Memory and Artificial Intelligence Learning, memory, and cognition in virtual worlds
Designing learning for artificial agents: Transferring kinaesthetic learners’ procedural skills in virtual environments to embodied artificial intelligent agents Research Focus
Human Memory Atkinson-Shiffrin model
A taxonomy of mammalian long-term memory systems (1980 – present) Squire, L.R. Memory and Brain, New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
History of implicit memory Descartes (1649), Maine de Biran (1804) Implicit memory is based on implicit learning. It is an unconscious, non intentional form of memory that is expressed through performance rather than recollection In our every day language we refer to explicit memory not implicit
Motor Skills Learning Learning how to ride a bike Where is it?
Cognitive Architecture Definition A Cognitive Architecture specifies the underlying infrastructure of an intelligent systems The short-term and long term memory that store content about the agent’s belief, goals and knowledge The representation and organisation of structures that are embedded in these memories The functional process that operate on these structures (performance and learning mechanisms) A programming language that lets one construct knowledge-based systems which embody the architecture’s assumptions.
Cognitive Architecture Taxonomy
Symbolic Architecture Symbolic AI: the hypothesis that all intelligent thoughts are symbolic manipulation.
Emergent Architecture Based on Subsymbolic artificial intelligence Used as a metaphor of the human brain, where cognitive activities of the brain are interpreted by theoretical concepts that have their origin in neuroscience
Comparison of Cognitive architectures
Key Design Properties for Cognitive Architectures
Soar (Symbolic) Investigating transfer learning in the urban combat testbed. Integrating soar with a real-time strategy game Efficiently implementing episodic memory. Interface Application
Memory structure in Soar
OpenCog Prime (Hybrid) Intelligent virtual agents for MMOGs, serious games and training simulations. Some natural language applications Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) Interface Application
OpenCog Prime Memory
Motor skills learning tests e.g. retention of procedural knowledge, procedural memory consolidation, procedural learning Pursuit-rotor learning Mirror tracing Serial Retention Time Task Pouring task
Serial Retention Task (RST) Subjects press keys as quickly as possible in response to stimuli that appear in various locations on the screen The dependent measure is reaction time
Why Second Life? Vs.
Cognitive Science in Virtual Worlds? Human interacting via the virtual world and run the experiment with the avatar pushing the buttons Too complex to design such a test in a Virtual World (limitation)? What hypothesis I can present? Cognitive relationship between a human user and his or her on-line representation Gardner Multiple Intelligence theory (1993): Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence (“body smart”)
How to bridge link from experimental results to an AI agent? ?