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  • We proudly present the largest online database of AIOU academic contents in Pakistan e.g AIOU Past Papers. We move with the aim to make education FAST, COMMON, & EASILY accessible for each and every Pakistani and others. People who are seeking knowledge and looking around for a better AIOU educational material and guidance system to enhance their academic skills may now connect to AIOU Taleem-e-Pakistan platform. It is developed to digitize the paper based academic learning material to allow easy E-access for all sort of AIOU Past Papers, AIOU Sample Assignments, AIOU Thesis, AIOU Guess Papers, AIOU Notes and regular updates from all Secondary, Higher Secondary Boards, Colleges and Universities and a lot more just for free. We initiate with the hope of better educated Pakistan join us to us to make it possible.
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  • very informative and well organized material zahid sb.
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  • ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN

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  • Zahid Majeed Lecturer Special Education Allama Iqbal Open University (www.aiou.edu.pk), Islamabad, Pakistan. [email_address] ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
  • EMPOWERING WOMEN THROUGH DISTANCE EDUCATION A CASE OF ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, PAKISTAN ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
  • ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY (AIOU)
    • Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is the first Open University in Asia.
    • AIOU is a unique institution in Pakistan because of its philosophy, system, approach, functions and overall structure.
    • The University with its main campus at Islamabad and huge network of regional centers spread all over the country is serving its clientele all over Pakistan and in the Middle East
    • AIOU is a Distance Education institution, which provides multi disciplinary education from basic to doctoral level programs.
    ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
  • BRIEF HISTORY
    • Established in May 1974
    • On the name of national poet and philosopher, Allama Muhammad Iqbal
    • 4 th in Mega Universities list
    • Providing education and training to people who cannot leave their homes and jobs for full time studies.
    • Part-time educational facilities through:
      • Correspondence courses
      • Tutorials, seminars
      • Workshops
      • Laboratories
      • Television and
      • Radio broadcasts
    ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
  • OBJECTIVES
    • To provide educational facilities to people who cannot leave their homes and jobs in such manner as it may determine.
    • To provide such facilities to the masses for their educational uplift as it may determine.
    • To provide facilities for the training of teachers in such manner as it may determine.
    • To provide for instruction in such branches of learning technology or vocations as it may deem fit, and to make provision for research and for the advancement and dissemination of knowledge in such manner as it may determine.
    • To hold examinations and to award and confer degrees, diplomas, certificates and other academic distinctions.
    ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
    • Administrative Structure
    ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
  • Academic Structure ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
  • FACULTIES Faculty of Social Science and Humanities Faculty of Basic and Applied Science Social Sciences Urdu English Mass Communication Library and Information Sciences Commerce Economic Management Sciences Population Study Iqbaliyat Islamic Studies Pakistan Studies Agricultural Sciences Basic Sciences Mathematics Statistics and Computer Sciences Technical and Vocational Education Women's Education Continuing and Remedial Education
    • Faculty of Education
    • Distance & Non Formal Education Science Education Elementary Teacher Education
    • Secondary Teacher Education
    • Institute of Mass Education Special Education Educational Planning and Management
    • Faculty of Arabic and Islamic Studies
    • Quran & Tafseer
    • Islamic Law and Jurisprudence (Fiqh)
    • Arabic
    • Islamic Thought, History and Culture
    • Hadith and Seerah
  • Main Features
    • Specialized books with reference to distance mode and students’ needs (self learning)
    • Helping student to study at home
    • Television and Radio support programs
    • Use of information technology
    • Qualified tutors as part time teachers
    • Assignments for periodic evolution
    • Workshops at the end of semester to strengthen the learning process
    ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
  • Main components of Multimedia Package
    • Correspondence material
    • Television and Radio
    • Satellite Transmission
    • Online Teaching
    • Video Conferencing
    • Non-Broadcast Media
    • Tutorial Instructions
    • Face-to Face Teaching
    • Group Training Workshop
    • Internship
    • Course Assignments
    • Final Examination
    ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
  • Objectives of the Study
    • Gender disparities in education at national level
    • Out comes of formal and non formal education in Pakistan
    • Root causes of gender disparities in education in Pakistan
    • Suggestions to minimize the gender disparities
    ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
  •  
  • EMPOWERMENT
    • Increasing the spiritual, political, social or economical strength of individuals and communities. It often involves the empowered developing confidence in their own capacities
    • (Wikipedia: 2006)
  • WOMEN EDUCATION AND GENDER GAP IN PAKISTAN
    • Female are 52% of total population
    • Female Literacy rate
      • Urban areas 52.2% (male: 74.3%)
      • Rural areas 19.1% (48.6%)
    • Female to male ratio 0.57%
    • Primary Education Enrollment
      • Female 56%
      • Male 76%
    • Secondary Education (K 12) Enrollment
      • Female 52%
      • Male 65%
    • Higher Education
      • Female 3%
      • Male 4%
    • (Gender Gap Report 2006)
    • Enrollment in formal system 41.5%
    • Enrollment in the non- formal system 85.52%
  •  
  • Reasons: Backwardness
    • Non-Equal Chances
    • Economical Matters
    • Inadequate Facilities
    • Early Marriages
    • Restrictions of female mobility
    • Perception that education is less relevant for girls
    • Shortage of women educated enough to be teachers
    • Poor quality of the education
    • Participating in Work Force
    • Traditions & Taboos
    • Male Demonomancy
    • Far Flung Areas
  •  
  • WOMEN EDUCATION THROUGH DISTANCE EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
    • AIOU filling the gender gap left by the conventional formal system of education
    • Suited to the female population as it offers them an opportunity   to study at home
    • Women living in the Tribal Areas and the far-flung areas where the formal system of education has not reached yet
  • Total public and private institutions   40.61 18.3 41.02   51.68 23.1 25.2   17.20 30.7 52.0 Percentage 61441 24991 11244 25204 108712 56190 25033 27488 605467 99107 177121 299641 Total 16059 6700 2886 6472 28716 15075 6516 7125 156100 3400 46315 76785 2003-04 15545 6388 2823 6333 27734 14370 6385 6978 152546 32864 44411 75272 2002-03 15051 6091 2762 6198 26790 13699 6257 6834 149085 31773 43525 73788 2001-02 14786 5812 2773 6201 25472 13046 5875 6551 147736 31070 42870 73796 2000-01 Total Mixed Gils Boys Total Mixed Girls Boys Total Mixed Girls Boys HIGH MIDDLE PRIMARY YEAR
  •  
  • Total public and private Enrollment by Gender   Source: Economic Survey (2005-06) and Ministry of Education, Govt. of Pakistan   41.5 58.49   40.89 59.10   40.98 59.01 Percentage 6412957 2661384 3751574 15541939 6355122 9168817 68150759 27933880 40216880 Total 1658299 679794 978505 4035040 1594129 2440912 17415240 7164609 10250631 2003-04 1615569 661781 953789 3926359 1549347 2377011 17170652 7065387 10105266 2002-03 1574164 644343 929821 3821215 1506088 2315127 16930860 6968109 9962751 2001-02 1564925 675466 889459 3759325 1705558 2053767 16634007 6735775 9898232 2000-01 Total Gils Boys Total Girls Boys Total Girls Boys HIGH MIDDLE PRIMARY YEAR
  • Gender Wise, Level Wise Course Enrollment of Secondary School Certificate (SSC)     85.52   14.46     Average 2978 97.24 2896 2.75 82 201 Islamiat 8009 51.34 4112 48.65 3897 202 Pakistan Studies 2927 90.12 2638 9.87 289 203 General Science 8123 50.52 4104 49.47 4019 204 Urdu for daily use 199 97.98 195 2.0 04 205 Arabic 1708 99.32 1695 0.76 13 206 Family Health Care 3685 88.43 3259 11.56 426 207 Functional English I 3112 90.7 2824 9.25 288 214 General arithmetic 3528 90.30 3186 9.69 342 221 Functional English II 1222 99.34 1214 0.65 08 217 Food and Nutrition Total % Female % Male Course code Courses
  •   Gender Wise, Level Wise Course Enrollment of Higher Secondary Certificate (HSSC)     62.7   37.3     Average 60 51.66 31 48.33 29 1296 Chemistry-1 46 54.34 25 45.65 21 1292 Action for health 82 59.7 49 40.2 33 1288 English 7260 74.14 5383 25.85 1877 1253 Health and Nutrition 1865 53.13 991 46.86 874 1218 Arabic 20066 53.79 10795 46.20 9271 1221 Education 6021 84.95 5115 17.71 906 1238 Child Care 21903 52.54 11509 47.45 10394 1243 Islamiat (Elective) 4863 92.57 4502 7.42 361 1245 Home Management 2639 52.33 1381 47.66 1258 1249 Plant protection Total % Female % Male Course Code Courses
  • Gender Wise, Level Wise Course Enrollment of Bachelor Degree Programme (B.A-General)     59.0   41.0     Average 6527 76.59 4999 23.41 1528 485 Health and Nutrition 5499 77.07 4238 22.93 1261 484 Food and Nutrition 147 52.40 77 47.60 70 482 Food microbiology 603 50.50 304 49.50 299 466 History of libraries 24438 56.12 13660 43.88 10724 437 Islamic Studies 40777 52.55 21426 47.45 19351 435 Functional English 23781 58.15 13827 41.85 9954 419 Education 38357 52.72 20218 47.28 18139 417 Pakistan Studies 9218 58.61 5402 41.39 3816 411 Socialogy-1 22659 54.42 12330 45.58 10329 404 Urdu Total % Female % Male Course Code Courses
  • Gender Wise, Level Wise Course Enrollment of Bachelor of Education (B.Ed)     68.38   31.61     Average 15118 73.70 11143 26.29 3975 658 Teaching of Urdu 36753 71.17 26156 28.83 10597 654 Teaching of Islamiat 1874 59.66 1118 40.34 756 653 Teaching of Chemistry 47140 68.98 32517 31.02 14623 655 Workshop and teaching practice 47189 69.07 32592 30.93 14597 652 Islam, Pakistan and Modern world 2263 68.10 1541 31.90 722 520 Teaching of Biology 7044 70.11 4938 29.89 2106 519 Teaching of English 23546 65.63 15453 34.37 8093 517 Teaching of Pakistan Studies 47205 69.01 32573 30.99 14632 512 Perspective of Education Total % Female % Male Course Code Courses
  •   Gender Wise, Level Wise Course Enrollment of M.Ed (Special Education)     59.21   40.78     Average 129 54.27 70 45.73 59 846 Teaching Strategies 60 63.34 38 36.66 22 683 Audiology and Audiometry 63 61.91 39 38.09 24 682 Speech and hearing 63 63.50 40 36.50 23 681 Psychology of deafness and child development 65 61.54 40 38.46 25 680 General introduction of hearing impairment 131 53.44 70 46.56 61 673 Handicapped  persons in community 130 53.85 70 46.15 60 672 Perspectives of Special Education 130 53.85 70 46.15 60 671 Educational Psychology Total % Female % Male Course Code Courses
  • Gender Wise, Level Wise Course Enrollment of M.A Islamic Studies   69.12   30.88 Average 198 70.21 139 29.79 59 4565 Islamic Law 271 74.54 202 25.46 69 4559 Islamic Movement 201 76.12 153 23.88 48 4558 Fiqh –al-Sunnah 105 71.43 75 28.57 30 4557 Textual Study of Hadith 344 68.61 236 31.39 108 978 Arabic Literature and Language 314 68.16 214 31.84 100 975 Islamic History-II 347 68.88 239 31.12 108 974 Islamic History-I 346 68.50 237 31.50 109 973 Islamic Fiqh 823 62.34 513 37.66 310 972 Al-Hadith 822 62.41 513 37.59 309 971 Al-Quran Total % Female % Male Course Code Courses
  • Gender Wise, Level Wise Course Enrollment of M.A (Secondary Teacher Education)     76.23   23.77     Average 1109 77.37 858 22.63 251 6502 Educational Management 1589 74.64 1186 25.36 403 6501 Educational Psychology and Guidance 1606 74.79 1201 25.21 405 6500 Foundation of Education 1099 77.62 853 22.38 246 846 Teaching Strategies 1394 75.83 1057 24.17 337 829 Teacher education in Pakistan 1392 75.83 1056 24.17 336 828 Higher Education 1395 75.85 1058 24.15 337 827 Secondary Education 1392 75.80 1055 24.20 337 826 Elementary Education 1045 77.23 807 22.77 238 584 Planning for population Education 1047 77.27 809 22.73 238 506 Development Education Total % Female % Male Course Code Courses
  • Gender Wise, Level Wise Course Enrollment of M.Phil Food and Nutrition     100   00     Average 4 100 4 00 0 1780 Research Thesis 3 100 3 00 0 1779 Computer application in Food and Nutrition 4 100 4 00 0 1778 Research Techniques in Nutrition and health 4 100 4 00 0 1777 Food analysis 3 100 3 00 0 1776 4Dietetics Practice 3 100 3 00 0 1775 Advance Food and Nutrition Total % Female % Male Course Code Courses
    • Gender disparities in formal system of education
    • with respect to number of institutions
    • and enrollment in Pakistan.
    • In formal system of education there are inadequate
    • schooling and facilities for female education in Pakistan
    • There exist openness to every one in distance system of education
    • Females have greater number of chances for education through distance education rather than formal system education in Pakistan
    • The enrollment ratio of the girls in formal system is less than the boys at all levels in Pakistan
    • The enrollment ratio of the girls is higher than the boys at all levels in distance system of education in Pakistan.
    • Girls more confident, economically strong better, more social and having knowledge of basic rights of a woman .
  • Research Methodology
    • Survey
      • Questionnaire for 300 Females
      • Semi-Structured Interviews: 10% from each Strata (Rural: 5% Urban: 5%)
    • Sample: 300 Females
      • Rural: 50%
      • Urban: 50%
      • Punjab: 100 (Rural: 50 Urban: 50)
      • Sindh: 80 (Rural: 40 Urban: 40)
      • Balochistan: 40 (Rural: 20 Urban:20)
      • NWFP: 50 (Rural: 25 Urban: 25)
      • AJK: 30 (Rural: 15 Urban: 15)
  • QUESTIONS: ASPECTS FINDINGS
    • Confident (86%)
    • Basic Rights (61%)
    • Political how-know (45%)
    • Societal matters (67%)
    • Economically Strong (Good Job) (87%)
    • Superior in Family (43%)
    • Spiritual (Religious Matters) (89%)
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
    • Increase the institutions  of the female in formal system of education
    • Equalize to number of institutions of male  to minimize gender gap in Pakistan
    • Increase the number of Distance Learning institutions in Pakistan
    • The Distance Learning institutions may be established at provincial level to minimize the gender gap in education in Pakistan
  • Thanks for Giving me Your Ears Zahid Majeed Pakistan ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN