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Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
Energy And Life
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Energy And Life

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  • 1. CHAPTER 5
  • 2. 5.1 CELLS AND CHEMISTRY
    • CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN LIVING THINGS
    • 1. Make or break chemical bonds
    • a. Dive all life activities in cells
    • b. METABOLISM refers to the
    • millions of chemical reactions
    • taking place in a living thing
    • at any given moment
  • 3.
    • 2. Chemical Reactions store or release energy
    • a. EXERGONIC
        • Release energy (OUT)
        • Energy available to make
    • proteins and other
    • molecules
    • b. ENDERGONIC
        • Store energy (IN)
        • EX. Formation of glucose in plants by photosynthesis
  • 4.
    • ACTIVATION ENERGY
    • 1. Minimum amount of energy required to
    • start a chemical reaction
    • 2. Cells must carry out specific reactions
    • at certain times at normal temperatures
    • a. High temperatures
    • trigger many reactions
    • different reactions at once
    • (Too Random)
    • b. High temperatures
    • destroy cells
  • 5.
    • ENZYMES
    • 1. Protein molecules
    • 2. Biological catalysts
    • a. Lower activation energy allowing
    • reactions to occur quickly at normal
    • temperatures
    • b. EX. Without digestive
    • enzymes a single meal
    • would take at least 50
    • years to digest
  • 6.
    • 3. Enzymes are specific
    • a. Guide only one type of cell reaction
    • b. Named by adding the suffix “ ase ” to the
    • reactant
    • 4. Cells contain 1000’s of different enzymes
    • a. Enzymes active at any given moment
    • control what is happening in the cell
    • b. Not all cells contain the same enzymes
    ENZYME Protease Lipase REACTANT Protein Lipid
  • 7.
    • ENZYME ACTION
    • 1. Enzymes speed reactions by binding to
    • specific molecules (SUBSTRATES)
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • 2. Substrates may be
    • a. Broken-up (hydrolysis)
    • b. Bonded (dehydration synthesis)
    • 3. Enzymes are NOT used up
    • a. Remain unchanged
    • b. Ready to be used again
  • 10.
    • FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYMES
    • 1. Temperature
    • a. Function in a certain temperature range
    • b. Enzymes shut down during high fever
    • 44º C (112º F) enzymes destroyed and
    • death usually results
  • 11.
    • 2. Acidity (pH)
    • a. Cease too function if too high or low
    • b. Pepsin in stomach is an exception
    • 3. Concentration of Enzyme
    • a. High concentration accelerates activity
    • b. Body’s way of controlling development
  • 12.
    • COENZYMES
    • 1. Composed of Vitamins
    • a. Only needed in small amounts
    • b. Reusable
    • 2. Non-protein helpers
    • a. Temporarily join with enzyme to change
    • active site
    • b. Act as transfer agents
  • 13. 5.2 ENERGY FOR CELLS
    • CELLS USE ENERGY FOR ALL LIFE PROCESSES
    • 1. Energy is stored in
    • chemical bonds of food
    • 2. Photosynthesis:
    6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 + + CARBON DIOXIDE WATER GLUCOSE Simple Sugar OXYGEN
  • 14.
    • CELLS RELEASE ENERGY IN SMALL STEPS
    • 1. Energy is released gradually by a series of
    • enzyme reactions (Biochemical Pathway)
    • 2. Some given off as heat and the rest is stored
    • ENERGY IS STORED IN ATP
    • 1. ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
    • a. Cell’s currency
    • Each ATP stores a small amount of energy Just enough for most cell reactions
  • 15.
    • b. Structure of ATP
    ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE ADEN INE RIB OSE THREE PHOSPHATES (Amino Acid) (Sugar) (Phosphoric Acid) A P P P
  • 16. STRUCTURAL FORMULA of ATP
  • 17.
    • 2. Releasing Energy from ATP
    • a. Released when bonds between phosphate
    • groups are broken
    • b. Forms ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate)
    • c.
    A P P EXOTHERMIC ATP H 2 O + ADP P + ENERGY ENZYME +
  • 18.
    • d. Structure of ADP
    ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE ADEN INE RIB OSE TWO PHOSPHATES (Amino Acid) (Sugar) (Phosphoric Acid) A P P
  • 19. STRUCTURAL FORMULA of ADP
  • 20.
    • 3. ATP – ADP CYCLE
    • a. Reverse process reforms ATP
    • b. P is converted to high energy phosphate
    • and rejoins
    • c. Like
    • recharging
    • a battery
    ENDOTHERMIC ATP H 2 O + ADP P + ENERGY + P ATP ADP + P E E
  • 21. ATP - ADP CYCLE
  • 22. 5.3 CELLULAR RESPIRATION
    • Process of releasing energy from food
    • Takes place in cytoplasm and mitochondria
    • Results in the formation ATP
    • Can be completed with or without oxygen
  • 23. GLUCOSE Glycolysis ATP Without O 2 PYRUVATE With O 2 ATP Fermentation Oxidative respiration
  • 24. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
    • RESPIRATION WITHOUT OXYGEN
      • Takes place in the cytoplasm
      • Takes 2 ATP start
    2 ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 GLUCOSE a. Breaks down glucose b. Carried out by all living things 2C 2 H 3 OCOOH + 4H PYRUVATE (Pyruvic Acid) 1. GLYCOLYSIS
  • 25.
      • Break down of organic molecules
    • without O 2
      • Divided into two kinds
    2CH 3 CHOHCOOH + 4 ATP LATIC ACID
      • Occurs during muscle fatigue
    2. FERMENTATION a. LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION
  • 26.
      • Bacteria ferment milk (flavor of yogurt,
      • buttermilk, cottage cheese, sour cream)
      • Bact eria ferment cabbage to make sauerkraut
  • 27. 2C 2 H 5 OH + 2CO 2 + 4 ATP ETHYL ALCOHOL
      • Yeasts in baking and brewing
    CARBON DIOXIDE b. ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
  • 28. AEROBIC RESPIRATION
    • RESPIRATION WITH OXYGEN
      • Starts in the cytoplasm
      • Takes 2 ATP start
    2 ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 GLUCOSE a. Starts without oxygen b. Forms 2 PYRUVATE (Pyruvic Acid) 2C 2 H 3 OCOOH + 4H 1. GLYCOLYSIS
  • 29. 2C 2 H 3 OCOOH + 4H + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 38 ATP a. Uses oxygen to break down Pyruvate b. Occurs in mitochondria Numerous in active cells EX. Brain and Muscle cells c. Complex organisms could not have evolved without O 2 2. OXIDATIVE RESPIRATION
  • 30. GLUCOSE Glycolysis ATP Without O 2 PYRUVATE With O 2 ATP Fermentation Oxidative respiration
  • 31. AEROBIC VS. ANAEROBIC 2 ATP 4 ATP 38 ATP 2 ATP AEROBIC RESPIRATION ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION +36 +2

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