Context: After the Civil War, the United States reorganized itself into one nation but disagreed on how this transformation would take place and on what roles its citizens, both black and white, would have in this new nation.
Thesis: With control of Congress, the Radical Republicans attempted to enforce a complete social, political and economic redesign of the South.
10% of men (male voters) take loyalty oath and renounce slavery
Wade-Davis Bill – Congress overrides the 10% plan, instead this bill demands that the majority of men take loyalty oath
Lincoln’s Pocket Veto – vetoes the Wade-Davis Bill
Approves Freedmen’s Bureau (Board of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands) (March 1865)
Andrew Johnson – impeached
Lenient plan - presidential pardons, state conventions, poor men can vote, repudiation of Confederate debt, no citizenship for freedmen
Conflict with Congressional Republicans over Black Codes
Vetoes – Civil Rights Bill of 1866 (asks federal government to protect individual rights against states’ indifference); and extension of Freedmen’s Bureau
Congress overrides vetoes
One of the many Freedmen's schools in the postwar South. These schools drew African Americans of all ages, who eagerly sought the advantages offered by education. (Library of Congress) Freedmen’s School – Part of Abraham Lincoln’s Legacy
Andrew Johnson , photographed by Mathew Brady in 1865. Johnson succeeded Lincoln to the presidency in April 1865. He was born in North Carolina and grew up in Tennessee; both were slave states. His battles with Congress over control of Reconstruction became legendary and ultimately led to his impeachment. (Library of Congress)
List to be created by HIST 1302 (Triad K)/Muñoz Start with the People – Identify the Individuals/Groups involved in Reconstruction Middle of the Road? Johnson, Lincoln, Women Suffragists, poor whites
Lynching accounted for thousands of deaths in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In this 1871 image, the KKK prepares to execute John Campbell, a prominent Republican. Fortunately, Campbell was later released. (National Archives)
The Ku Klux Klan issued this graphic warning "of the fate in store for" their opponents. Taken from the Tuscaloosa Independent Monitor, September 1, 1868. (Alabama Department of Archives and History, Montgomery, Alabama) Ku Klux Klan Warning
Ku Klux Klan A secret white supremacist organization, the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Tennessee in 1866. One of its major objectives was to terrorize African Americans prior to elections in order to keep them from voting. (Library of Congress)
Five Generations of a Slave Family Despite the abolition of slavery, African Americans continued to labor in the cotton fields as sharecropping emerged as a new labor system in the South.
A person trades labor for a share of the crop, which he in turn sells for a profit. This person has only labor to trade.
Tenancy or tenant farmer –
This person also trades labor for a share of the crop, but might have mules, tools, family and credit to help with the labor. This person receives a specific plot of land to live and work on usually with his or her family; thus, the use of the word “tenant.”
Crop-lien system –
A person secures credit from a merchant by using a future crop as security or lien to gain store credit. The crop-lien systems works like a mortgage but is more like gambling because the farmer is betting on the potential yield of the crop. Merchants who offer crop-lien credit did so at very high interest rates.
Chain Gangs –
Without a valid work contract, many freed blacks were arrested for violating vagrancy laws in the Black Codes and forced to work off jail sentences in chain gangs. The state then leased these chain-gangs to plantation owners.
Sharecropping soon replaced slavery in the South as the primary form of labor. In this photo, a white landowner weighs cotton grown by black sharecroppers. (National Archives) Sharecropping
Known for “Atlanta Compromise” First president, Tuskegee Institute “Separate but equal progress” “ Character is power.” Booker T. Washington Library of Congress Accommodator Black Responses to Reconstruction Submission Accommodation Resistance Known for 1884 railcar lawsuit (TN) Anti-lynching crusader, suffragist & international journalist (“Iola”) NAACP co-founder Ida B. Wells-Barnett Univ. of Chicago Library Resistor Known for “Double Consciousness” Professor, 1 st Af.Am. Ph.D., Harvard 1896 Called for “Ceaseless Agitation” NAACP co-founder W.E.B. DuBois Library of Congress Resistor
Disappointed with the failures of Reconstruction and fearful of the violence that surrounded them, many southern blacks migrated to Kansas and Oklahoma in the 1870s and 1880s. Comparing their trek to the biblical story of the Israelite's exodus from Egypt, they became known as the "Exodusters." [From Created Equal: A Social and Political History of the United States , Jacqueline. Jones, et.al., (New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006).] Exodusters http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/singleton.htm
This illustrations celebrates the election of Hiram Revels of Mississippi to the U.S. Senate and the elevation of other African Americans to positions of respect in the post-Civil War era. (Library of Congress) "From the Plantation to the Senate"