Energy And Life

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Energy And Life

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5
  2. 2. 5.1 CELLS AND CHEMISTRY <ul><li>CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN LIVING THINGS </li></ul><ul><li>1. Make or break chemical bonds </li></ul><ul><li>a. Dive all life activities in cells </li></ul><ul><li>b. METABOLISM refers to the </li></ul><ul><li> millions of chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li> taking place in a living thing </li></ul><ul><li> at any given moment </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>2. Chemical Reactions store or release energy </li></ul><ul><li>a. EXERGONIC </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Release energy (OUT) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy available to make </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>proteins and other </li></ul><ul><li> molecules </li></ul><ul><li> b. ENDERGONIC </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Store energy (IN) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EX. Formation of glucose in plants by photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>ACTIVATION ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>1. Minimum amount of energy required to </li></ul><ul><li> start a chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cells must carry out specific reactions </li></ul><ul><li> at certain times at normal temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>a. High temperatures </li></ul><ul><li> trigger many reactions </li></ul><ul><li> different reactions at once </li></ul><ul><li> (Too Random) </li></ul><ul><li>b. High temperatures </li></ul><ul><li> destroy cells </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>ENZYMES </li></ul><ul><li>1. Protein molecules </li></ul><ul><li>2. Biological catalysts </li></ul><ul><li>a. Lower activation energy allowing </li></ul><ul><li> reactions to occur quickly at normal </li></ul><ul><li> temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>b. EX. Without digestive </li></ul><ul><li> enzymes a single meal </li></ul><ul><li> would take at least 50 </li></ul><ul><li> years to digest </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>3. Enzymes are specific </li></ul><ul><li>a. Guide only one type of cell reaction </li></ul><ul><li>b. Named by adding the suffix “ ase ” to the </li></ul><ul><li> reactant </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cells contain 1000’s of different enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>a. Enzymes active at any given moment </li></ul><ul><li> control what is happening in the cell </li></ul><ul><li>b. Not all cells contain the same enzymes </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>ENZYME Protease Lipase REACTANT Protein Lipid
  7. 7. <ul><li>ENZYME ACTION </li></ul><ul><li>1. Enzymes speed reactions by binding to </li></ul><ul><li>specific molecules (SUBSTRATES) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>2. Substrates may be </li></ul><ul><li>a. Broken-up (hydrolysis) </li></ul><ul><li>b. Bonded (dehydration synthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Enzymes are NOT used up </li></ul><ul><li>a. Remain unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>b. Ready to be used again </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYMES </li></ul><ul><li>1. Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>a. Function in a certain temperature range </li></ul><ul><li>b. Enzymes shut down during high fever </li></ul><ul><li> 44º C (112º F) enzymes destroyed and </li></ul><ul><li> death usually results </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>2. Acidity (pH) </li></ul><ul><li>a. Cease too function if too high or low </li></ul><ul><li>b. Pepsin in stomach is an exception </li></ul><ul><li>3. Concentration of Enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>a. High concentration accelerates activity </li></ul><ul><li>b. Body’s way of controlling development </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>COENZYMES </li></ul><ul><li>1. Composed of Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>a. Only needed in small amounts </li></ul><ul><li>b. Reusable </li></ul><ul><li>2. Non-protein helpers </li></ul><ul><li>a. Temporarily join with enzyme to change </li></ul><ul><li> active site </li></ul><ul><li> b. Act as transfer agents </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 13. 5.2 ENERGY FOR CELLS <ul><li>CELLS USE ENERGY FOR ALL LIFE PROCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>1. Energy is stored in </li></ul><ul><li> chemical bonds of food </li></ul><ul><li>2. Photosynthesis: </li></ul>6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 + + CARBON DIOXIDE WATER GLUCOSE Simple Sugar OXYGEN
  13. 14. <ul><li>CELLS RELEASE ENERGY IN SMALL STEPS </li></ul><ul><li>1. Energy is released gradually by a series of </li></ul><ul><li> enzyme reactions (Biochemical Pathway) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Some given off as heat and the rest is stored </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY IS STORED IN ATP </li></ul><ul><li>1. ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) </li></ul><ul><li>a. Cell’s currency </li></ul><ul><li> Each ATP stores a small amount of energy Just enough for most cell reactions </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>b. Structure of ATP </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE ADEN INE RIB OSE THREE PHOSPHATES (Amino Acid) (Sugar) (Phosphoric Acid) A P P P
  15. 16. STRUCTURAL FORMULA of ATP
  16. 17. <ul><li>2. Releasing Energy from ATP </li></ul><ul><li>a. Released when bonds between phosphate </li></ul><ul><li> groups are broken </li></ul><ul><li>b. Forms ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) </li></ul><ul><li>c. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>A P P EXOTHERMIC ATP H 2 O + ADP P + ENERGY ENZYME +
  17. 18. <ul><li>d. Structure of ADP </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE ADEN INE RIB OSE TWO PHOSPHATES (Amino Acid) (Sugar) (Phosphoric Acid) A P P
  18. 19. STRUCTURAL FORMULA of ADP
  19. 20. <ul><li>3. ATP – ADP CYCLE </li></ul><ul><li>a. Reverse process reforms ATP </li></ul><ul><li>b. P is converted to high energy phosphate </li></ul><ul><li> and rejoins </li></ul><ul><li>c. Like </li></ul><ul><li> recharging </li></ul><ul><li> a battery </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>ENDOTHERMIC ATP H 2 O + ADP P + ENERGY + P ATP ADP + P E E
  20. 21. ATP - ADP CYCLE
  21. 22. 5.3 CELLULAR RESPIRATION <ul><li>Process of releasing energy from food </li></ul><ul><li>Takes place in cytoplasm and mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Results in the formation ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Can be completed with or without oxygen </li></ul>
  22. 23. GLUCOSE Glycolysis ATP Without O 2 PYRUVATE With O 2 ATP Fermentation Oxidative respiration
  23. 24. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION <ul><li>RESPIRATION WITHOUT OXYGEN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes place in the cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes 2 ATP start </li></ul></ul>2 ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 GLUCOSE a. Breaks down glucose b. Carried out by all living things 2C 2 H 3 OCOOH + 4H PYRUVATE (Pyruvic Acid) 1. GLYCOLYSIS
  24. 25. <ul><ul><li>Break down of organic molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li> without O 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into two kinds </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>2CH 3 CHOHCOOH + 4 ATP LATIC ACID <ul><ul><li>Occurs during muscle fatigue </li></ul></ul>2. FERMENTATION a. LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION
  25. 26. <ul><ul><li>Bacteria ferment milk (flavor of yogurt, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>buttermilk, cottage cheese, sour cream) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bact eria ferment cabbage to make sauerkraut </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. 2C 2 H 5 OH + 2CO 2 + 4 ATP ETHYL ALCOHOL <ul><ul><li>Yeasts in baking and brewing </li></ul></ul>CARBON DIOXIDE b. ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
  27. 28. AEROBIC RESPIRATION <ul><li>RESPIRATION WITH OXYGEN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts in the cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes 2 ATP start </li></ul></ul>2 ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 GLUCOSE a. Starts without oxygen b. Forms 2 PYRUVATE (Pyruvic Acid) 2C 2 H 3 OCOOH + 4H 1. GLYCOLYSIS
  28. 29. 2C 2 H 3 OCOOH + 4H + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 38 ATP a. Uses oxygen to break down Pyruvate b. Occurs in mitochondria Numerous in active cells EX. Brain and Muscle cells c. Complex organisms could not have evolved without O 2 2. OXIDATIVE RESPIRATION
  29. 30. GLUCOSE Glycolysis ATP Without O 2 PYRUVATE With O 2 ATP Fermentation Oxidative respiration
  30. 31. AEROBIC VS. ANAEROBIC 2 ATP 4 ATP 38 ATP 2 ATP AEROBIC RESPIRATION ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION +36 +2

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