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Mechanisms Of Injuries2010show1(2)
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  • 1. Mechanisms of Injuries
    2/16/2010
    1
  • 2. No matter how much time is spent on injury prevention sooner or later an injury occurs
    Either acute or chronic in nature
    Acute injuries
    Result of trauma
    Chronic
    Caused by repetitive, overuse activities
    2/16/2010
    2
  • 3. Injury mechanism
    Mechanics of injuries
    Forces applied to the body
    different angles,
    over different periods of time.
     
    Different tissue types
    respond differently to applied forces.
     
    NOT an all or none Phenomenon.
    injuries range in severity or grades.
    2/16/2010
    3
  • 4. The Body Responds to Laws of Physics
    Movement through Space
    Accomplished by inefficient levers
    The long levers must overcome considerable resistance.
    inertia
    muscle viscosity
    More than 1/2 of the body's weight is in the upper body –
    supported by rather thin bones.
    center of gravity is relatively high in the human -
    requires energy to maintain posture.
    Body can compensate
    body may be lowered by widening stance to decrease gravity.
    2/16/2010
    4
  • 5. Sports Science
    2/16/2010
    5
  • 6. Force and Its Effect
    Force
    Pushing or a pulling acting on a body.
    Numerous forces act on our bodies.
    Gravity
    Terrain
    Weather
    Other bodies
    Equipment
    Balls
    Bats
    Clubs, etc
    Bodies adjust when internal forces are produced by muscles.
    body absorbs forces
    body responds and adjusts
    Two potential effects
    acceleration, or change in velocity
    deformation, or change in shape
    YOU TUBE VIDEOhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P4PrTKwqeHY
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A_wnt84iyMk
    2/16/2010
    6
  • 7. ProtectiveDevices
    Musculature serves as a shock
    Muscle - affect movement of an organ or body part.
    Cartilage pads - absorb shock.
    Ligaments - Maintains continuity of joints - bone to bone
    Muscle tone - Strength - again - the more flexible the muscle the lesschance of disruption
    Tendon - Muscle to bone
    2/16/2010
    7
  • 8. Protective Devices
    2/16/2010
    8
  • 9. Five Primary Tissue Stressors
    Tension=
    Force that Pulls or Stretches Tissue
    Stretching=
    Beyond Yield Point
    Rupturing of soft tissue
    Compression=
    Crushes Tissue
    Shearing
    Force that moves across the parallel organization of tissue
    Abrasions, Blisters
    ACL / PCL Tears
    Tibia shears
    Bending=
    Known as three point bending
    2/16/2010
    9
  • 10. Tension
    2/16/2010
    10
  • 11. RupturedTissue
    2/16/2010
    11
  • 12. Compression
    2/16/2010
    12
  • 13. What is this????????
    2/16/2010
    13
  • 14. Shearing
    2/16/2010
    14
  • 15. More Shearing
    2/16/2010
    15
  • 16. 2/16/2010
    16
    FRACTURES
    Interruptions in the continuity of a bone.
    Classified as:
    Simple
    break in a bone
    Compound
    extended through the outer skin layers,
    Fractures are one of the most serious hazards
    Causing factors: 
    Direct blow
    Torsion action
    Muscle / tendon stress causing avulsion fractures.
  • 17. Bending
    2/16/2010
    17
  • 18. OUCH !!!!!!!! Uhh- Yeah It’s Broken“ I don’t think that I’ll be going out tonight”
    2/16/2010
    18
  • 19. Healing of a Fracture
    Generally require immobilization for some period
    Approx. 6 weeks for bones of arms and legs
    3 weeks for bones of hands and feet
    Fracture healing requires osteoblast activity to lay down bone and form callus
    Following cast removal, normal stresses and strains will aid in healing and remodeling process
    Osteoclasts will be called on to assist in re-shaping of bone in response to normal stress
    2/16/2010
    19
  • 20. Stress Fractures
    No specific cause but with a number of possible causes
    Overload due to muscle contraction, altered stress distribution due to muscle fatigue, changes in surface, rhythmic repetitive stress vibrations
    · Switching to a harder running surface. · Rapid increase of speed or distance. · Returning to intense activity after a layoff. · Inadequate rest and excessive stress. · A change in footwear without proper adjustment period. · Improper shoe selection to accommodate foot type.
    Begins with a dull ache and progressively becomes worse over time
    Initially pain during activity and then progresses to pain following activity
    Early detection is difficult, bone scan is useful, x-ray is effective after several weeks
    Due to osteoblastic activity
    If suspected – stop activity for 14 days
    Generally does not require casting
    2/16/2010
    20
  • 21. 2/16/2010
    21
  • 22. Predisposing Factors
    Congenital (heredity) or Acquired
    Kinesiological (way body moves through space).
    Pre-season physical examinations are very important.
    Detect abnormalities
    Injuries not treated or Mistreated
    Nature of the Beast
    2/16/2010
    22
  • 23. Types of Injuries and How they occur
    Contusions, Bruises, Hematoma
    By impact -
    Characterized by:
    local tenderness
    Swelling
    Discoloration
    Disabling
    I.E. vastusmedialis will limit walking ability "dead leg"
    2/16/2010
    23
  • 24. STRAINS
    Involves Muscles or adjacent tendon.
    referred to as a "PULL“
    abnormal muscular contraction
    imbalance between agonist and antagonist muscles - Hams vs Quads
    Fatigue
    Characterized by degrees of disruption of the muscle/tendon fibers
    A strain can range
    Graded as 1st, 2nd, 3rd or
    Mild, Moderate, Severe
    Similar to contusion bleeding is present and there may be some discoloration
    If severe - defect can be seen - Achilles "Roll Up"
    2/16/2010
    24
  • 25. Explanation of Degrees
    2/16/2010
    25
  • 26. SPRAINS
    Over-extension of a joint.
    Most common
    Disabling injuries.
    Forced beyond its normal anatomical limits.
    Microscopic and gross pathologies occur.
    Injury to:
    Ligaments
    articular capsule
    synovial membrane
    Effusion (spreading) of blood and synovial fluid into the joint cavity
    inflammation (joint swelling)
    point tenderness
    Laxity of joint
    2/16/2010
    26
  • 27. 2/16/2010
    27
  • 28. Dislocations
    Disruption between the two articular surfaces.(Fingers and shoulders mostly)
    Divided into two classes
    Subluxations- partial dislocation wherein an imcompletet separation between 2 articulating bones occurs.
    Luxations- complete dislocations; total disunion of the bones.
    Characterized by
    Loss of limb function;
    Obvious Deformity
    Swelling and point tenderness are immediately present
    2/16/2010
    28
  • 29. 2/16/2010
    29