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  • 1. Sustainability refers to development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations to meet their own needs. It is a system that can evolve indefinitely toward greater human utility, greater efficiency of resource use and a balance with the environment which is which is favorable to humans and most other species. (Brundtland 1987)Sustainability is about realizing resource potential, Sustainable development of renewable natural resources implies respecting limits to the development process, even though these limits are adjustable by technology. The sustainability of technology may be judged by whether it increases production, but retains it other environmental and other limits. (Hugh Synge 1993) The aim of this essay is to describe and discuss the challenges faced by the environment today are Global Warming, Energy Conservation, Water Conservation, Waste Management and Air Pollution with respect to two countries namely India and Australia.India, known as the republic of India is situated in South Asia. It is seventh largest country in area with 3,166,414 sq kms area and the second most populous country in the world with 1,103,371,000 people. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east, with capital New Delhi. Australia, known as Commonwealth of Australia is situated in Southern Hemisphere Comprising Mainland as world’s smallest continent with area of 7,692,208 sq km and population of 21,610,000 with capital Canberra. Energy is provided so easily for the developed world that thought is rarely given to where it comes from, whether it will run out or whether it is harming the environment. Energy is also cheap enough that little serious attention is given to it.World`s energy comes from the burning of fossil fuels, which generates a large proportion of the greenhouse gas emissions in to the atmosphere.(John Houghton 2004) According to (Kirk, p 47, 1996) the energy conservation management is the “Reduction in the amount of energy consumed in a process or system, or by an organization or society, through economy, elimination of waste, and rational use”. (Sharma, 2004) Energy managing methods like using CFL lamps, radiators with individual thermostats, insulation of roof and wall cavities, fuel efficient transport and so on. If a large portion of the infrastructure is inflexibly built and run on non-conventional sources of energy like the solar and the wind energy, a lot of fuel and water could be saved. Hospitality Industry consumes tremendous amounts of energy to meet guest needs. The Environmental Protection Agency has calculated that the cost savings associated with a 10 per cent improvement in energy efficiency is equivalent to increasing average daily room rates by 62 cent.(Express Hospitality) Efficient use of energy not only helps protect the environment, but also helps in better margins for the hospitality sector. The benefits of an energy-efficient hotel include greater guest comfort, extended life of equipment, lower operating costs, a cleaner environment and significant financial rewards. Therefore hotels are taking crucial steps to deal with it for example The Lotus Suites do not have switches made of plastic, which are harmful to the Environment. Instead they have a Master Control Panel, which is made of reprocessed plastic. Within the room the guest can participate in the energy saving programme by pressing the ECO BUTTON on the Master Control Panel placed alongside the bed. When the guest presses this button the air-conditioned temperature increases by 2 degrees making the room a little warmer. This information is brought down by the Building Management System showing the number of guest's participating in this program. To reduce energy consumption, Holiday Inn, Flinders is working on improving lighting types, and installing timers and sensors so that lights are only on when needed, introducing a daylight
  • 2. lighting control in bus bay and car park entry, installing instant domestic gas hot water system. The hotel has appointed an environmental committee with representatives from all departments which meet on a fortnightly basis and audit current initiatives. The Environmental Committee explores new opportunities to reduce the hotels environmental impact. The Alto Hotel, Bourke`s energy consumption of 37 mega joules per guest per night is far below the best practice target of 140 mega joules – an amazingly small amount, demonstrating the benefits of their energy conservation initiatives The hotel has on trial 2 watt LED light globes as reading lights, which use 90% less electricity than incandescent light globes and last 22,000 hours longer. If they are successful the hotel will introduce them as reading lights throughout the property. The Radisson on Flagstaff Gardens has made an effort to reduce energy usage, including switching off lights in unused areas, changing to energy efficient fluorescent lighting. they are also encouraging awareness amongst their guests with three new initiatives, which are purchasing 10% of their energy from renewable Green Power sources. Introducing an optional carbon offset on their bills, publishing an environmental newsletter, discussing the hotel’s initiatives and running a competition to find further ways to improve energy efficiency, with the best receiving a free night and breakfast at the hotel. They have achieved a 70% reduction in energy usage, which means that this hotel is performing at best practice standards for energy efficiency in hotels. by working to reduce energy usage, the hotel has kept its electricity bill down, even while electricity prices have gone up. Our Earth seems to be unique among the other known celestial bodies. It has water, which covers three-fourths of its surface and constitutes 60-70 wt % of the living world. Water regenerates and is redistributed through evaporation, making it seem endlessly renewable.Waste Management is “Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment”. (Englande and Jin, 2006) Hotels consume big amount of water in different activities like in guest rooms, public toilets, irrigation, kitchen, Laundry, Public Amenities and swimming pool.The Lotus Suites in its endeavor to become a zero garbage hotel has taken various measures to reduce the waste being generated. To reinforce this they have undertaken the project of vermiculture on hotel site. For this purpose they have built 9 bins on site wherein all the kitchen garbage is diverted for the process. This endeavor of hotel has helped them to achieve their mission; the second benefit of this act is that they are not adding to the waste stream of our city. They have added some operational practices like the hangers used in guestroom are made from Sawdust, the fruits are served on request so as to avoid wastage, In keeping environment theme in mind at the hotel use Herbal products, which are manufactured under an Ayurvedic license; these products are not tested on animals and do not contain any animal fat. In their strive to reduce waste they have reusable cloth laundry bags instead of the standard paper or plastic bags as in other hotels, in which the guests could send the clothes for laundering and the same will be delivered in reusable cane baskets wrapped in muslin cloth. A laundry button is incorporated in the master control panel, eliminating the use of laundry pick up tent cards.The Holiday Inn, Flinders has developed a comprehensive environmental policy to ensure the hotel’s continued long-term environmental improvement and best practice. The hotel has introduced significant waste reduction initiatives like working with suppliers to reduce wasteful packaging, working with staff and guests to increase paper, cardboard, plastic and metal recycling and working with charities to redistribute partially used toiletries and linen. Through these simple changes, the Holiday Inn on Flinders has now reduced its annual waste by 80 per cent to 4.3 litres per guest. By investing in signage and bins of less than $1,000, spending time on getting the support of staff and changing pick up and delivery
  • 3. processes, the hotel will make a saving of $11,400 per year on waste management. The hotel is currently looking at the introduction of dual bins in guest rooms and function areas which will enable customers to separate recyclables so that paper, cans and bottles are not going to landfill. The Alto Hotel, Bourke has developed some great ways to vastly minimise their waste output by installing body wash, moisturiser, shampoo and conditioner dispensers in showers rather than using disposable containers. All toiletries used are biodegradable, using dual chamber eco-bins in all rooms where guests can sort their recyclables, processing all organic waste on the premises, the worm castings being used as fertiliser, using recycled paper and toner cartridges in the offices, using recycled toilet paper and facial tissues.The Radisson, Flagstaff Gardens has been a part of the Savings in the City program The hotel was provided with a water and waste audit and organised their own energy audit separate to the program. They believe that environmental sustainability is an increasingly important issue for their guests, and that in time guests will demand that the hotel takes action to reduce its environmental footprint. Through their waste audit, the hotel identified a variety of ways in which they could reduce the amount of waste they send to landfill. The hotel responded by increasing their capacity to recycle, particularly cardboard and paper. Attaining a Waste Wise accreditation is helpful from a financial and a social responsibility point of view, as both the clients and the staff believe increasing environmental sustainability is important. The Lotus Suites believes in the three quot;Rquot; theory of reduce, reuse, recycle. Water being one of the earth's most precious resources and vital to life they have tried to put this theory in practice by taking special care to conserve this resource by employing energy efficient PL lamps are used which provide as much light as ordinary bulbs, yet consume substantially less energy The mini bars used in the guestrooms by us save up to 40% energy, as it is equipped with fuzzy logic which senses the load inside the refrigerator and cools it accordingly. Also an added advantage is that these mini bars are CFC free. During the start, the motor acceleration is controlled by gradually increasing the motor current to a reference current ramp limit. In the energy saving mode the applied voltage is adjusted by sensing that the motor current is The heat generated from the air conditioners provides hot water to the guestrooms, laundry, toilets. ITC Maurya has undertaken a number of steps towards maintaining a greener and healthier environment. The hotel undertook a host of multi-faceted programmes to not only improve its own environment, but also to propagate environmental causes. Their guiding principle is ‘Reduce, Reuse and Recycle’. The hotel has its own program, encompassing local participation, creating awareness among employees and internal conservation, through energy-saving gadgets and environment-friendly material. ITC Maurya consumed an average of 1300 kilolitres of water, per day, some ten years ago. The average consumption was down to 800 kilolitres, until a couple of years ago. Today, the hotel consumes 625 kilolitres of water on an average and is striving to bring the consumption level down to an ambitious 450 kilolitres of water per day, by the end of the current year. There was a time when the chillers, one of the major consumption areas in the hotel, used to consume 300 kilolitres of water, which has now been brought down to 150 kilolitres. The Holiday Inn, Flinders has invested in water saving devices in guest rooms and back-of-house including installation of flow restrictors on taps to slow the flow of water and therefore prevent excess water use, signs to encourage guests to save water by re-using towels and sheets, rather than washing them after just one use, signs also advising guests of the range of environmental initiatives and encouraging guest participation.
  • 4. The Alto Hotel, Bourke has incorporated a range of water saving techniques, including aerators on all taps and shower heads, flow restrictors on all taps and showerheads, dual flush AAA rated water efficient toilets, toilet cisterns that use 6 litres full flushes and 3 litres half flushes, push down plugs in bathrooms, conical hand basins that don’t require as much water to fill, condenser front loading washing/dryer machines and rain water tanks on the Hotel’s roof that provide water for gardening, cleaning out laneways, and carports. In response to the water audit the Radisson, Flagstaff Gardens has made improvements like egg timers were put in showers to encourage guests to have shorter showers with signage inviting guests to monitor their time in the shower, flow restrictors were placed on taps to slow the flow of water and therefore prevent excess water use, guests are encouraged to let the hotel know if sheets and towels don’t need to be washed. Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particular matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere.The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet earth.( Sandak, Cass 1990) Ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Therefore the Lotus Suites have taken steps to reduce air pollution by installing what is known as Air Scrubbers in the boiler outlet connected with the chimney. The boiler produces high amount of carbon dioxide fumes which passes through the scrubber and is emitted through the chimney. This is because when the fumes pass through the scrubber water is sprayed and the carbon dioxide dissolves and settles down in the shower traps and clear fumes are emitted in the air. The consumption of water is 300-600 litres per hour for 1000-meter cube of gas, reducing the fume gas temperature from 250 degrees C to 50 degrees C. The water utilized in the air scrubber is recycled water from Sewage treatment plant. Similar type of equipment installed in the kitchen exhaust system is called air washer which works on the same principles Facilities Management is a key function in managing resources, support services and working environment to support the organizations core business in both the long and short term”. (Chotipanich, 2004) therefore it should designed in such a way process in which facility managers make optimum use of resources available, takes into consideration the factors such as waste management, water management and energy conservation. Buildings should be designed in such a way, so that maximum utilization of space will be done keeping cost factor an essential part. Ibis Hotel ISO 14001 certification - In 2004, Ibis became the world’s first hotel chain to have secured the ISO 14001 environmental certification. This environmental certification – the most recognized worldwide – validates corporate management policies regarding waste reduction and water and energy consumption. Already one third of Ibis hotels have been certified ISO 14001. The Ibis brand has set its own target of having 75% of its hotels certified by 2010 Ibis Hotel ISO 14001 certification - In 2004, Ibis became the world’s first hotel chain to have secured the ISO 14001 environmental certification. This environmental certification – the most recognized worldwide – validates corporate management policies regarding waste reduction and water and energy consumption. Already one third of Ibis hotels have been certified ISO 14001. The Ibis brand has set its own target of having 75% of its hotels certified by 2010
  • 5. Reference ITC Maurya has undertaken a number of steps towards maintaining a greener and healthier environment. The hotel undertook a host of multi-faceted programs to not only improve its own environment, but also to propagate environmental causes. Their guiding principle is ‘Reduce, Reuse and Recycle’. The hotel has its own program, encompassing local participation, creating awareness among employees and internal conservation, through energy-saving gadgets and environment-friendly material. ITC Maurya consumed an average of 1300 kilolitres of water, per day, some ten years ago. The average consumption was down to 800 kilolitres, until a couple of years ago. Today, the hotel consumes 625 kilolitres of water on an average and is striving to bring the consumption level down to an ambitious 450 kilolitres of water per day, by the end of the current year. There was a time when the chillers, one of the major consumption areas in the hotel, used to consume 300 kilolitres of water, which has now been brought down to 150 kilolitres. At The Orchid we believe in the three quot;Rquot; theory of reduce, reuse, recycle. Water being one of the earth's most precious resources and vital to life we have tried to put this theory in practice by taking special care to conserve this resource by employing carefully planned techniques enlisted below, which re-establishes our belief in the above theory Conclusion Facing a significant reduction in sustainable resources, crucial steps should be taken to save energy and water which are vital for today; it is vital for the future generations. References • John Theodore Houghton 2004 Global Warming: The Complete Briefing pp-9-11 • Bruntland, G (ed) (1987). Our Common Future: The World Commission on Environment and Development. [Online] Available at: http://209.85.175.104/search? q=cache:C47bVZVszsgJ:www.re- set.it/documenti/1000/1800/1850/1856/brundtland_reportpdf.pdf+bruntland+report&hl=e n&ct=clnk&cd=3. [Accessed on March 10, 2008]. • Chotipanich, S. (2004), quot;Positioning facility managementquot;, Facilities, Vol. 22 No.13/14, pp.364-72. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet? Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/0620190601.html [Accessed on March 14, 2008] • Kirk, D (1996) “Environmental Management for Hotels”, Britain: British Library Cataloguing.
  • 6. • Sharma. N., (2004), “City’s first green sports complex”, [online] available at: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/608973.cms [Accessed on March 25, 2008] • Stuart A. Kirk 2001 Science and social work: a critical appraisal. • Cutting energy consumption with technology http://www.expresshospitality.com/20081031/edge01.shtml [Accessed on 20 march] • Revkin, Andrew Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast New York: Abbeville Press, 1992. • Rock, Maxine The Automobile and the Environment New York: Chelsea House, 1992. • Sandak, Cass R. A Reference Guide to Clean Air Hillside, NJ: Enslow, 1990. • Broughton L.M. et al, Mine Rock Guidelines: Design and Control of Drainage Water Quality, Report No.93301, Saskatchewan Environment and Public Safety, Mines Pollution Control Branch, April 1992. • Nature as Teacher: New Principles in the Working of Nature, by Schauberger, Viktor • Our Future is Hydrogen! Energy, Environment, and Economy, by Siblerud, Robert. • www.lotussuites.com • www.altohotel.com • www.itcwelcomgroup.in • www.ichotelsgroup.com