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Starting Seeds Indoors
Mendell and His Peas…   <ul><li>C ontain s  genetic material </li></ul><ul><li>Heirloom  </li></ul><ul><li>Open-pollinated...
Fertilization <ul><li>W hen a male pollen cell (sperm cell) forms a union with a female egg cell (ovum), a seed is formed ...
Seed Anatomy <ul><li>Three main parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>embryo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>young plant </li></ul></...
Seeds! <ul><li>4-18% water </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest seed? </li></ul><ul><li>The largest seed? </li></ul>
Seed Selection   <ul><li>USDA Zone 7  </li></ul><ul><li>E arly frost (around October 10 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Late frost ...
Seed Selection <ul><li>T rustworthy dealer  </li></ul><ul><li>R ead information in seed catalogs and on seed packets </li>...
Germination <ul><li>M ature seed: right environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scarif...
Seed Storage <ul><li>Leftovers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>K eep inside packet, place into a plastic bag, and then into a refri...
Planting Media <ul><li>T wo groups: soilless media and amended soil mixes </li></ul><ul><li>S oil l ess media is generally...
Soilless Media <ul><li>S phagnum  moss,  pumice,  peat moss,vermiculite, perlite, sand, pine bark, coconut fiber , good co...
Amended Soil Mix <ul><li>T ransplanting  </li></ul><ul><li>C ontain s  compost and/or a mixture of organic plant nutrients...
Sterile Soil <ul><li>N o insects, disease organisms, or weed seeds  </li></ul><ul><li>C ompost contains benefical micro-or...
Re-using Soil? <ul><li>‘ T reat ’  the soil in an oven to sterilize it     </li></ul><ul><li>250 degrees Fahrenheit  </li>...
Containers <ul><li>Must be  sterile  </li></ul><ul><li>R inse with 9:1 water:chlorine     </li></ul><ul><li>P lastic cups,...
Containers <ul><li>P urchase plastic ‘flats‘and ‘trays’ </li></ul><ul><li>Different sizes for different crops </li></ul>
Planting Your Seed <ul><li>F ill it to within  3/4  inches from the top with moistened medium  </li></ul><ul><li>Gently ta...
Label!
Planting Depth  <ul><li>S eed packet  </li></ul><ul><li>T wice the diameter rule </li></ul><ul><li>M ost plants germinate ...
Water! <ul><li>A fter seeds have been sown, water with room temperature water </li></ul><ul><li>D on ’ t wash the seeds aw...
Water! <ul><li>‘ W icking ’  action works </li></ul><ul><li>Or… cover the container with a plastic bag or sleeve </li></ul...
Water! <ul><li>Soil should remain moist throughout germination     </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the plastic as soon as the see...
Water! <ul><li>After seedlings emerge, watering increases     </li></ul><ul><li>If utilizing the wicking method, run water...
Temperature <ul><li>Temperature is probably the most important factor in starting seeds indoors without a greenhouse.     ...
Temperature <ul><li>A fter germination, move seeds  to cooler temp.   </li></ul><ul><li>55-60 degree F night temp </li></u...
Light Requirements <ul><li>I ntense light needed after germination     </li></ul><ul><li>South facing windor- at least  fo...
Buy or Build Your Own!
Transplanting <ul><li>T rue  l eaves ? </li></ul><ul><li>Time to step-up  to soil mix </li></ul><ul><li>S elect strongest ...
Transplanting <ul><li>Be very gentle with your seedling and try to avoid tearing the roots in the process!   </li></ul><ul...
Transplanting <ul><li>Fill a container to about an inch from the top (to allow room for watering)  </li></ul><ul><li>M ake...
Hardening Off <ul><li>L ast step -  essential to ensure healthy, vigorous plants </li></ul><ul><li>P rocess of acclimating...
Hardening Off <ul><li>S haded area protected from intense wind, full sunlight, and very low temperatures </li></ul><ul><li...
Transplanting to Field
<ul><li>Raised beds </li></ul><ul><li>Correct depth </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate roots </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch </li></ul><u...
Direct Seeding <ul><li>Some plants respond better to direct seeding and  should not be transplanted (dill, carrot, cilantr...
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Starting Seeds Indoors by Chris Turse Rooting Dc

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Transcript of "Starting Seeds Indoors by Chris Turse Rooting Dc"

  1. 1. Starting Seeds Indoors
  2. 2. Mendell and His Peas… <ul><li>C ontain s genetic material </li></ul><ul><li>Heirloom </li></ul><ul><li>Open-pollinated vs. hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>Seed saving </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fertilization <ul><li>W hen a male pollen cell (sperm cell) forms a union with a female egg cell (ovum), a seed is formed </li></ul>
  4. 4. Seed Anatomy <ul><li>Three main parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>embryo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>young plant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seed coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>protects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seed leaves (cotyledons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>food reserve </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Seeds! <ul><li>4-18% water </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest seed? </li></ul><ul><li>The largest seed? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Seed Selection <ul><li>USDA Zone 7 </li></ul><ul><li>E arly frost (around October 10 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Late frost (around May 10 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Annual </li></ul><ul><li>Biennial </li></ul><ul><li>Perennial </li></ul><ul><li>Season extension </li></ul>
  7. 7. Seed Selection <ul><li>T rustworthy dealer </li></ul><ul><li>R ead information in seed catalogs and on seed packets </li></ul>
  8. 8. Germination <ul><li>M ature seed: right environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scarification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KEYS: water, oxygen, and temperature </li></ul>
  9. 9. Seed Storage <ul><li>Leftovers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>K eep inside packet, place into a plastic bag, and then into a refrigerator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T ime of storage is variable </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Planting Media <ul><li>T wo groups: soilless media and amended soil mixes </li></ul><ul><li>S oil l ess media is generally used to start seeds </li></ul><ul><li>A mended soil mixes generally used to transplant </li></ul>
  11. 11. Soilless Media <ul><li>S phagnum moss, pumice, peat moss,vermiculite, perlite, sand, pine bark, coconut fiber , good compost! </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Key: fine and uniform yet well aerated and loose </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Amended Soil Mix <ul><li>T ransplanting </li></ul><ul><li>C ontain s compost and/or a mixture of organic plant nutrients   </li></ul><ul><li>M ix your own or buy pre-mix </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sterile Soil <ul><li>N o insects, disease organisms, or weed seeds </li></ul><ul><li>C ompost contains benefical micro-organisms and may help fight disease </li></ul>
  14. 14. Re-using Soil? <ul><li>‘ T reat ’ the soil in an oven to sterilize it   </li></ul><ul><li>250 degrees Fahrenheit </li></ul><ul><li>C ook soil at an internal temperature of 180 degrees Fahrenheit for at least a half hour.   </li></ul><ul><li>D o not overheat   </li></ul><ul><li>S melly process! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Containers <ul><li>Must be sterile </li></ul><ul><li>R inse with 9:1 water:chlorine   </li></ul><ul><li>P lastic cups, milk cartons, egg cartons, N ewspaper, and yogurt cups, soil blockers </li></ul><ul><li>P ut holes in bottom for drainage and oxygen supply to roots </li></ul>
  16. 16. Containers <ul><li>P urchase plastic ‘flats‘and ‘trays’ </li></ul><ul><li>Different sizes for different crops </li></ul>
  17. 17. Planting Your Seed <ul><li>F ill it to within 3/4 inches from the top with moistened medium </li></ul><ul><li>Gently tamp down (do not press hard!) and create a flat, uniform surface </li></ul><ul><li>Remove rocks, sticks, and/or large clumps of soil from the surface   </li></ul>
  18. 18. Label!
  19. 19. Planting Depth <ul><li>S eed packet </li></ul><ul><li>T wice the diameter rule </li></ul><ul><li>M ost plants germinate in dark </li></ul><ul><li>Plant more seeds than you will use </li></ul>
  20. 20. Water! <ul><li>A fter seeds have been sown, water with room temperature water </li></ul><ul><li>D on ’ t wash the seeds away or change their depth with heavy watering </li></ul>
  21. 21. Water! <ul><li>‘ W icking ’ action works </li></ul><ul><li>Or… cover the container with a plastic bag or sleeve </li></ul><ul><li>O ne inch away from the soil and there should be air flow </li></ul>
  22. 22. Water! <ul><li>Soil should remain moist throughout germination   </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the plastic as soon as the seedlings emerge </li></ul>
  23. 23. Water! <ul><li>After seedlings emerge, watering increases   </li></ul><ul><li>If utilizing the wicking method, run water through containers occasionally to keep plants healthy and inhibit disease.   </li></ul><ul><li>The soil should always be moist to the touch and not dry or soggy. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Temperature <ul><li>Temperature is probably the most important factor in starting seeds indoors without a greenhouse.   </li></ul><ul><li>O ptimal germination temps for different crops </li></ul><ul><li>P urchase seed starting heating mats </li></ul><ul><li>S tart seeds that require lower temperatures to germinate such as: lettuce, brassicas, and alliums   </li></ul>
  25. 25. Temperature <ul><li>A fter germination, move seeds to cooler temp. </li></ul><ul><li>55-60 degree F night temp </li></ul><ul><li>65-70 degree F day temp   </li></ul><ul><li>D ifferent temperature for different crops   </li></ul>
  26. 26. Light Requirements <ul><li>I ntense light needed after germination   </li></ul><ul><li>South facing windor- at least four hours of direct sun </li></ul><ul><li>40-watt cool fluorescent tube or special plant growth lamp (HPS) </li></ul><ul><li>S ixteen hours each day </li></ul><ul><li>6-12 inches above seedlings </li></ul>
  27. 27. Buy or Build Your Own!
  28. 28. Transplanting <ul><li>T rue l eaves ? </li></ul><ul><li>Time to step-up to soil mix </li></ul><ul><li>S elect strongest seedling </li></ul><ul><li>T hin by cutting top of plant off ; don ’ t disturb roots   </li></ul><ul><li>‘ S trongest ’ criterion- straight, strong stems, no discoloration and/or odor throughout entire seedling, and lush leaf growth </li></ul>
  29. 29. Transplanting <ul><li>Be very gentle with your seedling and try to avoid tearing the roots in the process!   </li></ul><ul><li>H andle by leaves and not delicate stems </li></ul>
  30. 30. Transplanting <ul><li>Fill a container to about an inch from the top (to allow room for watering) </li></ul><ul><li>M ake a hole in the center of the container </li></ul><ul><li>Gently place the plant into the whole and make sure that the roots have room to spread out </li></ul><ul><li>The depth of the plant should mirror the depth at which the seedling was originally at in the old container </li></ul><ul><li>Gently tamp soil down around the plant and water softly   </li></ul>
  31. 31. Hardening Off <ul><li>L ast step - essential to ensure healthy, vigorous plants </li></ul><ul><li>P rocess of acclimating young plants to the outdoors from their indoor environment </li></ul><ul><li>G radually lowering temperatures, relative humidity, and reducing water about one- two weeks before planting in the garden </li></ul><ul><li>M eant to slow plant growth, not stop </li></ul><ul><li>A fter proper hardening, cold-hearty plants can be planted outdoors and light frosts will not damage the m (even tomatoes!) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Hardening Off <ul><li>S haded area protected from intense wind, full sunlight, and very low temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>O ptimal temperature- 45-50 degrees F </li></ul><ul><li>Cold-frame is ideal </li></ul>
  33. 33. Transplanting to Field
  34. 34. <ul><li>Raised beds </li></ul><ul><li>Correct depth </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate roots </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch </li></ul><ul><li>Water-in </li></ul>Transplanting to Field
  35. 35. Direct Seeding <ul><li>Some plants respond better to direct seeding and should not be transplanted (dill, carrot, cilantro) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually larger seeded veggies, root crops, flowers </li></ul>
  36. 36. Questions?
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