Typhoid Fever


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Typhoid Fever

  1. 1. Typhoid Fever <ul><li>Amy Kim, Jiwon Cheong, Hijo Byeun, Allison Lee </li></ul>
  2. 2. Typhoid Fever <ul><li>A bacterial infection </li></ul><ul><li>It annually affect 21 million and kills 200,000 people worldwide </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes Jiwon Cheong Jiwon Cheong <ul><li>Caused by Bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly by Salmonella typhi bacteria, but also by Salmonella paeatyphi. </li></ul><ul><li>The way you can catch this is by drinking water or eating food that is contaminated by those types of bacteria. (Spread by a human carrier.) </li></ul><ul><li>An example of how it is spread is when a person who has the bacterium does not wash his or her hands well and then touches food that is later eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>Flies spread the disease also. </li></ul>
  4. 4. How it Causes Jiwon Cheong Jiwon Cheong <ul><li>First, the bacteria spread throughout the small intestine and then through the blood stream </li></ul><ul><li>Carried by white blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>The bacterium then enters organs, multiplies, and then travels to other organs using the bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>Every time the bacteria enters an organ, symptoms begin to appear, starting form when the bacteria enters the bloodstream </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bibliography Jiwon Cheong Jiwon Cheong <ul><li>1. &quot;Typhoid Fever.&quot; Penn State Hershey. 26 Oct. 2008 < http://www.hmc.psu.edu/healthinfo/t/typhoidfever.htm >. </li></ul><ul><li>2. &quot;Typhoid Fever.&quot; MedicineNet.com. 8 Oct. 1927 < www.medicinenet.com/typhoid_fever/article.htm >. </li></ul><ul><li>3. &quot;Typhoid Fever (cont.).&quot; MedicineNet.com. 27 Oct. 2008 < www.medicinenet.com/typhoid_fever/page2.htm >. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Symptoms Allison Lee Allison Lee <ul><li>The most common symptoms are headache, poor appetite, fever, lethargy, diarrhea, sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>Children often have diarrhea and vomitting </li></ul><ul><li>The tongue becomes dry and has white patches in the center. </li></ul><ul><li>People get a constant fever that is usually 39~40degree celsius. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin rashes(rose spots) occur. </li></ul><ul><li>usually on abdomen or chest at the second week of fever </li></ul><ul><li>later it may lead to inflammation of bones and ulceration of bowels </li></ul>
  7. 7. Symptoms Allison Lee Allison Lee <ul><ul><li>Lethargy later could bring prostration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain and discomfort are also common symptoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Untreatment could result in other symptoms such as weight loss, continue high fever, distended abdomen, meningitis, arthritis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some patients may experience relapse from the typhoid fever after one or two weeks. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Bibliography Allison Lee Allison Lee <ul><li>1. &quot;Typhoid Fever / Enteric fever: Symptom, Information, causes, Treatment of Typhoid Fever.&quot; Online health care guide - Health Care Information plan for family health, womens health, mens and child healt . 27 Oct. 2008 < http://www.diseasesatoz.com/typhoid-fever-symptom.htm >. </li></ul><ul><li>2. &quot;Typhoid Fever Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Vaccine.&quot; MedicineNet.com . 27 Oct. 2008 < www.medicinenet.com/typhoid_fever/page2.htm >. </li></ul><ul><li>3. &quot;Typhoid Fever Symptoms.&quot; Diseases Home Page . 27 Oct. 2008 < http://diseases.emedtv.com/typhoid-fever/typhoid-fever-symptoms.html >. </li></ul><ul><li>4. &quot;Typhoid fever: Symptoms.&quot; Mayo Clinic medical information and tools for healthy living - MayoClinic.com . 27 Oct. 2008 < http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/typhoid-fever/DS00538/DSECTION=symptoms >. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Transmission Hijo Byeun Hijo Byeun <ul><li>Who assists to this transmission? </li></ul><ul><li>People who have got the sickness, 3-5% become the carrier </li></ul><ul><li>Where in our world? </li></ul><ul><li>The disease will occur underdeveloped and yet developed countries such as Latin American, Asia and Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Where in our lives? </li></ul><ul><li>The bacteria grow in contaminated and spoiled food and especially drinking water. </li></ul><ul><li>Also it will be carried through animal and human’s excrements. </li></ul><ul><li>The bacteria will last for many days and weeks in the food that includes the dried Last for weeks in water or dried wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>The bacteria develop in the gallbladder, bile ducts and liver. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the white blood cell in the liver, spleen and the bone marrow that the bacteria will develop and later goes into the bloodstream. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Transmission Hijo Byeun Hijo Byeun <ul><li>To Whom </li></ul><ul><li>The disease will occur underdeveloped and yet developed countries such as Latin American, Asia and Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>The sickness will develop sporadically in a specific location and the older and younger generations. </li></ul><ul><li>The location of effects. </li></ul><ul><li>The location of a body that will be visible would be cramps in muscles and abdominal pain. </li></ul><ul><li>The signs that will appear would be in a patient’s state of consciousness also including stupor and coma. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Locations Amy Kim Amy Kim <ul><li>Developing nations </li></ul><ul><li>Common in most of the world “except in industrialized regions such as the United States, Canada, western Europe, Australia, and Japan” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asia, Africa, and Latin America have been especially at risk. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Bibliography Hijo Byeun Hijo Byeun <ul><li>1. “Typhoid Fever Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Vaccine on MedicineNet.com.” MedicinNet.com 27.oct.2008 < http://www.medicinenet.com/typhoid_fever/page2.htm#2howdo > </li></ul><ul><li>2. Typhoid Fever “Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine.” Published by the Gale group The Essay, Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt (author) Oct.27.2008< http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/common/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI=/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/typhoid_fever.jsp > </li></ul><ul><li>3. Typhoid Fever in Adults. “VisualDxHealth Worldwide Web” Oct.27, 2008 http://www.visualdxhealth.com/atlas/typhoidFever.htm </li></ul>
  13. 13. Prevention Amy Kim Amy Kim <ul><li>Wash your hands </li></ul><ul><li>hot soapy water </li></ul><ul><li>” before eating or preparing food and after using the toilet. “ </li></ul><ul><li>carry hand-sanitizer to wash hands when water isn’t availableAvoid drinking untreated water </li></ul><ul><li>drink only canned, bottled, or carbonated beverages, such as bottled water, wine, or bear </li></ul><ul><li>try to drink mostly carbonated bottle water </li></ul><ul><li>clean the outside of bottles and cans before you open. </li></ul><ul><li>avoid drinking beverages with ice </li></ul><ul><li>” Use bottled water to brush your teeth” </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid swallowing water while taking a shower </li></ul>
  14. 14. Prevention Amy Kim Amy Kim <ul><li>Avoid raw fruits and vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>(raw produce may have been washed with unclean water) </li></ul><ul><li>“ avoid fruits and vegetables that you can’t peel, especially lettuce_ </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps avoiding raw food entirely is safer </li></ul><ul><li>Choose hot foods </li></ul><ul><li>avoid food that stored at room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Try to stick to steaming hot foods </li></ul><ul><li>avoid street vendor foods as those are more likely to be contaminated </li></ul><ul><li>In hospitals, infected people are quarantined </li></ul>
  15. 15. Prevention Amy Kim Amy Kim <ul><li>General Sanitization </li></ul><ul><li>disinfection </li></ul><ul><li>pure water </li></ul><ul><li>pure milk </li></ul><ul><li>proper sewage </li></ul><ul><li>fly prevention </li></ul><ul><li>pure food </li></ul>&quot;Typhoid Fever And Its Prevention In Town and Country&quot;Virginia Health Bulletin vol. 3, #6, June 1911
  16. 16. Treatment Amy Kim Amy Kim <ul><li>Vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>injection of a single dose </li></ul><ul><li>given orally over a period of days </li></ul><ul><li>(Neither is guaranteed and require constant vaccinations) </li></ul><ul><li>Chloramphenicol used the popular drug </li></ul><ul><li>-stopped due to rare serious side effects </li></ul>
  17. 17. Treatment Amy Kim Amy Kim <ul><li>Treatment of antibiotics depend on geographical region </li></ul><ul><li>certain versions of the Salmonella bacteria from South Amerixa are resistance to some antibiotics) </li></ul><ul><li>removal of the gallbladder, the site of chronic infection </li></ul><ul><li>Travel clinics </li></ul><ul><li>injectable forms (Typherix or Typhim Vi) </li></ul><ul><li>oral form (Vivotif) </li></ul><ul><li>Admittance to hospital and loss of fluids and salt </li></ul>
  18. 18. Bibliography Amy Kim Amy Kim <ul><li>1.“ar119689291685303.jpg (JPEG Image, 500x500 pixels).” 27 Oct 2008 < http://activerain.com/image_store/uploads/3/0/3/5/8/ar119689291685303.jpg >. </li></ul><ul><li>2. “Are There Any Leaks In Your Dam? - Flickr 에서 사진 공유하기 !.” 27 Oct 2008 < http://www.flickr.com/photos/vcutmlsca/727207634/ >. </li></ul><ul><li>3. “BRN00030.jpg (JPEG Image, 288x216 pixels).” 27 Oct 2008 < https://www.epocrates.com/pillimages/BRN00030.jpg >. </li></ul><ul><li>4. “Disease Listing, Typhoid Fever, General Information | CDC Bacterial, Mycotic Diseases.” 27 Oct 2008 < http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/TyphoidFever_g.htm#Where%20in%20the%20world%20do%20you%20get%20typhoid%20fever >. </li></ul><ul><li>5. “dirty-water.jpg (JPEG Image, 400x300 pixels).” 27 Oct 2008 < http://holamun2.com/files/images/attachments/2007/08/dirty-water.jpg >. </li></ul><ul><li>6. “Rose+spots+in+typhoid+fever.jpg (JPEG Image, 390x253 pixels).” 27 Oct 2008 < http://lh3.ggpht.com/_TI33FeLVrRM/R7mr9V4Ux1I/AAAAAAAAAGA/UMRnFGigAfc/Rose+spots+in+typhoid+fever.jpg >. </li></ul><ul><li>7. “tetanusvaccine-717442.jpg (JPEG Image, 300x180 pixels).” 27 Oct 2008 < http://www.healthline.com/blogs/outdoor_health/uploaded_images/tetanusvaccine-717442.jpg >. </li></ul><ul><li>8. “Typhoid Fever Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Vaccine on MedicineNet.com.” 27 Oct 2008 < http://www.medicinenet.com/typhoid_fever/page3.htm >. </li></ul><ul><li>9. “typhoid_feverI.gif (GIF Image, 328x232 pixels).” 27 Oct 2008 < http://www.spmsd.co.uk/upload/public/docImages/1/typhoid_feverI.gif >. </li></ul><ul><li>10. “Typhoid fever: Prevention - MayoClinic.com.” 26 Oct 2008 < http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/typhoid-fever/DS00538/DSECTION=prevention >. </li></ul><ul><li>11. “060224_vaccine_300.jpg (JPEG Image, 300x286 pixels).” 27 Oct 2008 < http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Info/Press/gfx/060224_vaccine_300.jpg >. </li></ul>