What got the U.S and Canada Aware?<br />Two situations in particular got the U.S and Canada aware of the threats<br />The first occurred during 1998 when a Russian IL-76 (a large cargo plane) flew over the North Pole to Churchill port. The Russian crew stayed for the night and the next morning when a Bell 206 helicopter landed at Churchill, the Russian crew loaded the helicopter and took off; they faced no trouble. The Canadian Intelligence monitored the flight and discovered that the plane landed in a part known for organized crime activities in Russia. In the Churchill airport in Canada there was only one man on duty at the time<br />
Continued<br />The second situation took place during 1999 when a Chinese research ship on a route to the North Pole to study climate change got trapped in ice. With the help of the Canadian and American ice-observing network the captain was shown a way through the ice. Instead of then continuing on to the North Pole the ship stopped at Tuktoyaktuk in Western Alaska. When this was found out Canadian police and civil servants working went to investigate. They found machine guns and an unaccounted for passport. The ships captains said that they were waiting for a Chinese tour guide who turned out to be a Chinese national who had claimed refugee status in 1993<br />
Environmental and Territorial Concerns:<br />In spite of Russia planting a flag, the Law of Sea remains the best way to divide the Arctic<br />Russia has until 2009 to complete its case while Canada and Denmark have until 2013, and 2014<br />If the U.S wants to acquire a part of the Arctic it must ratify the UNCLOS in 2009 and it might take until 2019/2020 before its boundary issues are resolved<br />The U.S which has the broadest maritime reach of any in the world is almost incapable of functioning in the Arctic<br />
Continued<br />There are disputes over nautical boundaries between countries, Denmark and Canada both claim Hans Island their own, Canada claims the Northwest passage as part of its territorial waters, both the U.S and the EU disagree<br />The U.S has to get involved more and the best way for this to happen is buy ratifying the UNCLOS (United Nations Commission Limits On Continental Shelf)<br />Canada and the U.S have many challenges they have to face in order to insure organization and safety in the Arctic (According to the book)<br />The UNCLOS can only make recommendations it can’t rule on a territory<br />
Continued<br />46 countries have signed an agreement that stops them form military activities, the disposal of radioactive wastes, and any economic exploration of the continent of Antarctica, not the Arctic<br />Unlike Antarctica, people live in the Arctic and they must be accounted for<br />
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