“ A way of behaving that is temporarily adopted by a discernable proportion of members of a social group because that chosen behaviour is perceived to be socially appropriate for the time and the situation.”
“ Fashion was Rank”
Parson Woodford’s Diary
“ I meet milkmaids on every road with the looks and dress of strand misses”
John Byng 1781
“ ----luxury of dress of our female servants----and many others in inferior situations who think that a well chosen cotton gown shall entitle them to the appellation of young ladies”.
End of 18 th Century a World of Rapid Fashion Change
A Drapery more suited to the climate of Greece or Italy than an island in the 51 st degree of latitude.
In the Directoire period, plain "Grecian-style" fabrics were popular.
Gowns were tubular in shape, with little or no petticoat support. The corset, if worn, was not a factor in determining the silhouette. The natural line of the body was all too apparent through the thin gauze or cotton and linen muslins used. Waistlines were raised to just under the bust, giving the illusion of an elongated slimness. Necklines were low, round or square; sleeves were short and puffed for evening wear, as at left, and either very short or long and fitted for morning dress.
Shawls , such as the one pictured here with a paisley pattern, were a necessary accessory. NORWICH
The World of Jane Austen
Chemise style (Almost Grecian)
Could be washed, dyed, printed
High quality and cheap
Freedom from corsets (For a time)
Fashion no longer just cloth but a handkerchief or petticoat of the right colour
Cruickshank 1818 (Dandies)
" I remarked one young man, whose handsome person, and most elaborate toilet, led me to conclude he was a first rate personage, and so I doubt not he was; nevertheless, I saw him take from the pocket of his silk waistcoat a lump of tobacco, and daintily deposit it within his cheek". Domestic Manners of the Americans, Fanny Trollope, 1832
Lower Down the Social Order
1780 Coal Heaver John Brown jailed for stealing two cotton shirts. Local records show thefts off washing lines of cotton goods.
Poorer sorts willing to imitate the rich John Carey (On East India Trade)
Fashion or the alteration of dress is a great promoter of trade because it occasions the expense of clothes before the old ones are worn out” Nicholas Barban (End of 18 th Century)
A) Fashion for the few exclusive
B) Fashion for the many an engine of growth
C) Demand from the working class particularly from waged Women
SEA ISLAND COTTON IN DEMAND
PATENT No 72X Eli Whitney 1792
NOW ABUNTANTLY PRODUCED
BY MID 19 th CENTURY
BRITAIN GREW NOT ONE OUNCE OF COTTON
BRITAIN ONLY CONSUMED 10% OF COTTON GOODS
Britain was producing half the world's cotton cloth in giant mills that dotted the valleys and dominated many towns in the north of England.
70% by value of all exports
RICHARD ARKWRIGHT ( 1732-1792)
Credited with the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. developed in 1769, and the world's first water-powered cotton mill was built in 1771 at Cromford Derbyshire.
He was knighted in 1786 .
CROMFORD MILL DERBYSHIRE
THE BILL GATES OF HIS DAY SELF MADE MAN
His first steam powered mill was opened in Manchester in 1781, although it was not immediately successful. He was knighted in 1786, and died one of the richest men in England in 1792 . At the time of his death, his fortune was estimated to be in excess of £500,000.
TEXTILE SKILLS FROM OPPRESSION
THE WORLDS FIRST GREAT INDUSTRY LOCATED IN A FEW TOWNS IN LANCASHIRE
Huge Movement of People and New Towns and New Wealth
Liverpool changes tack
Leisure and Pleasure
Banking and Insurance
A value now on work
Engels and Cotton
Free Trade Economics
Move from old ‘muscle industries’ and Domestic Service
Cotton was the Industrial Revolution !!
Move to new lighter industry
That Typing Pool
Move to Service and Retail work
Move to London and the south
Brainwork rather than Brawn-work
A FEMALE INDUSTRY
Changing the old social order from family based home work.
Machine breaking by ‘Ned Ludd’.
COTTON IS KING (RUN BY PRINCESSES)
PLATTS to JAPANESE CARS
CIRCUMSTANCES OF GEORGIAN ENGLAND
A VERY HARD AGE
A VERY YOUNG POPULATION
CHRISTIAN SCHOLARS PREACHED THAT IT WAS INTENDED BY NATURE
FEUDALISM NOT MUCH BETTER in EUROPE
OPPORTUNITIES FOR GREAT WEALTH (Average of 10% return per annum)
THE TRIANGULAR SLAVE TRADE
Outward with manufactures
Slave pick-ups on coast
Slaves a result of local wars
Danger of Disease
Transported to Americas
Voyage home with Rum, Sugar, Indigo, Tobacco, Hard woods, etc.
LIVERPOOL and BRISTOL
LIVERPOOL (White Gold to White Gold)
COMPASSION GRADUALLY TAKES OVER
ADAM SMITH ON FREE LABOUR AND MARKETS
CHRISTIAN ETHICS: QUAKERS (METHODISM:WESLEY 1774)
JHN NEWTON (FORMER SLAVE OWNER: (”AMAZING GRACE”)
1772: Slaves brought into UK could not be forcibly removed.
1783: Slave Ship ‘Zong’ and Insurance)
“ WILBERFORCE BILL” 1807 Abolishes Trade. Policed on high seas by the Royal Navy.
Wilberforce & Clarkson: 1833 British Subjects could not own slaves. 750,000 freed in Caribbean
James Henry Hammond, Speech Before the United States Senate, 4 th March 1858
----would any sane nation make war on cotton? ---- What would happen if no cotton was furnished for three years? ---- England would topple headlong and carry the whole civilized world with her, save the South. No, you dare not make war on cotton. No power on earth dares to make war upon it. Cotton is king.
Famine or Grim Reaper?
William L Yancey (Alabama) (Confederate delegate to England)
“ To get cotton you must swallow slavery”
‘ Cheaper to keep Lancashire in Turtles than to plunge into war with the Northern States.
AND THE RESULT ON ENGLAND
Outside the city hall stands a statue of Abraham Lincoln, presented to the citizens of Manchester in 1919. In 1862, 98% of all the finished cotton produced world-wide came from Manchester, UK and 9 out every 10 people living in the city worked in the cotton (or related) industries. Despite the fact that the lifeblood of the city depended almost entirely on the cotton industry, the working people of Manchester came together at the Free Trade Hall on 31st December 1862 to express their support for Abraham Lincoln and the Northern States in their fight to abolish slavery. By supporting the Union under President Lincoln at a time when there was an economic blockade of the Southern States, the Lancashire cotton workers were denied access to raw cotton - the lifeblood of the region - which caused considerable unemployment and severe hardship throughout the cotton industry
Further reform of Representation now had to come.
The genie was out of the bottle
Expanding class of artisan working class
Political parties wanted this new class to shore up their votes.
Head off class based Industrial parties.
1867 REFORM ACT
Second Reform Act had greatly expanded urban electorates, bringing working-class majorities to most towns and especially to the industrial centers. All male householders could vote, regardless of the type of dwelling they occupied, providing they had been in occupancy for at least 12 months.
Redistribution of seats (Ridings)
A) NO Feckless or Slum Dwellers (Property Qualification)
B) AND for heavens sake no women
EAST INDIA COMPANY (1660 Charter from Elizabeth I)