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Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
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Chapter 8 Powerpoint

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  • 1. Chapter 8 Scheduling Michael Slemp Peter Renault Rethinking High School. Daniels, Bizar, Zemelman Pages 174-190
  • 2. Making the right choices
    • What is the ideal time for instruction to begin?
    • Is using bell to mark the beginning and the end of the lessons beneficial or harmful?
    • What is better?
    • Traditional or
    • alternative schedule?
  • 3. Starting Time
    • Problem with adolescent students
      • Instruction starts too early
      • Students are forced to get up before sunrise
      • “adolescent sleeping phenomenon” – students are tired and sleepy for most of the morning
      • By lunchtime students start to feel more alert
      • After lunch students get tired and sleepy again
  • 4. Starting Time
    • Reasons for this tiredness
      • Adolescents’ hormonal changes as they go through puberty causes shift in their biological clock
      • “ phase delay” in sleep time
        • Students are not tired and ready to fall a sleep at appropriate evening hours
        • Students stay up till late night
        • Early start of the classes forces students to get up early
        • Students do not get enough sleep and feel tired in the morning
        • Overall result – students are not engaged and learn less
  • 5. Starting Time
    • Solutions
      • To better synchronize high school schedule with the biological alignment of the students’ biological clock.
      • No ideal start time set but the overall suggestion is to have a later starting time
      • Seems not practical for educators that are used to get up early
      • Later start times can be viewed as an opportunity for teachers’ prep time or school and department meetings.
  • 6. Bell: friend or enemy?
    • History of bell
      • Invented around 1911
      • Have been used ever since
      • Creates structure and organization
      • Regulates movement of students and teachers
      • In 1920s “school efficiency” movement
        • Organize school like industrial plants
  • 7. Bell – friend or enemy?
    • So what happens towards the end of the lecture when students sense the bell will ring soon?
    • 5 minutes before the end of the lecture:
      • Teacher talks
      • Students’ glances at the clock increases
      • Students' attention decreases
  • 8. Bell – friend or enemy?
    • 3 minutes before the end of the lecture:
      • Teacher continues with instruction
      • Students are quietly closing books
      • Students are gathering their materials
      • Students are packing their backpacks
      • No student will volunteer any comments
      • No student will ask questions
  • 9. Bell – friend or enemy?
    • 1 minute before the end of the lecture
      • Students are fully packed
      • Students pay no attention to the teacher
      • All students are watching the second hand on the clock
      • Students anticipate the bell
      • ringing any second
  • 10. Bell – friend or enemy?
    • The bell rings
      • Students bolt from their seats
      • Students ignore any final instructions from their teacher
      • Even if teacher asks students to stay extra minute, students do not pay attention and likely do not remember what teacher said.
  • 11. Bell – friend or enemy?
    • So what would happen if bell would be eliminated?
    • Positive effects
      • Teachers would decide within minute or two when their class would end
      • Lecture would end more naturally (when work was done and questions answered)
      • Students are more likely to pay attention till the end of the lecture
  • 12. Bell – friend or enemy?
    • So what would happen if bell would be eliminated?
    • Negative effects
      • Different classes are dismissed at different times
      • Dismissed students are loud
      • Students dismissed earlier can disrupt other lectures in progress.
      • Harder to supervise students dismissed at different times
  • 13. Bell – friend or enemy?
    • There is no clear solution to keeping or eliminating the school bell
    • One thing remains
    • Time allotted to instruction is precious
    • and needs to be used effectively
  • 14. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Traditional schedule
      • 7 or 8 periods a day
      • Each period is about
      • 50 minutes long
      • Variety of subjects
      • and topics
    Art 2:01-2:51 Period 7 PE 1:08-1:58 Period 6 Lunch 12:02-1:05 Period 5 Geometry 11:09-11:59 Period 4 Social Studies 10:16-11:06 Period 3 English 9:23 – 10:13 Period 2 Physics 8:30 – 9:20 Period 1
  • 15. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Problems with traditional schedule
      • 50 minutes is not enough for significant intellectual engagement
  • 16. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Problems with traditional schedule
      • Short periods encourages teachers to use lecture rather than more experimental, interactive teaching methods
    versus
  • 17. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Problems with traditional schedule
      • Different school subjects need different amount of instructional time
  • 18. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Problems with traditional schedule
      • A 7-period day contains too many time-wasting transitions
  • 19. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Problems with traditional schedule
      • Students’ and teachers’ motivation decreases with 180 days of mundane routine
  • 20. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Problems with traditional schedule
      • Dividing studies into variety subjects and periods sends a wrong message about the nature of knowledge and learning in the real world.
  • 21. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Problems with traditional schedule
      • Issues with creation of complex schedule with variety classes and several ability levels
  • 22. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Recommendations
    • (Federal government Prisoners of Time report)
      • Longer school year
      • Relocation of nonacademic pursuits (driver education, physical education) to after-school programs
      • Endorsement of flexible block schedule
        • Longer variable chunks of time
  • 23. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Reasons for considering alternative schedule?
    • It is all about effective use of time!
  • 24. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • With better us of schedules
    • there will be more time for
      • Ample teaching time
      • Opportunity for faculty and department meetings
      • Adequate prep time
      • Administrative and busy work
      • Individual consultations with students and parents
  • 25. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Sample of block schedule
      • Each block is somewhere between 90-100 minutes
      • Students alternate between day 1 and day 2
    Day 1 Day 2 PE 1:08-2:51 Period 5 Lunch English 10:16-11:59 Period 3 Science 8:30 – 10:13 Period 1 Spanish 1:08-2:51 Period 6 Lunch Math 10:16-11:59 Period 4 History 8:30 – 10:13 Period 2
  • 26. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Alternate day model
    • Students take six typical classes
    • Each class meets for ninety-minutes every other day
    • Example
      • Day 1 –English, math, music and elective A
      • Day 2 – science, social studies, foreign language and elective B
  • 27. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • 4x4 model
    • Traditional year-long courses are compressed into semester-long versions
    • Each semester students take only 4 classes
    • Each class meets for 90 minutes
  • 28. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Copernican model
    • Derived from summer school programs
    • School year is divided into three 60-day segments
    • Each segment is dedicated to few concentrated courses
  • 29. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Trimester model
    • Two 70-day sessions
      • Students take 5 classes
    • 30-day spring semester
      • Intensive study of one or two subject
      • Time to make up lost credits
  • 30. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Potential obstacles of alternative schedule
      • Hard to rework old schedules
      • Teachers used to old routines
      • Transfers between traditional and alternative schools
      • Deciding best instruction for given class (e.g. music requires daily practice all year long)
  • 31. Traditional versus alternative schedule
    • Potential problems with alternative schedule
      • How to make up absences in block schedules (large chunks of material covered)
      • What about kids who fail class
      • Increase the qualification and development of teachers to insure the effective us of longer time slots

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