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In this powerpoint, the paper 'Aporia' by Burbules is summarized and related to rhe fil 'Matrix', 'The Allegory of the Cave' (Plato), and 'Life is a Dream' by Calderón de la Barca. Enjoy!

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  1. 1. APORIA Group Nº : 14 Names : Batista, Diana Cozzolino, Andrea Gimenez, Natalia.
  3. 3. APORIA <ul><li>Lacking a poros, a path. </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis of choice , of action, of identity and belief. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions : How I got here? Lack of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Where to go next? Lack of understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>A state of conceptual puzzlement, being lost . </li></ul>Matrix The moment Neo wakes up inside the human farming capsule. Allegory of the cave Every time the slave clashes with new aspects of reality. Life is a dream When Segismundo wakes up in the court and then back in his cell again.
  4. 4. LIMITS <ul><li>WWW: cycles around within a closed system of possibilities. There are limits but no edges. </li></ul><ul><li>A poros: both a way and a barrier. Every link that draws one association excludes others. </li></ul><ul><li>Ru les: some strict and explicit, some made up as we go along. A signpost that indicates direction, a way, a path, both clear and ambiguous. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the matrix the only limit that Neo, Morpheus and Trinity face is provided by their own brain, as it may confuse the matrix with reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Allegory of the Cave: the slaves are constrained by limits imposed upon them. </li></ul><ul><li>Life is a Dream: Segismundo is restrained by limits imposed upon him, then, acting by his own free will, he also sets up his own limits. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CHOICE <ul><li>DECISION AND JUDGEMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement: Sometimes leave the known to the unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative ways must be ruled out. </li></ul>Matrix: Neo has to decide between the red and the blue pill, between the known and the unknown. Allegory of the cave: The slave has to decide whether to move on or to go back. Life is a dream: Segismundo struggles between the choice of being a good or a bad person, a choice granted by free will.
  6. 6. QUESTIONS <ul><li>Different questions lead to different kinds of aporia. </li></ul>Matrix: Neo asks himself what is real and what is not. Allegory of the cave: The slave asks himself if reality is what he sees or if it goes beyond the tangible world. Life is a dream: Segismundo wonders if he is dreaming or not. <ul><li>Different kinds of questions: </li></ul><ul><li>One knows how to answer. </li></ul><ul><li>One does not know how to answer. </li></ul><ul><li>One does not know how to ask. </li></ul><ul><li>That can not be answered. </li></ul>
  7. 7. TRUTH - REALITY <ul><li>There is no one truth, but only a translation of it, a transfer, a comparison made by someone. </li></ul><ul><li>We will be able to recognise the truth when we face it, implying that we cannot look for something if we do not know what it is. </li></ul>Life is a Dream: Segismundo, even by the end of the play, cannot differ between reality and dream, but even so he decides to be “good” in case that it is the real world. Matrix: What Neo thinks is the reality, it is not, and he has indeed started to doubt about what is true and what is not. Allegory of the Cave: The slaves have a notion of reality and truth that differs from what is the real world. When one slave is set free, he realises that there is more beyond what he thinks is real.
  8. 8. LEARNING Matrix: The moment Neo learns how to behave in his new reality. Allegory of the cave: The knowledge the slave acquires in each new step towards the outside world. Life is a dream: At the end of the play Segismundo learns that, no matter if he is dreaming or not, he should always behave in a good way. <ul><li>The condition of doubt itself contains educational potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek within doubt the questions that make a new understanding possible. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher has to allow the learner to become a translator, a path- maker on his own. </li></ul><ul><li>An ongoing process of engagement with difficulty, to embark on a journey with an unknown, unknowable destination. </li></ul>Learning
  9. 9. LINK <ul><li>A bridge and a method of semiological transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Connection, divider, a border. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple lines of associations in a link, each bearing its own significance. </li></ul>Matrix Two kinds of link: the physical one (a connector that immerse the characters on the matrix) and the abstract one ( each time we make a decision there are circumstances implied that are not of our choice). Allegory of the Cave We can see the passage of the released slave through the different stages of truth as links in a chain that leads him to freedom but that are at the same time imposing some restrictions on it. Life is a Dream The link between dream and reality is a thin line that many times we cannot differ because other people impose their truth upon us. <ul><li>A decision made by the designer, according to his own purposes and reasons. </li></ul>
  10. 10. BEING LOST Matrix: When Neo wakes up in Morpheous ship. Allegory of the cave: When the slave does not know how to behave in connection with every new reality. Life is a dream: When Segismundo finds himself again in prison. <ul><li>Where am I? </li></ul><ul><li>Why am I here? </li></ul><ul><li>The moment of aporia. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sources : <ul><li>Burbules, Nicholas. Aporia: Webs, Passages, Getting Lost, and Learning to Go on. </li></ul><ul><li>De la Barca, Calderon. Life is a dream. </li></ul><ul><li>Plato. Allegory of the Cave. </li></ul><ul><li>Wachowski Brothers. Matrix. </li></ul>