Elizabeth treated the marriage issue as an aspect of foreign policy. Though she turned down Philip II's own offer in 1559, she negotiated for several years to marry his cousin Archduke Charles of Austria.
Elizabeth's foreign policy was largely defensive.
In 1585, she signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the Dutch to block the Spanish threat to England.
She knighted Francis Drake after his circumnavigation of the globe from 1577 to 1580, and he won fame for his raids on Spanish ports and fleets