧F                  .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٧٣( : ﺣﺮآﺔ هﻴﻜﻞ اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺎر اﻟﺘﺮددي اﻟﻬﻴﺪروﻟﻴﻜﻲ‬ - ٨٣ -
  • 87. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  .‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٨F‫א‬  KE٢)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E٥F‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬E٣F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ EF  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ)٨٣( ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺎر اﻟﺘﺮددي اﻵﻟﻲ‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬x٢Z‫א‬  KE‫א‬F   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K٦٠–٣٠٠WEF‫א‬J   K٦٠_٢٠WEF‫א‬J   K٢{٥_K٠{٨W‫א‬J   K١٢{٥J ٦{٥EF‫א‬J   K٤J ١{٨WEF‫א‬J  - ٨٤ -
  • 88. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KE٣٩F‫א‬ E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫وﻳﺒﻴﻦ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ)٩٣( ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت ﻧﺼﻞ اﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺎر اﻟﺘﺮددي اﻟﻬﻴﺪروﻟﻴﻜﻲ‬       ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬J  K‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٨٥ -
  • 89. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬WE٣F ‫א‬ ( ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ ) ﺷﻮط / دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ١٤٠ – ١٠٠ ‫ﻓﻮﻻذ آﺮﺑﻮﻧﻲ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ١٤٠ – ١٠٠ ‫ﻓﻮﻻذ آﺮﺑﻮﻧﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ١٠٠ ‫ﻓﻮﻻذ آﺮﺑﻮﻧﻲ ﻋﺎل‬ ٍ ١٠٠ ‫ﻓﻮﻻذ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ١٠٠ ‫ﻓﻮﻻذ ﺳﺒﺎﺋﻜﻲ‬ ١٠٠ – ٧٠ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺪ زهﺮ‬ ١٤٠ ‫أﻟﻮﻣﻨﻴﻮم‬ ١٤٠ – ١٠٠ ‫ﻧﺤﺎس أﺻﻔﺮ‬ ١٠٠ ‫ﺑﺮوﻧﺰ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ E٤٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬WE٤٠F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤١F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     EF‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )١٤( : ﻃﺮاﺋﻖ رﺑﻂ اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻮﻻت‬  KE٤٢F‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ . ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٢٤( : ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‬ - ٨٦ -
  • 90. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬،E٤٣F‫א‬         W‫א‬J  ‫א‬  ‫א‬F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  KE٤٤F‫א‬‫א‬     .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٣٤( : اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻤﺴﻄﺮة اﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬       ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬J ..‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٤٤( : ﻣﺤﺪد )ﻣﻌﻴﺎر( اﻟﻄﻮل‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  - ٨٧ -
  • 91. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬J K K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K - ٨٨ -
  • 92. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EFEF  EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١  EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K……‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١  K………………………‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - K‫א‬ - K‫א‬‫א‬ - K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -  - ٨٩ -
  • 93. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ٦٠W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬ E١F‫א‬‫א‬-١  E٢F‫א‬‫א‬-٢  E٣F‫א‬‫א‬-٣ - ٩٠ -
  • 94. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E١F‫א‬  ٦٠W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ -١  K‫א‬‫א‬ -٢  K‫א‬ -٣   E،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W  ،،،٥x١٠x٢٠،٢٠٠x٢٠x٢٠  K،،E،F‫א‬     W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W   ‫א‬‫א‬J ١   ‫א‬‫א‬   KE١F‫א‬‫ א‬     E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢      ١٠‫א‬   KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬      E٢F‫א‬             ٢F‫א‬   E - ٩١ -
  • 95. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E١F  W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥٠  K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬J   KE٣F‫א‬  E٣F‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KEF  ‫א‬J ٤  ‫א‬‫א‬J  K  E٤F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٥،٤F‫א‬  E٥F‫א‬  EF‫א‬‫א‬J ٥  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥٠  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ -  E٦F‫א‬ KE٦F‫א‬  - ٩٢ -
  • 96. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E١F  W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬J ٦  ٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE٧F‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬J ٧  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   E٧F‫א‬        KE٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨              E٨F‫א‬   - ٩٣ -
  • 97. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    E٢F‫א‬  ٦٠W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢                     - ٩٤ -
  • 98. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٢F‫א‬  ٦٠W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ -١  K -٢   K -٣    KE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W  ،‫א‬،٥٠x٣٢،١٠٠x ٢٥   K،‫א‬‫א‬،،،،    W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W EF‫א‬‫א‬J ١  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF  K‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  KE١F‫א‬EF‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E١F‫א‬K‫א‬    - ٩٥ -
  • 99. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٢F  W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬J ٤  ‫א‬‫א‬J  E٢F‫א‬KE٢F‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬     KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬  E٣F‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   KE٤F‫א‬  E٤F‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬J ٥  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE١F‫א‬  E٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬J  KE٥F‫א‬‫א‬  E٦F‫א‬‫א‬J  E٦F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  - ٩٦ -
  • 100. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٣F‫א‬  ٦٠W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١                     - ٩٧ -
  • 101. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٣F‫א‬  ٦٠W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬J ١   K١H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢   KE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W  ،،{،E٥x١٠٠x١٠٠F   K،،‫א‬،،    W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W   K‫א‬J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬_    K‫א‬١٦J ١٤   E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬_  KE١F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬J ٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٢F‫א‬     E٢F‫א‬  - ٩٨ -
  • 102. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٣F  W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬J ٣ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٣F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬J ٤  ‫א‬‫א‬  E٣F‫א‬١٠‫א‬  KE٤F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬J ٥  ‫א‬‫א‬J  E٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  KE٥F‫א‬  ‫א‬J  ‫א‬،E٦F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬  E٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬       E٦F‫א‬E٧F‫א‬ - ٩٩ -
  • 103. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٤F‫א‬  ٩٠W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬ ‫א‬J ١ ،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬،‫א‬ EVF،EIF K‫א‬‫א‬                  - ١٠٠ -
  • 104. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٤F‫א‬  ٩٠‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬ -١ -٢  KEVFEIF،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،F‫א‬  E،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W ،،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W   ‫א‬‫א‬J ١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E١F‫א‬KE١F‫א‬‫אא‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٢F‫א‬KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬     E٣F‫א‬   - ١٠١ -
  • 105. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٤F  W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  KE٤F‫א‬‫א‬   E٤F‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE٥F‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬J ٥  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٠٢ -
  • 106. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ٣٠  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١  ٪١٠٠ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   KE٥x٧٥x٧٥F  ٠{٢‫א‬‫א‬J                       - ١٠٣ -
  • 107. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،،‫א‬ ١٣  K‫א‬E١F‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬WE١F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ،‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬WE٣F‫א‬  K٢٥‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٠٤ -
  • 108. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،EF K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬Z١  K‫א‬‫א‬Z٢ K‫א‬‫א‬WE٣F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z٣ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬ EJ ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١FW‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬E٢F‫א‬،  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F ‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬،  K‫א‬‫א‬EJ ٤F‫א‬   - ١٠٥ -
  • 109. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٥F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬WE٥F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬WE٦F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬WE٧F‫א‬ - ١٠٦ -
  • 110. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ ،١٠٠٠L١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E٨F‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ WE٨F ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬WE٩F‫א‬  K‫א‬E٩F‫א‬،  K‫א‬  - ١٠٧ -
  • 111. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢ E١٠F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠F‫א‬  ‫א‬،‫א‬J ٣ ‫א‬E١١F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬W E١١F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣  KE١٢F‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬ WE١٢F‫א‬  K ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ١   KE١٣F‫א‬    K‫א‬ WE١٣F‫א‬ - ١٠٨ -
  • 112. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬J ٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE١٤F‫א‬   K‫א‬WE١٤F‫א‬      ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  ‫א‬‫א‬  KE١٥F‫א‬  K‫א‬WE١٥F‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE١٦F‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦F‫א‬      - ١٠٩ -
  • 113. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J ١ ،E‫א‬F‫א‬W‫א‬J ٢ ،E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،E٤F‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬  KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J ٣ ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬J ٤  K‫א‬W‫א‬J ٥ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J ٦  K‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E١٨F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬WE١٨F‫א‬ - ١١٠ -
  • 114. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬   W ١٠٠٠E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢٠E٢F‫א‬١٠E١F‫א‬  ٠E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KL   KE‫א‬‫א‬F٢C٢٠Z١٠٠٠C١٠W‫א‬  ١٠٠٠ × ١٠  L٥٠٠ZZ٢ ٢٠  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬WE١٩F‫א‬  KE١٩F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠F‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬  KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   L 500 = 100 × 10 Z٢ 20 K‫א‬WE٢٠F‫א‬    - ١١١ -
  • 115. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬  W‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١F‫א‬ ‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢١F‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬J  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،E٢٢F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٢٣F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٢F‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٢٤F   KWE٢٣F‫א‬  - ١١٢ -
  • 116. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬WE٢٤F‫א‬  K‫א‬  K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬E٢٥F‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٥F‫ א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٦F‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٦F‫א‬  K‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    - ١١٣ -
  • 117. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   KT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬E٢٧F‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬WE٢٧F‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    KV‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢٨F‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٨F‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٥  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢  KE٢٩F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٩F‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٣٠F‫א‬   K‫א‬WE٣٠F‫א‬  - ١١٤ -
  • 118. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ K١  K‫א‬ K٢ ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣  KE‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ K٤   K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ -  K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫- א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -  - ١١٥ -
  • 119. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١  K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢  K‫א‬ K٣  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤  K‫א‬ K٥  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٧  K‫א‬‫א‬  - ١١٦ -
  • 120. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬J ١  K١٣J   K٢٠J   K٣٠J   K٥٠J   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  K‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬J   W‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬J   KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬J   W‫א‬‫א‬J ٤  K١J   K٠{١J   K٠{٠١J   K٠{٠٠١J   W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ K١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣  K‫א‬‫ א‬K٤  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥ - ١١٧ -
  • 121. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E١F‫א‬  E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬     K‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬                      - ١١٨ -
  • 122. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E١F‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬W    W‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١   K‫א‬J ٢   K‫א‬J ٣   K‫א‬‫א‬J ٤  WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W   ،،،،،   K٥،E٥C٦٠C٤٠F   W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W  EL٥٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   KE١F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J    K‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -   KE٢F‫א‬‫ א‬  E٢F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -    K‫א‬‫א‬   - ١١٩ -
  • 123. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬J       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢ .(٣) ‫ﺸﻜل‬   KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   .(٤) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  K‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  ،‫א‬‫א‬J   KE٤F‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   .(٥) ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ،‫א‬J ٤  ،‫א‬‫א‬   KE٥F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬J ٥  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  .(٦) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،E٦F‫א‬  K   - ١٢٠ -
  • 124. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E٥F‫א‬J ٦  K‫א‬‫א‬E٧F‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫ א‬  E٨F‫א‬،‫ א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  .(٧) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  K‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬J ١٠  K‫א‬J ١١   K‫א‬J ١٢   K‫א‬J ١٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٤  ‫א‬E٢٥٠F‫א‬E٣F‫א‬‫א‬J ٩  .(٨) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  KE٨F            - ١٢١ -
  • 125. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٢F‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬١٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬  K                   - ١٢٢ -
  • 126. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٢F‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬W   W‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١    WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W   ،،٥،E٢٠٠C٥C٥٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬   K٢٠٠،،،     W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W   K‫א‬J ١  ،‫א‬‫א‬J ٢   KE١F‫א‬      .(١) ‫ﺸﻜل‬     ‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KE٢F‫א‬   .(٢) ‫ﺸﻜل‬ - ١٢٣ -
  • 127. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤   KE٣F‫א‬      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥ .(٣) ‫ﺸﻜل‬        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦  ‫א‬‫א‬  .(٤) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  KE٤F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬       ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧  KE٥F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  .(٥) ‫ﺸﻜل‬         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨  .(٦) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  KE٦F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬    - ١٢٤ -
  • 128. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ٦٠ ‫א‬  E١F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ١٠٠ ‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  ١  ‫א‬‫א‬،Mt1  ‫א‬E١٠C٥٠C٤٠F    K‫א‬                                   - ١٢٥ -
  • 129.  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٤
  • 130. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o  KE٦٤F  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٢٧ -
  • 131. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬           .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )١( :ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺭﺍﺩﺓ‬   - ١٢٨ -
  • 132. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬، E١٥٠،٢٠٠،٣٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬E،‫א‬،F    ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٢( : ﻣﺒﺮد ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ٍ   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬    E٣٠٠،٢٠٠،١٥٠F،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬    ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٣(: ﻣﺒﺮد ﻧﺼﻒ داﺋﺮي‬  - ١٢٩ -
  • 133. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ E٣٠٠،٢٠٠،١٥٠F‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬E،‫א‬،F    .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٤(: اﻟﻤﺒﺮد اﻟﺪاﺋﺮي‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬    KE٥F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٥(: اﻟﻤﺒﺮد ﻧﺼﻒ اﻟﺪاﺋﺮي‬    K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٣٠ -
  • 134. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KE٦F‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦F‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٧F‫א‬    ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٧(: اﻟﻤﺒﺮد ﻧﺼﻒ اﻟﺪاﺋﺮي واﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻪ‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KE٨F‫א‬‫א‬    ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٨(: اﻟﻤﺒﺮد اﻟﻤﺜﻠﺚ واﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻪ‬  - ١٣١ -
  • 135. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     KE٩F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٩(: اﻟﻤﺒﺮد اﻟﻤﺮﺑﻊ واﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻪ‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE١٠F‫א‬    ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٠١(: ﻣﺒﺮد ﺷﺒﻪ ﻣﻨﺤﺮف واﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻪ‬   K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KE١١F‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬‫ א‬WE١١F‫א‬   - ١٣٢ -
  • 136. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  KE١٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٢١(: ﺿﺒﻌﺎت أﻗﻮاس ﺧﺎرﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ اﻷﺷﻜﺎل‬   KE١٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٣١(: ﺿﺒﻌﺎت أﻗﻮاس داﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ اﻷﺷﻜﺎل‬   KE١٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    .‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٤١(: ﻣﺤﺪد ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻐﺎت اﻷﺳﻄﻮاﻧﻴﺔ‬ - ١٣٣ -
  • 137. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫- א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٥١( ﺗﺪوﻳﺮ اﻟﻤﺒﺮد ﺣﻮل‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻮر اﻟﻄﻮﻟﻲ‬  K‫א‬‫א‬   E١٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫- א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٦١( ﺗﺪوﻳﺮ اﻟﻤﺒﺮد ﺣﻮل اﻟﻤﺤﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺮﺿﻲ‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ‫א‬E١٧F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٧١( ﺗﺪوﻳﺮ اﻟﻤﺒﺮد ﺣﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻮرﻳﻦ‬   - ١٣٤ -
  • 138. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE١٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫ﺷﻜﻞ )٨١( : ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ اﻟﻘﻮس اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  E٢J ١F‫א‬    KE١٩F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٩١( : ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺮادة أوﻟﻴﺔ‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J      KE٢٠F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٠٢( : ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺮادة ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬E٢١F‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )١٢( : ﻓﺤﺺ اﻟﻘﻮس اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ ﺿﺒﻌﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎس‬ - ١٣٥ -
  • 139. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٢٢( : ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ اﻟﻘﻮس اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻲ‬  KE٢٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٣٢( : إﺟﺮاء ﺑﺮادة أوﻟﻴﺔ ﺧﺸﻨﺔ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٢٣F‫א‬E٢J ١F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )٤٢( : ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺒﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻌﻴﻡ‬  KE٢٤F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬E٢٥F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )٥٢( : ﻓﺤﺺ اﻟﻘﻮس اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ ﺿﺒﻌﺔ ﻗﻴﺎس‬ - ١٣٦ -
  • 140. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE٣J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J      KE٠{٥F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  - ١٣٧ -
  • 141. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  KE٦J ٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥F‫א‬J    KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J     KE١F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    - ١٣٨ -
  • 142. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J    K‫א‬ K١  KEF K٢   K K٣  K K٤   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫ א‬K١  K‫ א‬K٢  K‫א‬‫ א‬K٣  K‫ א‬K٤   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣  K K٤   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬ J ١  K‫א‬E٣J ٢F J ٢  K‫א‬E١F J ٣  K‫א‬ J ٤ - ١٣٩ -
  • 143. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K‫א‬ K١  K‫א‬ K٢  K‫א‬‫א‬ K٣  K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٤   ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢           - ١٤٠ -
  • 144. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  E١F‫א‬  E٣٦FW‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬        - ١٤١ -
  • 145. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E١F‫א‬  ٣٦W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬W    W‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬J ١   K‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J ٢   WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W  ،،E١٠C٩٥C١٠٠F  ‫א‬‫א‬،،،،،  ،‫א‬،‫א‬،،،‫א‬،    K(V)   W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢    ‫א‬‫א‬E٢{٥F   KE١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W (١) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  - ١٤٢ -
  • 146. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E٢{٥F‫א‬‫א‬  KE٢F‫א‬     (٢) ‫ﺸﻜل‬   E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤   E٩٥F‫א‬   KE٣F‫א‬E٢F‫א‬    (٣) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥  E٩٠FE١F‫א‬   KE٤F‫א‬    (٤) ‫ﺸﻜل‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦   KE٥F‫א‬E١٠F     (٥) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  - ١٤٣ -
  • 147. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧  KE٦F‫א‬‫א‬    (A,B,C,D)‫א‬‫א‬J ٨  KE٧F‫א‬  (٦) ‫ﺸﻜل‬       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩ (٧) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  ١٠‫א‬‫א‬  KE٨F‫א‬‫א‬     (٨) ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KE٩F‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١١   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٩) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  KE١٠F‫א‬ (١٠) ‫ﺸﻜل‬ - ١٤٤ -
  • 148. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٢  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KE١١F‫א‬   (١١) :‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٣   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KE١٢F‫א‬   (١٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  ‫א‬(A,B,C,D)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٤  KE١٣F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٥  KE١٤F‫א‬‫א‬  (١٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٦   KE١٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   (١٤) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ E15F  - ١٤٥ -
  • 149. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    E٩٥C٩٠F‫א‬J ١٧   KE١٦F‫א‬   (١٦) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٨   KE١٧F‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٩   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KE١٨F‫א‬E١٠F  (١٧) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢٠     (١٨) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬   - ١٤٦ -
  • 150. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٢F‫א‬   ٢٠W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   - ١٤٧ -
  • 151. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٢F‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٠W‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬W    W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬J ١   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢   K‫א‬‫א‬J ٣    WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W  ،v،،E٣C٢٧C٥٢F  ،،،،،١٥٠،  ،،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬،،‫א‬  W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W  E١F‫א‬  J ١  ٥٩٠‫א‬‫א‬  ٢١‫א‬   KE١F‫א‬ (١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬    E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬   (٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  - ١٤٨ -
  • 152. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣   ٢{١‫א‬  KE٣F‫א‬E٣C٥٠C٢٥F      (٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬   KE٤F‫א‬E٤٥F‫א‬ (٤) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KE٥F‫א‬  (٥) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦   K‫א‬‫ א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧  KE٦F‫ א‬ (٦) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬      - ١٤٩ -
  • 153. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨  KE٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      KE٢F‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩ (٧) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  KE٨F‫א‬  (٨) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٠ ٢١‫א‬   KE٩F‫א‬E٣C٥٠C٢٥F   (٩) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE١٠F‫א‬٢J ١‫ א‬  (١٠) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  ‫א‬J ١٢   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   (١١) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  ‫א‬  KE١١F‫א‬   - ١٥٠ -
  • 154. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٣   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   E١F‫א‬‫א‬   KE١٢F‫א‬       (١٢) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  E٢FE١F‫א‬J ١٤   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   KE١٣F‫א‬      (١٣) ‫ﺸﻜل‬      - ١٥١ -
  • 155. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٣F‫א‬   ٣٦W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   - ١٥٢ -
  • 156. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٣F‫א‬   ٣٦W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬W    W‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١   K‫א‬J ٢  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣   WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W   ،،E١٠C١٥٠C٦٠F  ،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،،،،   Kv،‫א‬،،   W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W  KE١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢   KE٢F‫א‬     (١) ‫ﺸﻜل‬   (٢) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  - ١٥٣ -
  • 157. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣       (٣) ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤  KE٤F‫ א‬      E٥FJ ٥   KE٥F‫א‬‫א‬  (٤) ‫ﺸﻜل‬        (٥) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦  KE٦F‫א‬      (٦) ‫ﺸﻜل‬    - ١٥٤ -
  • 158. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧  ‫א‬E١F‫א‬   KE٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    (٧) ‫ﺸﻜل‬   ‫א‬‫א‬J ٨  ‫א‬‫א‬   KE٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    (٨) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩   KE٩F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K٢٠‫א‬G      (٩) ‫ﺸﻜل‬    - ١٥٥ -
  • 159. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٤F‫א‬   ٣٦W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   - ١٥٦ -
  • 160. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٤F‫א‬   ١٢W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬W    W‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١   K‫א‬‫א‬J ٢    WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W   ،،E١٠C٥٠C٦٠F  ‫א‬،،،،،   KV،‫א‬،،،‫א‬   W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W  KE١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١   ‫א‬‫א‬J ٢    KE٢F‫א‬E١٧F       (٢) ‫ﺸﻜل‬ (١) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  - ١٥٧ -
  • 161. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  E٢J ١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣    KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤   (٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   KE٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     ٢٠EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥ (٤) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KE٥F‫א‬    (٥) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬      - ١٥٨ -
  • 162. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٥F‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K                 - ١٥٩ -
  • 163. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٥F‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬W    W‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬J ١   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢  K‫א‬J ٣   WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W   ،،،E٥C٥٠C٥٠F  ،،،،،،  F،،‫א‬،‫א‬،،  K‫א‬‫א‬،،E   W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W   K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢   KE١F‫א‬٤  (١) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  ‫א‬E٢F‫א‬E٤٨C٤٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   (٢) ‫ﺸﻜل‬  - ١٦٠ -
  • 164. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KEJ ٣F     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EFJ ٥   (٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦  ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬   E٥FW‫א‬   KEJ ٣F‫א‬ (٤) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧     ٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨  KE٤F‫א‬ (٥) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩  ‫א‬،   K‫א‬E٥F   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٠  (٦) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  KE٦F‫א‬      - ١٦١ -
  • 165. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١١  KE٧F‫א‬،      (٧) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٢  KE٨F‫א‬      (٨) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬          - ١٦٢ -
  • 166. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٦F‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K            - ١٦٣ -
  • 167. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E٦F‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬W    W‫א‬‫א‬     K‫א‬J ٤  K‫א‬J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥  K‫א‬J ٢  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦  J ٣   WE،،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W   ،‫א‬،،،‫א‬،،E١٠C٥٠C٨٣F  ،،،،،  K،‫א‬‫א‬،،،، ،   W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W   K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢   KE١F‫א‬E٩F  (١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ،E٨٢C٤٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣  KE٢F‫א‬    (٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬   - ١٦٤ -
  • 168. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬J ٤  KE٣F‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬F‫א‬ (٣) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬   KE  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬J ٦  (٤) ‫ﺸﻜل‬    K‫א‬‫א‬١٠{٧٥ ‫א‬‫א‬J ٧   ،‫א‬‫א‬،٢٤   KE٤F‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨ ‫א‬‫א‬ (٥) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  KE٥F‫א‬،‫ א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩   KE٦F‫א‬،‫א‬   (٦) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬     - ١٦٥ -
  • 169. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٠  E٧F‫א‬E٥{٨F   KE١١F   (٧) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١١  ،  ،‫א‬EF  (٨) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  KE٨F‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٢   KE٩F‫א‬،  (٩) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٣   KE١٠F‫א‬،    ،E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٤ (١٠) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬   KE١١F‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٥   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (١١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  KE١٢F‫א‬    (١٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬   - ١٦٦ -
  • 170. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬ ١٢٠ ‫א‬  E١F‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٠ ‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١  K                       - ١٦٧ -
  • 171. ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠـــــــﻊ‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ G   K٢‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١  K٢‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬‫ א‬K٣ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K، K٤ ١٩٩٨،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K، K٥  ١٩٩٦،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،K‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ G  1. W.A.J Chapman L Workshop Technology Part II - London . 2. M.H.S Kempester L Workshop Technology for Technicians . 3. Vict. E. , Wlard . J. Carthy - Machine Tool Technology . 4. R.L Timings, O. Alabi , Mechanical Engineering Craft Technology and related subjects, Vol. (1) and (2) Longman group LID, 1993 George Love, Metal Work, Longman, sing apore publishers, first  impression 1987. - ١٦٨ -
  • 172. ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK   KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٢K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K  ٣ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫• א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٤K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٩K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  ١٦ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٢٤ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫• א‬  ٢٥ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K  ٣٠ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫• א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٣١ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬  ٣٤ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K  ٤٠ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫• א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٤٤ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٤٨ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬ •  ٤٩ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٤٩ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٥٢ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٥٤ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٥٦ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٥٨ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٦٠ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K  ٦٢ K K K K K K K K K K K K K E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬ - ١٦٩ -
  • 173. ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٦٣ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٦٥ K K K K K K K K K K K K K  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٦٧ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K  ٦٨ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • ‫א‬‫• א‬  ٧٣ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٧٦ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K  ٧٧ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٧٨ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • ‫א‬‫• א‬  ٨٢ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  ٨٨ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫• א‬  ٨٩ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K  •  ٩٠ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ •  ١٢٧ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬  ١٢٨ K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬  ١٢٩ K K K K  ١٣٣ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬ •  ١٣٤ K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • ‫• א‬  ١٣٩ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫• א‬  ١٤١ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ١٦٨ K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬ - ١٧٠ -
  • 174.              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS