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Immunoglobulins 2001
 

Immunoglobulins 2001

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    Immunoglobulins 2001 Immunoglobulins 2001 Presentation Transcript

    • Immunoglobulins: Structure and Function
    • Immunoglobulins:Structure and Function
      • Definition: Glycoprotein molecules that are produced by plasma cells in response to an immunogen and which function as antibodies
      Immune serum Ag adsorbed serum  1  2   + - albumin globulins Mobility Amount of protein
    • General Functions of Immunoglobulins
      • Effector functions
        • Fixation of complement
        • Binding to various cells
      (Usually require Ag binding)
      • Ag binding
        • Can result in protection
        • Valency
    • Basic Immunoglobulin Structure
      • Immunoglobulins - heterogeneous
      • Myeloma proteins - homogeneous immunoglobulins
    • Immunoglobulin Structure
      • Heavy & Light Chains
      • Disulfide bonds
        • Inter-chain
        • Intra-chain
      C H1 V L C L V H C H2 C H3 Hinge Region Carbohydrate Disulfide bond
    • Immunoglobulin Structure
      • Variable & Constant Regions
        • V L & C L
        • V H & C H
      • Hinge Region
      C H1 V L C L V H C H2 C H3 Hinge Region Carbohydrate Disulfide bond
    • Immunoglobulin Structure
      • Domains
        • V L & C L
        • V H & C H1 - C H3 (or C H4 )
      • Oligosaccharides
      C H1 V L C L V H C H2 C H3 Hinge Region Carbohydrate Disulfide bond
    • IgG molecule Used with permission from: Dr. Mike Clark, Immunology Division, Department of Pathology Cambridge University, Cambridge, England
    • Structure of the Variable Region
      • Hypervariable (HVR) or complimentarity determining regions (CDR)
      • Framework regions
      HVR3 FR1 FR2 FR3 FR4 HVR1 HVR2 Variability Index 25 75 50 100 Amino acid residue 150 100 50 0
    • Immunoglobulin Fragments: Structure/Function Relationships
      • Fab
        • Ag binding
        • Valence = 1
        • Specificty determined by V H and V L
      • Fc
        • Effector functions
      Papain Fc Fab
    • Immunoglobulin Fragments: Structure/Function Relationships Ag Binding Complement Binding Site Placental Transfer Binding to Fc Receptors
    • Immunoglobulin Fragments: Structure/Function Relationships
      • Fab
        • Ag binding
      • Fc
        • Effector functions
      • F(ab’) 2
      Pepsin Fc Peptides F(ab’) 2
    • Human Immunoglobulin Classes
      • IgG - Gamma (  ) heavy chains
      • IgM - Mu (  ) heavy chains
      • IgA - Alpha (  ) heavy chains
      • IgD - Delta (  ) heavy chains
      • IgE - Epsilon (  ) heavy chains
    • Human Immunoglobulin Subclasses
      • IgG Subclasses
        • IgG1 - Gamma 1 (  1) heavy chains
        • IgG2 - Gamma 2 (  2) heavy chains
        • IgG3 - Gamma 3 (  3) heavy chains
        • IgG4 - Gamma 4 (  4) heavy chains
      • IgA subclasses
        • IgA1 - Alpha 1 (  1) heavy chains
        • IgA2 - Alpha 2 (  2) heavy chains
    • Human Immunoglobulin Light Chain Types
      • Kappa (  )
      • Lambda (  )
    • Human Immunoglobulin Light Chain Subtypes
      • Lambda light chains
        • Lambda 1 (  1)
        • Lambda 2 (  2)
        • Lambda 3 (  3)
        • Lambda 4 (  4)
    • Immunoglobulins
      • Nomenclature
        • IgM (kappa)
        • IgA1(lambda 2)
        • IgG
      • Heterogeneity
    • IgG
      • Structure
        • Monomer (7S)
      IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 IgG3
    • IgG
      • Structure
      • Properties
        • Major serum Ig
        • Major Ig in extravascular spaces
        • Placental transfer – Does not require Ag binding (  IgG2)
        • Fixes complement (  IgG4)
        • Binds to Fc receptors (  IgG2, IgG4)
          • Phagocytes - opsonization
          • K cells - ADCC
    • IgM
      • Structure
        • Pentamer (19S)
        • Extra domain (C H4 )
        • J chain
      C  4 J Chain
    • IgM
      • Structure
      • Properties
        • 3rd highest serum Ig
        • First Ig made by fetus and B cells
        • Fixes complement
    • Fixation of C1 by IgG and IgM Abs No activation Activation C1r C1s C1q C1r C1s C1q
    • IgM
      • Structure
      • Properties
        • 3rd highest serum Ig
        • First Ig made by fetus and B cells
        • Fixes complement
        • Agglutinating Ig
        • Binds to Fc receptors
        • B cell surface Ig
      Tail Piece
    • B Cell Antigen Receptor (BcR) Ig-  Ig-  Ig-  Ig- 
    • IgA
      • Structure
        • Serum - monomer
        • Secretions (sIgA)
          • Dimer (11S)
          • J chain
          • Secretory component
      J Chain Secretory Piece
    • Origin of Secretory Component of sIgA Y Y Y Y Y Y
    • IgA
      • Structure
      • Properties
        • 2nd highest serum Ig
        • Major secretory Ig (Mucosal or Local Immunity)
          • Tears, saliva, gastric and pulmonary secretions
        • Does not fix complement (unless aggregated)
        • Binds to Fc receptors on some cells
    • IgD
      • Structure
        • Monomer
        • Tail piece
      Tail Piece
    • IgD
      • Structure
      • Properties
        • 4th highest serum Ig
        • B cell surface Ig
        • Does not bind complement
    • IgE
      • Structure
        • Monomer
        • Extra domain (C H4 )
      C  4
    • IgE
      • Structure
      • Properties
        • Least common serum Ig
          • Binds to basophils and mast cells (Does not require Ag binding)
        • Allergic reactions
        • Parasitic infections (Helminths)
          • Binds to Fc receptor on eosinophils
        • Does not fix complement