qualitative research


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qualitative research

  1. 1. From Words to Numbers: How to Transform Qualitative Data in to Meaningful Quantitative Results** (Katharina J.Srnka, Sabine T.Koeszegi* SBR 59 Jan 2007 29-57) Presented by Hemalatha D Presented by Hemalatha D
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Designing qualitative –Quantitative Research </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for generalisation design-Research </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting integrated qualitative- Quantitative Research: An exemplary study applying the generalisation design </li></ul><ul><li>Summary And Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Abstract <ul><li>This paper address the request for discovery- oriented results in the business disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>A generalised model qualitative- quantitative research designs </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Content Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1.Introduction <ul><li>Development of new theories leads to the total body of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of mixed- methods </li></ul><ul><li>Target for the “niche” </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for absences of Q-Q research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incommensurability of research paradigms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of rigor in qualitative research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missing guidance for systematic combined qualitative research </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 2.Designing qualitative-quantitative research <ul><li>Davies (2003), suggests various types of combined research based on the work of Miller and Crabtree (1994). </li></ul><ul><li>Creswell (2003), further developed his earlier work. </li></ul><ul><li>Mayring (2001), a methodologist in the field of psychology, outlines four types of Q-Q (mixed) research designs. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>2.1 Traditional two studies research designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequential design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate study design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2.2 Integrated qualitative-quantitative methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q-Q, as a single research process– Elaboration model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalisation design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It accomplishes two goals, (i) provides insight in to the research problem and thus responds to many calls for discovery – oriented research . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assures scientific rigor and allows deriving generalisability from qualitative data. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. 3.Guidelines for generalisation research design <ul><li>3.1 A systematic blueprint for systematically analysing qualitative material </li></ul><ul><li>In a generalisation design study, qualitative material is inductively explored and then coded. </li></ul><ul><li>Applying a systematic procedure, new theory as well as a basis for quantitative analysis can be derived. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>The stages during which codeable units and the category scheme are created, reflected the qualitative process of content analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Stages 3 & 4 are time consuming, absorbs energy and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Reiterated by multiple cycles (indicated by back arrows). </li></ul><ul><li>The procedure followed in the content analysis of the data often is not explained might cause problems in the validity and reliability of their output. </li></ul>
  9. 11. 3.2 Criteria for “Good science’ <ul><li>Intersubjectivity of the process of qualitative research and the results it produces can be afforded by fulfilling the several requirements, (Kleining and Witt 2001), </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic design of data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Structured procedure and documentation of data analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-person involvement and qualitative checks </li></ul>
  10. 12. 3.3 output for qualitative content analysis – Input for quantitative analyses <ul><li>Qualitative material results in two major final outputs, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New theoretical insights-on particular field of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It provides coded data used subsequent quantitative analyses. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. 4.Conducting integrated Q-Q research:An exemplary study applying the generalisation design <ul><li>4.1 Research problem, design, and subjects </li></ul><ul><li>This study explored negotiation process conducted with the help of electronic negotiation systems (eNS). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The aims is to identify, i) To identify and understand particularities of electronic negotiations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To describe different negotiation behaviour applied by buyers and sellers in e- negotiations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The study was embedded in University of Vienna (Austria) & National Sun Yat-sen university, Kaohsiung (Taiwan ROC) </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>A total of 80 graduates students of business administration participated in the negotiation experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects were paired so that one negotiator was European and the Taiwanese. </li></ul><ul><li>The roles (buyer/seller) were assigned randomly. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on four issues: price, quality, delivery and payment </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation period – 3 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects registered online for the experiment at a website ,where they have to fill in a pre- negotiation questionnaire in which they provided user- specific information. </li></ul><ul><li>All communications were logged by the systems. </li></ul>
  13. 15. 4.2 Qualitative Analysis: following the stages of the blueprint <ul><li>S 1&2: Data sourcing and transcription </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data was in HTML format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcription and translation was necessary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S 3:Unitization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding of messages and further analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on content and various styles of e-com. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chosen thought unit conveys one idea communicated by the negotiator to the opponent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding is based on linguistic studies. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>1)intercoder reliability- measures were calculated. </li></ul><ul><li>Guetzkow’s U- which measures the reliability of the number of units identified by two independent coders, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U= (O 1 -O 2 ) / (O 1 +O 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S 4: Categorisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deductive- inductive method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bargaining Process Analysis II- to development of adequate categories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categories such as, “text-specific units”, ‘private communication” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Ten auxiliary categories named ‘other’, one representing main category and other nine being sub- categories in each of the other main categories. </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary categories functioned as “collection tanks”. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Sarcasm, negative emotions. </li></ul>
  16. 20. <ul><li>Using 56 categories and their sub categories, the two coders independently assigned a single code to each unit. </li></ul><ul><li>For main coding round, Cohen’s kappa to check intercoder reliability. </li></ul><ul><li>Kappa, suggested by Brennan and Prediger (1981). </li></ul><ul><li>Intercoder consistency matrix and applied it to both the main and sub- category, for demonstrative purpose.sss </li></ul>
  17. 22. Stage 5:
  18. 25. <ul><li>To further contribution, again the identified categories has been tested using Grounded theory- approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the content of the coded data, 9 categories were condensed in to 3 super-categories: “ negotiation specific”, “communication and “relationship”. </li></ul><ul><li>These categories reflect Content, people, and process. </li></ul>
  19. 26. 4.3 Quantitative analysis
  20. 27. <ul><li>S 1: Descriptive analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency analysis of the categories were identified. </li></ul><ul><li>By applying super- categories developed earlier, resulted in vast majority of negotiation behaviour is negotiation specific (content specific), 2 relationship categories (people dimension & Communication (Process related. </li></ul>
  21. 28. S 3: Exploratory analysis
  22. 29. Stage 3: Hypothesis development and testing
  23. 31. 4.4 Discussion and cross-validation <ul><li>By examining various qualitative procedure of content analysis with subsequent quantitative analyses, various types of negotiation behaviour, different negotiation styles, as well as particular impact on negotiation success has been evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative analysis based on coded data indicates that individuals tend to strategically combine various types of behaviour in to complex negotiation styles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactical+ persuasive+ task-oriented behaviour= Offensive style. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It was found that impressive congruence exists when cross- validating the findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation style (eNs) , were able to identify by applying Q- Q research designs. </li></ul>
  24. 32. 5. Summary & Conclusions <ul><li>Discovery-oriented research and dominant paradigm in the business and management sciences that focused on theory and derived a statistical result. </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of Q-Q– contributed new theoretical findings. </li></ul><ul><li>To enrich body of knowledge, good linkage between Q-Q is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Generalisation model has been highlighted as a promising research design for discovery. </li></ul><ul><li>The blueprint for deductive- inductive procedure which transforms qualitative data in to quantitative analysis gives a systematic approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Important issues like quality decisions have been included. </li></ul><ul><li>The unique things is, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of unitization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categorization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding as individual stages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These provide a valid and reliable data. </li></ul>
  25. 33. My Views... <ul><li>Irrespective of the field of interest this article will be a strong support for the research design part. </li></ul><ul><li>The professors has shown a systematic approach for a research to be successful. </li></ul><ul><li>It creates a strong “motivation” to the reader that if we have strong will towards the accomplishment of the work....... </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>........nothing can stop as a obstacle. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 34. <ul><li>Best of Luck!!! </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>