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  • Long history of skin transplants: mostly unsuccessful First renal transplant in 1954 First heart transplant in 1963
  • Histocompatibility (transplantation) antigens: Antigens on tissues and cells that determine their rejection when grafted between two genetically different individuals; Major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens: Histocompatibility antigens that cause a very strong immune response and are most important in rejection; MHC complex: Group of genes on a single chromosome encoding the MHC antigens; HLA (human leukocyte antigens): MHC antigens of man (first detected on leukocytes); H‑2 antigens: MHC antigens of mouse; Xenograft: Grafts between members of different species (also known as heterologous, xenogeneic or hetero- grafts); Allograft: Grafts between two members of the same species (also known as allogeneic or homo- graft); Isograft: Grafts between members of the same species with identical genetic makeup (identical twins or inbred animals); Haplotype: a group of genes on a single chromosome.
  • LAWS OF TRANSPLANTATION: An immunocompetent host recognizes the foreign antigens on grafted tissues (cells), and mounts an immune response which results in rejection. On the other hand if an immunocompromised host is grafted with foreign immunocompetent lymphoid cells, the immunoreactive T-cells in the graft recognize the foreign antigens on the host tissue and cause their damage.
  • Host-versus-graft-reaction: The time of graft rejection follows the following order: xeno-<allo-<iso-=auto- graft. The time of rejection also depends on the antigenic disparity between the donors and recipient. MHC antigens are the major contributors in rejection, but the minor histocompatibility antigens also play a role. Rejection due to disparity in several minor histocompatibility antigens may be as fast or faster than rejection due to an MHC antigen. Like in other immune responses, there is immunological memory and secondary response in graft rejection. Thus, once a graft is rejected by a recipient, a second graft from the same donor, or a donor with the same histocompatibility antigens, will be rejected in a much shorter time .
  • LAWS OF TRANSPLANTATION: An immunocompetent host recognizes the foreign antigens on grafted tissues (cells), and mounts an immune response which results in rejection. On the other hand if an immunocompromised host is grafted with foreign immunocompetent lymphoid cells, the immunoreactive T-cells in the graft recognize the foreign antigens on the host tissue and cause their damage.
  • Common manifestations of GVH reaction are diarrhea, erythema, weight loss, malaise, fever, joint pains, etc. and ultimately death.
  • The MHC GENE COMPLEX: The MHC complex contains a number of genes that control several antigens, most of which influence allograft rejection. These antigens (and their genes) can be divided into three major classes: class I , class II and class III . The class I and class II antigens are expressed on cells and tissues whereas as class   III antigens are represented on proteins in serum and other body fluids ( e.g. C4, C2, factor B, TNF). Antigens of class III gene products have no role in graft rejection. Human MHC: Class I MHC: The class I gene complex contains three major loci , B , C and A and other undefined minor loci (Figure 1). Each major locus codes for a polypeptide,  -chain that contains antigenic determinants, is polymorphic (has many alleles) and associates with  -2 microglobulin (  -chain) and expressed the cell surface. Class II MHC: The class II gene complex also contains at least three loci , DP , DQ and DR ; each of these loci codes for  - and one ß‑chain polypeptides which associate together to form the class II antigens . Like the class I antigens, the class II antigens are also polymorphic. DR locus may contain more than one (up to 4) functional  -chain genes. Mouse MHC: The mouse MHC is located on chromosome 17. Class I MHC: It consists of two major loci , K and D . Unlike the human MHC, the mouse class I gene complex loci are not together but they are separated by class II and class III genes. Class II MHC: The class II gene complex contains two loci , A and E each of which code for one  and one ß chain polypeptide, which form one class II molecule . The mouse class II gene complex is also known as the I region and the genes in this complex are referred to as Ir (immune response) genes since they control the magnitude of immune responsiveness of different mouse strains to certain antigens. Products of A and E loci are also termed IA and IE antigens , collectively known as Ia antigens .
  • The MHC GENE COMPLEX: The MHC complex contains a number of genes that control several antigens, most of which influence allograft rejection. These antigens (and their genes) can be divided into three major classes: class I , class II and class III . The class I and class II antigens are expressed on cells and tissues whereas as class   III antigens are represented on proteins in serum and other body fluids ( e.g. C4, C2, factor B, TNF). Antigens of class III gene products have no role in graft rejection. Human MHC: Class I MHC: The class I gene complex contains three major loci , B , C and A and other undefined minor loci (Figure 1). Each major locus codes for a polypeptide,  -chain that contains antigenic determinants, is polymorphic (has many alleles) and associates with  -2 microglobulin (  -chain) and expressed the cell surface. Class II MHC: The class II gene complex also contains at least three loci , DP , DQ and DR ; each of these loci codes for  - and one ß‑chain polypeptides which associate together to form the class II antigens . Like the class I antigens, the class II antigens are also polymorphic. DR locus may contain more than one (up to 4) functional  -chain genes. Mouse MHC: The mouse MHC is located on chromosome 17. Class I MHC: It consists of two major loci , K and D . Unlike the human MHC, the mouse class I gene complex loci are not together but they are separated by class II and class III genes. Class II MHC: The class II gene complex contains two loci , A and E each of which code for one  and one ß chain polypeptide, which form one class II molecule . The mouse class II gene complex is also known as the I region and the genes in this complex are referred to as Ir (immune response) genes since they control the magnitude of immune responsiveness of different mouse strains to certain antigens. Products of A and E loci are also termed IA and IE antigens , collectively known as Ia antigens .
  • MHC ANTIGENS: Nomenclature: HLA specificities are identified by a letter for locus and a number (A1, B5, etc .) and the haplotypes are identified by individual specificities (e.g., A1, B7, Cw4, DPw5, DQw10 DR8). Specificities which are still under scrutiny contain an additional letter 'w' which stands for workshop at which they are temporarily assigned these numbers until they are sufficiently defined (e.g., Cw7, DQw1, DRw6, etc). Mouse MHC (H‑2) specificities are identified by a number. Since laboratory mice are inbred, each strain is homozygous and has a unique haplotype. The MHC haplotype in these strains is designated by a ‘small’ letter (a, b, d, k, q, s, etc .). For example, the MHC haplotype of Balb/c mice is H2 d .
  • Inheritance: MHC genes are inherited as a group ( haplotype ), one from each parent. Thus, a heterozygous human inherits one paternal and one maternal haplotype, each containing three class-I (B, C and A) and three class II (DP, DQ and DR) loci . Therefore, a heterozygous individual can inherit a maximum of 6 class I specificities (Figure 2). Since the class II MHC molecule consists of two chains, with some antigenic determinants (specificities) on each chain, and they can associate in cis (along the DNA strand) or trans (across two DNA strands) combination, each individual can have four specificities for each of the three class II loci. Likewise, a heterozygous mouse inherits one haplotype from each parent containing two class-I loci (K and D) and two class II loci (A and E) , each in two allelic forms. It, can therefore, express on its cells a total of 8 MHC antigens (2 class I antigens and 2 class II antigens from each parent).
  • Inheritance: MHC genes are inherited as a group ( haplotype ), one from each parent. Thus, a heterozygous human inherits one paternal and one maternal haplotype, each containing three class-I (B, C and A) and three class II (DP, DQ and DR) loci . Therefore, a heterozygous individual can inherit a maximum of 6 class I specificities (Figure 2). Since the class II MHC molecule consists of two chains, with some antigenic determinants (specificities) on each chain, and they can associate in cis (along the DNA strand) or trans (across two DNA strands) combination, each individual can have four specificities for each of the three class II loci. Likewise, a heterozygous mouse inherits one haplotype from each parent containing two class-I loci (K and D) and two class II loci (A and E) , each in two allelic forms. It, can therefore, express on its cells a total of 8 MHC antigens (2 class I antigens and 2 class II antigens from each parent).
  • Crossover: Haplotypes, normally, are inherited intact and hence antigens encoded by different loci are inherited together (e.g., A2; B27; Cw2; DPw6; DQw9; DRw2). However, on occasions, there is crossing over between two parental chromosomes, thereby resulting in new recombinant haplotypes. Thus, any one specificity encoded by one locus may combine with specificities from other loci. This results in vast heterogeneity in the MHC make-up in a given population.
  • MHC antigen expression on cells: MHC antigens are expressed on the cell surface in a co-dominant manner : products of both parental genes are found on the same cells. However, not all cells express both class I and class II antigens . While class I antigens are expressed on all nucleated cells and platelets (and red blood cells in the mouse ), the expression of class II antigens is more selective. It is expressed on B lymphocytes , a proportion of macrophages and monocytes , epithelial cells, skin associated ( Langerhan’s ) cells, dendritic cells and a sub-population of T lymphocytes (activated T cells in man and suppressor T cells in the mouse).
  • Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes Another consequence of the MHC antigen and T cell interaction is the induction of cytotoxic T‑lymphocytes. When T‑lymphocytes are cultured in the presence of allogeneic lymphocytes, in addition to undergoing mitosis (MLR), they also become cytotoxic to cells of the type that stimulated MLR (Figure 3). Thus, T‑lymphocytes of 'x' haplotype cultured over 5‑7 days with B lymphocytes of 'y' haplotype will undergo mitosis and the surviving T‑lymphocytes become cytotoxic to cells of the 'y' haplotype. The induction of mitosis in MLR requires disparity of only class II antigens whereas the induction of cytotoxic T‑lymphocytes (CTL) requires disparity of both class I and class II antigens . However, once cytotoxic cells have been induced, the effector cytotoxic cells recognize only class I antigens to cause cytotoxicity.
  • Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes Another consequence of the MHC antigen and T cell interaction is the induction of cytotoxic T‑lymphocytes. When T‑lymphocytes are cultured in the presence of allogeneic lymphocytes, in addition to undergoing mitosis (MLR), they also become cytotoxic to cells of the type that stimulated MLR (Figure 3). Thus, T‑lymphocytes of 'x' haplotype cultured over 5‑7 days with B lymphocytes of 'y' haplotype will undergo mitosis and the surviving T‑lymphocytes become cytotoxic to cells of the 'y' haplotype. The induction of mitosis in MLR requires disparity of only class II antigens whereas the induction of cytotoxic T‑lymphocytes (CTL) requires disparity of both class I and class II antigens . However, once cytotoxic cells have been induced, the effector cytotoxic cells recognize only class I antigens to cause cytotoxicity.
  • Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes Another consequence of the MHC antigen and T cell interaction is the induction of cytotoxic T‑lymphocytes. When T‑lymphocytes are cultured in the presence of allogeneic lymphocytes, in addition to undergoing mitosis (MLR), they also become cytotoxic to cells of the type that stimulated MLR (Figure 3). Thus, T‑lymphocytes of 'x' haplotype cultured over 5‑7 days with B lymphocytes of 'y' haplotype will undergo mitosis and the surviving T‑lymphocytes become cytotoxic to cells of the 'y' haplotype. The induction of mitosis in MLR requires disparity of only class II antigens whereas the induction of cytotoxic T‑lymphocytes (CTL) requires disparity of both class I and class II antigens . However, once cytotoxic cells have been induced, the effector cytotoxic cells recognize only class I antigens to cause cytotoxicity.
  • Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes Another consequence of the MHC antigen and T cell interaction is the induction of cytotoxic T‑lymphocytes. When T‑lymphocytes are cultured in the presence of allogeneic lymphocytes, in addition to undergoing mitosis (MLR), they also become cytotoxic to cells of the type that stimulated MLR (Figure 3). Thus, T‑lymphocytes of 'x' haplotype cultured over 5‑7 days with B lymphocytes of 'y' haplotype will undergo mitosis and the surviving T‑lymphocytes become cytotoxic to cells of the 'y' haplotype. The induction of mitosis in MLR requires disparity of only class II antigens whereas the induction of cytotoxic T‑lymphocytes (CTL) requires disparity of both class I and class II antigens . However, once cytotoxic cells have been induced, the effector cytotoxic cells recognize only class I antigens to cause cytotoxicity.
  • PROCEDURES TO ENHANCE GRAFT SURVIVAL In clinical practice, the most successful transplantation programs have been with kidneys and corneas. However, other organs are being transplanted with increasing frequency. The success in these programs has been due to a better understanding of immunological mechanisms, definition of MHC antigens and development of more effective immunosuppressive agents. Donor selection: Based on extensive experiences with renal transplants certain guidelines can be followed in donor selection and recipient preparation for most organ transplants. The most important in donor selection is the MHC identity with the recipient ; an identical twin is the ideal donor. Grafts from HLA-matched sibling have 95‑100% chance of success. One haplotype‑identical parent or sibling must match at HLA D region, and hence have low MLR reactivity . Two haplotype-distinct donor with low MLR is next suitable candidate. Nonetheless, organ from two or one DR matched cadaver has been used with some success. In every case, an ABO compatibility and screening for absence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies is essential .
  • Recipient preparation: The recipient must be infection free and must not be hypertensive. One to five blood transfusion of 100‑200 ml whole blood from the donor at 1‑2 week intervals often improves the graft survival.
  • Immunosuppression: Immunosuppressive therapy is most essential part of allo-transplantation. The most recent and effective family of agents is cyclosporin A, FK-506 (tacrolimus) and rapamycin. Antisera against T cells (anti-thymocyte globulin: ATG) or their surface antigens (CD3, CD4, CD5:activated T-cells, CD25:IL-2 receptors) are being used also to achieve immunosuppression.
  • Immunosuppression: Immunosuppressive therapy is most essential part of allo-transplantation. The most recent and effective family of agents is cyclosporin A, FK-506 (tacrolimus) and rapamycin. Antisera against T cells (anti-thymocyte globulin: ATG) or their surface antigens (CD3, CD4, CD5:activated T-cells, CD25:IL-2 receptors) are being used also to achieve immunosuppression.
  • Strategies for bone marrow transplantation: In bone marrow transplantation, the most crucial factor in donor selection is class II MHC compatibility. Once again an identical twin is the ideal donor. From poorly matched grafts, T lymphocytes can be removed using monoclonal antibodies. The recipient must be immunosuppressed. Malignant cells must be eliminated from the recipient blood (in case of blood‑borne malignancies). Methotrexate, cyclosporin and prednisone are often used to control GVH disease. Other grafts: Corneal grafts do not contain D region antigens and consequently survival is frequent. Small grafts are better and corticosteroids are helpful. Skin allograft have very poor success rate and immunosuppressive therapy is relatively ineffective. Nevertheless, they are often used to provide a temporary covering to promote healing in severe skin damage. Indeed, there will be no rejection, if the host and donor are perfectly matched (identical twins) or the recipient is tolerant to the donor MHC antigens (bone marrow chimeras).
  • A number of diseases have been found to occur at a higher frequency in individuals with certain MHC haplotypes. Most prominent among these are ankylosing spondylitis (B27), celiac disease (DR3), Reiter's syndrome (B27) . Other diseases associated with different specificities of the MHC are listed in Table 2. No definite reason is known for this association. However, several hypotheses have been proposed: antigenic similarity between pathogens and MHC, antigenic hypo‑ and hyper‑responsiveness controlled by the class II genes are included among them.
  • MHC detection by serological test: The class I antigens are detected by serological assays (Ab and C) . Tissue typing sera for the HLA were obtained, in the past, from multiparous women who develop antibodies to paternal antigens of the fetus during pregnancies. More recently they are produced by monoclonal antibody technology.
  • Stimulator cells of known class-II specificities are cryopreserved and stored in reference laboratories.
  • MHC detection by mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR): The class II antigens, in the past, could not be detected by serological tests, perhaps because of the lack of antisera and distribution of antigens. Instead, they were (and some still are) detected by mixed leukocyte reaction ( MLR ); a test based on the fact that T‑lymphocytes are stimulated to grow in the presence of cells carrying foreign class II MHC antigens. The test lymphocytes are mixed with irradiated or mitomycin‑C treated homozygous leukocytes, containing B-lymphocytes and monocytes (stimulator cells). In culture (over 4‑6 days), T‑cells (responder cells) recognize the foreign class II antigen and undergo transformation (DNA synthesis and enlargement: blastogenesis) and proliferation (mitogenesis).
  • These changes can be recorded by the addition of radioactive (tritiated, 3 H) thymidine into the culture and monitoring its incorporation into DNA. Nowadays, however, monoclonal antibodies against many of the class II specificities are available and these antigens can be detected serologically.

Transcript

  • 1. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
    • What is MHC?
      • HLA
      • H-2
      • Minor histocompatibility antigens
  • 2. Progress in organ transplantation
  • 3. Significance of the MHC
    • role in immune response
    • role in organ transplantation
    • role in predisposition to disease
  • 4. Genetic barriers to transplantation
    • autologous: in the same individual
    • isologous: between genetically Identical individuals, i.e. , identical twins (inbred animals)
    • homologous: between individuals of the same species
    • heterologous: between individuals different species
  • 5. The laws of transplantation
  • 6. Histocompatibility antigens and graft survival
    • minor histocompatibility antigens also cause rejection
    • The rejection time is variable but shorter than that for major histocompatibility antigen
    • They have additive effects
  • 7. Graft versus host disease
  • 8. Graft versus host disease
  • 9. The human MHC genes
  • 10. The mouse MHC genes
  • 11. Polymorphism of MHC genes
  • 12. The inheritance of MHC genes
  • 13. MHC products expressed on cells
  • 14. Crossing over results in new haplotypes
  • 15. Differential expression of MHC antigens
    • Class-I expressed on all nucleated cells in man, and also on erythrocytes in mice.
    • Class-II expressed primarily on antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells)
  • 16. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation CD4 + TH 1 CD8 + CTL CD8 + preCTL
  • 17. Alloreactivity of T cells Positive Selection Thymus Alloreaction (MLR) Proliferation and Differentiation
  • 18. Mechanisms of graft rejection Inflammation ADCC lysis rejection lysis IL2, IFN  TNF  , NO 2 IL2, IL4, IL5 IL2, TNF  , IFN 
  • 19. Tempo of rejection reaction chronic type of rejection accelerated hyperacute acute months-years time taken minutes- hours days days-weeks unclear causes: cross reactive Ab, immune complexes, slow cellular reaction, tolerance breakdown, disease recurrence cause preformed anti-donor antibodies and complement reactivation of sensitized T cells (secondary response) primary activation of T cells
  • 20. HLA matching and graft survival
  • 21. Blood transfusion and graft survival
  • 22. Immunosuppresseive agents application(s) mode of action agent corticosteroids, prednisone anti-inflammatory, altering T-cell and PMN traffic organ transplant, hypersensitivity, autoimmunity rapamycin Inhibition of T cell activation by IL-2 organ transplant Cyclosporin, FK-506 inhibition of IL-2 production by T cells organ transplant
  • 23. Immunosuppresseive agents application(s) mode of action agent azathioprine, 6-MP purine metabolism organ transplant methotrexate folate metabolism organ transplant cyclophosphamide, melphalan alkylation of DNA, RNA and proteins autoimmune diseases, organ transplant x-irradiation Lymphopenia malignancy/marrow transplantation
  • 24. Removal of T cells from marrow graft Magnetic antibodies Magnet
  • 25. HLA and disease association 87.4 37.0 10.4 13.3 15.4 9 9 9 33 26 9 79 52 87 85 B27 B27 B27 CW6 DR3 Ankylsoing spondylitis Reiter’s disease Acute anterior uveitis Psoriasis vulgaris Dermatitis herpetiformis control patients Relative risk Frequency in Associated alleles Disease
  • 26. Organ transplant activity USA, 1988 15,721 1,227 77 231 734 298 n/a n/a 7,278 1,647 31 74 1680 N/a 243 2000 Kidney Heart lung Heart/lung Liver Cornea Pancreas Bone marrow patients awaiting transplants performed Organ
  • 27. Serological tissue typing: the scheme
  • 28. Tissue typing by the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR)
  • 29. Tissue typing: the MLR scheme
  • 30. Lymphocyte proliferation during MLR