Carr, Gina Eng 333; Week 10 Assignment


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Carr, Gina Eng 333; Week 10 Assignment

  1. 1. Assessing the Role of Honey Bees in a Field of Asiatic Cotton ( Gossypium arboreum L. ) By A. S. Tanda Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Luhiana -141004 INDIA
  2. 2. Flowers of the Asiatic Cotton ( Gossypium arboreum L.) <ul><li>Were visited by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honey bees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wild bees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soc0lids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Butterflies </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Honey Bees increased the boll retention rate by 7 to 12% through pollination </li></ul><ul><li>There was also an improvement in the quality of the cotton. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Importance of Honey Bees <ul><li>Asiatic cotton ( Gossypium arboreum L.) is an important fiber crop of Punjab (India). </li></ul><ul><li>Bees play a vital role in improving the quantity and quality through intra- and intervarietal pollination of this species of cotton (Tanda, 1976; Tanda and Goyal, 1978, 1979a-d). </li></ul><ul><li>American cotton ( G. hirsutum L.) is another species of cotton grown commercially in the southern districts of Punjab. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Insect Visitation <ul><li>Quadrants (2 × 2 m) were marked and the insect visitors were watched during peak hours (9-11 a.m.) of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty observations (10+10 in each locality) were made for this purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual foragers were followed as they arrived in the field until they left the field. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>50 flowers were marked as bees pollinated. </li></ul><ul><li>50 flowers were that were not pollinated by bees were marked. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Results <ul><li>The quality of cotton produced in bagged bolls pollinated by bees was significantly superior to that of cotton produced in bag without bees. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the difference obtained with A. mellifera and A. c. indica bees was not significant. </li></ul>
  8. 8. References <ul><li>Free, J. B., (1976). Insect pollination of crops. Academic Press: London. </li></ul><ul><li>McGregor, S. E., (1976). Insect pollination of cultivated crops. U.S. Govt. Printing Office Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Tanda, A. S. (1976). Studies on the role of insect pollination in desi cotrton (Gossypium arboreum L.). Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. </li></ul>
  9. 9. References Continued <ul><li>Tanda, A. S. & Goyal, N. P. (1978). Effect of bee pollination on boll retention in Gossypium arboreum Linn. Seed Farms. 4(3). pp. 45-46. </li></ul><ul><li>Tanda, A. S. & Goyal, N. P. (1979). Preliminary observations on the effect of intervarietal bee pollination of desi cotton ( Gossypium arboreum Linn.). Indian Journal Entomology. 41(3). Pp. 281-282. </li></ul><ul><li>Tanda, A. S. & Goyal, N. P. (1979). Insect pollination in Asiatic cotton appearing. Journal of Agricultural Research ( 1)18. pp. 64-72. </li></ul>
  10. 10. References Continued <ul><li>Tanda, A. S. & Goyal, N. P. (1979). Some observations on the behavior of Apis mellifera Linn. and Apis cerana indica workers in a field of desi cotton ( Gossypium arboreum Linn). American Bee Journal . 119(2), p. 106. </li></ul><ul><li>Tanda, A. S. & Goyal, N. P. (1979). Pollen dispersal by insects in desi cotton ( Gossypium arboreum Linn.) Seeds Farms. 5(5-8). Pp. 56-59. </li></ul>