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Reptiles Life Science 15 4
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Reptiles Life Science 15 4

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  • 1. REPTILES 15.4 By. Chelsea Henry
  • 2. What is a reptile?
    • A reptile is an ectothermic vertebrate with dry scaly skin.
    • They have a thick dry waterproof skin covered with scales to prevent drying out and injury
  • 3. Variety in Reptiles
      • They vary in size, shape, and color
    • Reptiles live on every continent except Antarctica and in all the oceans except in polar regions
    • Reptile’s hearts have three chambers with the lower chamber partially divided
    • Oxygen rich blood coming from the lungs is kept separated from blood that contains carbon dioxide returning from the body
  • 4. Development of the Amniotic egg
    • Eggs of reptiles are fertilized internally inside the body of the female
    • After fertilization, the female secretes a leathery shell around the eggs and lays them on land
    • They lay amniotic eggs containing membranes to protect and cushion the embryo and to help get rid of waste
    • Small holes in the shell called pores, allow oxygen and carbon to be exchanged
    • The yolk is a large food supply for the embryo to use as it develops
  • 5. Origins of Reptiles
    • Reptiles first appeared in the fossil record nearly 280 million years ago
    • The earliest reptile was called cotylosaurs
    • The Mesozoic era, which lasted from 225 million to 65 million years ago is considered to be the ‘Age of the Reptiles’
    • Dinosaurs descended from early reptiles
  • 6. Modern Reptiles
    • Modern reptiles descended from cotylosaurs
    • Today there are three orders of reptiles; turtles; crocodiles and alligators; and lizards and snakes
  • 7. Turtles
    • Turtles can be found on almost every continent and in most of the worlds oceans
    • Turtles bodies are covered by a hard shell on bottom and top
    • Most can withdraw into their shell for protection
    • Turtles have no teeth and use their beaks to feed on insects, worms, fish and plants
  • 8. Crocodiles and Alligators
    • From the order crocodilia
    • Can be found in or near water in tropical climates
    • Crocodiles have long slender snouts and are aggressive
    • Crocodiles can attack large prey such as cattle
    • Alligators are less aggressive
    • They have broad snouts and feed on fish, turtles, and water birds
  • 9. Lizards and Snakes
    • Lizards and snakes make up the largest group of reptiles
    • Lizards have movable eyelids, external ears and clawed toes on each foot
    • They feed on other reptiles, insects, spiders, worms, and mammals
    • Snakes don’t have external ears or legs
    • Snakes hear vibrations through the ground
    • Sound waves in the ground are picked up by the lower jaw bone and conducted to the inner ear
    • From there, the snake brain interprets the vibrations
    • Snakes are carnivores
    • Some snakes are constrictors that wrap around prey and crush them to death others are venoms and poison their prey with a bite
    • Snakes feed on rodents and help control their population
  • 10. Maternal Care in Reptiles
    • Most reptiles show little or no care for their eggs once they’ve been laid
    • Turtles dig out a nest and leave
    • The development of the amniotic egg gave reptiles the ability to emerge from the egg fully formed
    • Crocodiles are very maternal. They watch over the hatchlings till they’re big enough to fend for themselves