Chapter 33 Part 1

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Chapter 33 Part 1

  1. 1. Chapters 33 and 34: A REVIEW
  2. 2. Phylogeny of Extant Phyla
  3. 3. Phylum Porifera
  4. 4. Porifera Characteristics <ul><li>Sponges </li></ul><ul><li>Sole member of the Parazoa </li></ul><ul><li>Lack true tissues, simplest animals, no nerves or muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Choanocytes (collar cells)  “Unique flagellated cells that ingest bacteria and tiny food particles” </li></ul><ul><li>Choanocytes look a lot like Choanoflagellates </li></ul><ul><li>Amoebocytes transfer food to rest of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Adults sessile, larvae non-sessile </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cells tend to be totipotent (retain zygote’s ability to form the whole animal)” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Choanocytes
  6. 6. Amoebocytes
  7. 7. Anatomy of Simple Sponge
  8. 8. A More Complex Sponge
  9. 9. Phylum Cnidaria
  10. 10. Cnidaria Characteristics <ul><li>Hydras, Jellies, Sea Anenomies, Corals </li></ul><ul><li>Diploblastic, Carnivorous, Tentacled </li></ul><ul><li>Lack true muscles (since no mesoderm) </li></ul><ul><li>Possess nerve net </li></ul><ul><li>Cnidocytes  Cells that shoot stinging or grasping threads at potential prey </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrovascular cavity (only one opening) = Hydrostatic Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Polyps vs. Medusa </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cnidocytes
  12. 12. Cnidaria Anatomy
  13. 13. Class Hydrozoa
  14. 14. Class Scyphozoa
  15. 15. Class Anthozoa
  16. 16. A Cnidarian Life Cycle ( Obelia )
  17. 17. Phylum Platyhelminthes
  18. 18. Platyhelminth Characteristics <ul><li>Flatworms (including Flukes and Tapeworms ) </li></ul><ul><li>Bilaterally symmetrical acoelomates </li></ul><ul><li>Flat, unsegmented, single opening to gastrovascular cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Eyespots </li></ul><ul><li>No circulatory system (instead diffusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Tapeworms have no digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>Use ventral cilia to locomote across surfaces (but some can swim) </li></ul><ul><li>Ganglia-processing centers </li></ul>
  19. 19. Planarian Anatomy
  20. 20. Fluke Lifecycle
  21. 21. Tapeworm Anatomy
  22. 22. Phylum Rotifera
  23. 23. Rotifer Characteristics <ul><li>Rotifers </li></ul><ul><li>Very small animals </li></ul><ul><li>Possess complete digestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudocoelomates </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic, essentially serve as animals that approximate the protozoan niche </li></ul>
  24. 24. Phylum Nematoda
  25. 25. Nematode Characteristics <ul><li>Round worms (including pinworms & hookworms ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cuticle that keeps them from drying out </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudocoelamates—pseudocoelom is used as a hydrostatic skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>There are many free-living nematodes as well as parasitic nemotodes </li></ul><ul><li>Only longitudinal muscles—whip-like motions </li></ul><ul><li>Include Trichenella spiralis, Ascaris, and the filarial worm </li></ul>
  26. 26. A Roundworm
  27. 27. Phylum Mollusca
  28. 28. Mollusk Characteristics <ul><li>Snails, Slugs, Clams, Squids, Octopi, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Class Polyplacophora , Gastropoda , Class Bivalvia , Class Cephalopoda , etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic body plan built around a muscular foot , a visceral mass , and a mantle </li></ul><ul><li>Not all mollusks have a shell </li></ul><ul><li>Mollusks lack segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Most have an open circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Some (cephalopods) have a closed circulatory system </li></ul>
  29. 29. Class Polyplacophora (chitons)
  30. 30. Class Gastropoda
  31. 31. Class Bivalvia
  32. 32. Class Bivalvia
  33. 33. Class Cephalopoda
  34. 34. Closed vs. Open Circulation
  35. 35. Phylum Annelida
  36. 36. Annelid Characteristics <ul><li>Segmented worms (earth, marine, leeches) </li></ul><ul><li>Class Oligochaeta (I.e., earth worms), Class Polychaeta (e.g., clam worms), Class Hirudinea (I.e., leeches) </li></ul><ul><li>Protostomes, Body segments, Closed circulatory system </li></ul>
  37. 38. Class Oligochaeta
  38. 39. Class Polychaeta
  39. 40. Class Hirudinea
  40. 41. Phylum Arthropoda
  41. 42. Arthropod Characteristics <ul><li>Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Scorpions, Horseshoe crabs, Millipedes, Centipedes, Ticks, Mites, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Protostomes with segmented bodies, jointed appendages, and hard (chitinous) exoskeletons </li></ul><ul><li>Also have well-developed senses and open circulation (remember the terms hemocoel and hemolymph) </li></ul>
  42. 43. Subphylum Trilobita
  43. 44. Subphylum Cheliceriformes
  44. 45. Subphylum Crustacea
  45. 46. Phylum Echinodermata
  46. 47. Echinoderm Characteristics <ul><li>Sea stars (Class Asteroida), brittle stars (Class Ophiuroidea), sea urchin (Class Echinoidea), sea lilies (Class Crinoidea), sea cucumbers (Class Holothuroidea), sea daisies (Class Concentricycloidea) </li></ul><ul><li>Coelomates, Deuterostomes </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple arms, tube feet, water vascular system, calciferous endoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae are bilaterally symmetrical and adult forms appear to have radial symmetry (though they are not truly radial animals) </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>All 7,000 or so species of echinoderms are marine. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sea stars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brittle stars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sea urchins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sea lilies and feather stars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sea cucumbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sea daisies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sand dollars </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Starfish Anatomy
  49. 50. Tube feet
  50. 51. Phylum Chordata

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