Emergency Situations and Injury Assessment Time is Critical – There is no room for Uncertainty or Error
Procedures to follow in an Emergency Be: C - Calm O - Orderly O - Organized L – Logical /Level headed Survey the Situation Good observational skills Looking at skin color, deformities Listening to heart/lung sounds Touching skin for temperature Smelling breath or skin infection Assess extent of the person’s injuries Mechanism History
Here is a urine color chart to help you determine your hydration status. Your urine color should be between #1 and #3 throughout the day.
Determine Nature and Severity Nature of injury Cardiopulmonary Trauma Medical Severity Mild, Moderate, Severe, Critical Scale rated by athlete 1 – 10 Symptoms and Signs
Emergency Action Plan (EAP) Prime concern is maintain Cardiovascular, and Central Nervous System function Sports setting is the Initial evaluation of an injured athlete. Done rapidly and accurately Staff must act reasonably and prudently Cohesive team Develop separate EAP’s according to facilities Baseball/softball field Soccer/football field Emergency equipment available for each sport Football vs. cross country Policies and procedures regarding removal of equipment.
Phones are readily accessible Calling 911 Caller must provide important information Type of emergency/suspected injury Present condition of the athlete Current assistance being given Location of telephone being used Exact location of emergency/how to enter location Know policies and procedures of institution Contact: Campus police – direct paramedics/fire engine Health services – If P.E. student Administrators – Director of Athletics Assign someone to accompany athlete to hospital Carry contact information for ALL athletes Be aware of coaches/spectators/family members health TEAMWORK Individuals providing emergency care MUST cooperate and act professionally
Emergency Action Plan Procedures Organization _________________________________ Sport _____________ Team____________ Year ______ In the event of a medical emergency the on-duty physician, certified athletic trainer, or paramedic will administer immediately emergency aid to the injured person. If none of the above are present, then the head coach or designated first aider will assumer responsibility. The designated person will immediately initiate the Emergency Medical System (EMS) The designated care provider will remain with the injured athlete at all times Designated person use cell phone/land line and dial 911 or other predetermined number Identify self and exact location State the nature of the injury Instruct emergency vehicle exactly where and how to reach area Street access Entry gate Building location Building entry Stay on the line until operate disconnects Return to injury scene to be available for additional assistance Designated person meet the vehicle at the gate entrance. This person will have all necessary gate/door keys Designated person meet the vehicle at the gate entrance. This person will have all necessary gat/door keys/combinations. Designated person contact security for crowd control and other needs Designated person immediately call parents/guardian and advise them of circumstances, then call the designated administrator and advise circumstances Designated person document all information relating to injury and emergency response. Designated person accompanies the injured athlete to the hospital and remains until parents/guardian or designated administrator arrives
EAP Designated Roles NAME: _______________ Attends injured athlete, controls scene _______________ Calls 911 or other predetermined number _______________ Supervises team _______________ Call security and initiates crowd control _______________ Meets paramedics at gate and guides to injured athlete _______________ Gives emergency card to paramedics _______________ Accompanies injured athlete to hospital Procedures for Calling 911
The major cross streets are: _______________ and ___________________ Best entrance route is: _____________________
There is an athlete with a ____________________ injury.
The athletes name is: __________________
I am calling from:____________________ (phone #)
_________________ will meet the ambulance/paramedics at: _______________
The athlete is located at: _____________________, which is on the _______________ side of the facility
Do Not end the call until the operator hangs up first.
Primary Survey Systematic assessment /evaluation Check your watch Level of consciousness (LOC) Conscious Introduce yourself Ask their name, Know what happened Helps assess state of mine/orientation Unconscious Airway Breathing Circulation Provides direction the decision making process
The Secondary Survey Head to Toe physical assessment to determine extent of illness or injury. Approximately 2 min. DO NOT RUSH Determines if injured athlete can/cannot leave field, with assistance or if EMS is required. Keep anyone who doesn’t need to be there away Ask questions about the injury/illness Helps alleviate anxiety Checks orientation of athlete
HOPSMethodical Injury Assessments History: Based on subjective findings How did the injury happen? When did it happen? Has this ever happened? Observation: Based on objective findings Compare uninvolved side (uninvolved checked 1st) Look for swelling, deformities, discoloration Watch how athletes moves Palpation: Athlete points to area that hurts Feel for deformities, spasms, pulse, breaks in skin/tissue, skin temp. Special Tests: Check Active Range of Motion (AROM_ Passive Range of Motion (PROM) Test muscular strength (resistive testing) If assessment or treatment is beyond your abilities Activate EMS or refer to physician
Body Planes and Directional Terms: Important to keep in the terminology used in health care to describe different areas of the body. Imaginary lines are used to separate the body into sections. Must be communicated to other emergency personnel