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Birds Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 31-2Birds
    By. Chelsea Monet Murphy
  • 2. What is a Bird?
    Birds are reptile like animals that maintain a constant internal body temperature. They have an outer covering of feathers; two legs that are covered with scales and are used to walking or perching; and front limbs modified into wings.
  • 3. Feathers
    Feathers are made mostly of protein and develop from pits in the birds skin.
  • 4. The Evolution of Birds
    • Paleontologists agree that birds evolved from extinct reptiles.
    • 5. Evidence for this hypothesis is provided by many embryological, anatomical, and physiological characteristics shared by modern birds and living reptiles.
  • Forms, function, and Flight
    • Birds have a number of adaptations that enable them to fly. These adaptations include highly efficient digestive, respiratory, and circulatory systems; aerodynamic feathers and wings; strong, lightweight bones; and strong chest muscles.
  • Body temperature Control
    • Animals that can generate their own body heat which is called endotherms.
    • 6. Endotherms, which include birds , mammals, and some other animals, have high rates of metabolisms compared to ectoderms such As reptiles.
    How birds are related to reptiles <---------
  • 7. Feeding
    • Any body heat that a birds loses must be gained by eating food. The more food a bird eats, the more heat energy its metabolism can generate.
    • 8. In fact, the title “eats like a bird” it is quite misleading, because most birds are voracious eaters.
  • Also the birds feeding process
    • Birds that eat insects or seeds, however, have a muscular organ called the gizzard that helps in the mechanical breakdown of
    • The crop is located at the lower end of the esophagus. Food is stored and moistened in the crop as well.
  • Respiration
    • Birds have a unique and highly efficient way of taking in oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide.
    • 9. Air sacs: when a bird inhales, most air enters large posterior air sacs in the body cavity and bones.
  • The Systems
    Circulation: Birds have four chambered hearts and two separates circulatory loops.
    Excretion: The excretory system of many birds are similar to those of most living reptiles.
    Response: Birds have well-developed since organs, which are adaptations that enable them to coordinates the movement required for flight.
    Movements: Birds that can not fly,getaround mostly by walking, running and sometimes swimming.
    Reproduction: In birds, both male and female reproductive tracts open into the cloaca.
  • 10. Groups of birds
  • 11. Birds of prey
    Pelicans and their relatives
    Perching birds
    Cavity-nesting birds
    Herons and their relatives
    Ostriches and their relatives