Physics Chapter 1,2
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Physics Chapter 1,2

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Physics Chapter 1,2 Physics Chapter 1,2 Presentation Transcript

  • Physics Chapter 1and 2 Metrics, Scientific Notation, Significant Figures and Graphing
  • Physics The study of matter and energy and how they are related
  • Scientific Method
    • This is an organized way of determining how the universe works.
    • Steps
    • Recognize the problem
    • Make observations; facts are verified observations
    • Form a hypothesis – an educated guess
    • Devise experiments to test the hypothesis
    • Draw conclusions from your results and formulate a theory. A theory provides a logical explanation for a certain body of facts.
    • A theory can change with contradicting evidence.
  • Money Drop Demo
  • The Metric System
    • This is a scientific system of measurement. It is called the SI System or the International System of Measurement.
    • Based on powers of ten
    • This system was created by French scientists around 1795
  • Units of the Metric System
    • Fundamental Units – units used to describe the quantities of length, time, and mass
    • Time – seconds
    • Length – meter
    • Mass - kilograms
    • Derived Units – combinations of fundamental units
    • Examples: m/s, mph, or grams/cm 3
  • The Metric System The Comfort Zone m c d grams liters meters dk h k Milli Centi Deci Base Unit Deca Hecto Kilo
  • Non-Comfort Zone p n µ m c d grams meters liters dk H K M G T pico Nano Micro Milli Centi Deci Base unit Deca Hecto Kilo Mega Giga Tera
  • Scientific Notation
    • Scientific notation expresses a number in exponential form (m x 10 n ) where 1≤m<10 and n is an integer.
  • Examples of Scientific Notation
    • 145
    • 0.0078
    • 42.7 x 10 4
    • 89.6 x 10 -5
    • 1.45 x 10 2
    • 7.8 x 10 -3
    • 4.27 x 10 5
    • 8.96 x 10 -4
  • Accuracy vs Precision
    • Accuracy – extent to which a measured value agrees with an accepted value
    • Precision – degree of exactness to which a measurement can be reproduced, limited to the smallest division on a measurement scale
    • The known density of copper is 8.9 g/ml
    • Group A gets a value of 8.7 g/ml and Group B gets a value of 9 g/ml
    • Which Group is more accurate?
    • Group B
    • Which Group is more precise?
    • Group A
  • Significant Figures
    • Rules for Sig Figs
    • Non zero digits are significant
    • Final 0’s after the decimal are significant
    • Zeros between 2 sig figs are significant
    • Zeros used solely for spacing the decimal are not significant
  • Examples of Sig Figs
    • 1.03
    • 0.000034
    • 0.003
    • 0.3
    • 3.00
    • 30
    • 30.
    • 3
    • 300.10
    • 300.01
    • 3 sig figs
    • 2 sig figs
    • 1 sig fig
    • 1 sig fig
    • 3 sig figs
    • 1 sig fig
    • 2 sig figs
    • 1 sig fig
    • 5 sig figs
    • 5 sig figs
  • Add/Subtract/Multiply/Divide using Scientific Notation
    • Add/Subtract Rules
    • They must be like terms (same units and same power)
    • Always take care of the units first then get the powers to be the same (as one gets bigger the other gets smaller)
    • Multiply Rules
    • Multiply the bases and add the exponents.
    • Make sure you use the correct units (Ex: m 2 )
    • Divide Rules
    • Divide the bases and subtract the exponents
    • Make sure you use the correct units (m/s)
    • Only convert units that can be converted (Ex: meters cannot be converted to seconds, but they could be converted to cm)
  • Add/Subtract/Multiply/Divide using Scientific Notation and Sig Figs
    • When adding and subtracting round your final answer to the least precise value
    • Ex: 5.25 +120.1 =125.35, but our final answer is:
    • 125.4
    • When multiplying or dividing your final answer has the least number of sig figs as the values you are working with
    • Ex: 25 x 5.0 = 125, but our final answer is:
    • 130
  • Graphing
    • Independent Variable-the variable that is manipulated or can be changed: plotted on the x-axis
    • Dependent Variable-result of the independent variable: plotted on the y-axis
    • 3 Types of graphs
    • Linear Relationship (straight line) y=mx + b
    • Quadratic Relationship (parabola) y =kx 2
    • Inverse Relationship (hyperbola) y = k/x
  • Linear Graph Y = mx + b
  • Quadratic or Parabola Y = kx 2
  • Inverse or Hyperbola Y = k/x