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Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
Chapter 8 Powerpoint
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Chapter 8 Powerpoint

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  • 1. Chapter 8 Scheduling Michael Slemp Peter Renault Rethinking High School. Daniels, Bizar, Zemelman Pages 174-190
  • 2. Making the right choices <ul><li>What is the ideal time for instruction to begin? </li></ul><ul><li>Is using bell to mark the beginning and the end of the lessons beneficial or harmful? </li></ul><ul><li>What is better? </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional or </li></ul><ul><li>alternative schedule? </li></ul>
  • 3. Starting Time <ul><li>Problem with adolescent students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction starts too early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are forced to get up before sunrise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“adolescent sleeping phenomenon” – students are tired and sleepy for most of the morning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By lunchtime students start to feel more alert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After lunch students get tired and sleepy again </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Starting Time <ul><li>Reasons for this tiredness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescents’ hormonal changes as they go through puberty causes shift in their biological clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ phase delay” in sleep time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students are not tired and ready to fall a sleep at appropriate evening hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students stay up till late night </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early start of the classes forces students to get up early </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students do not get enough sleep and feel tired in the morning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall result – students are not engaged and learn less </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. Starting Time <ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To better synchronize high school schedule with the biological alignment of the students’ biological clock. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No ideal start time set but the overall suggestion is to have a later starting time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seems not practical for educators that are used to get up early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later start times can be viewed as an opportunity for teachers’ prep time or school and department meetings. </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Bell: friend or enemy? <ul><li>History of bell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invented around 1911 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have been used ever since </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates structure and organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates movement of students and teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1920s “school efficiency” movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organize school like industrial plants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. Bell – friend or enemy? <ul><li>So what happens towards the end of the lecture when students sense the bell will ring soon? </li></ul><ul><li>5 minutes before the end of the lecture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher talks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ glances at the clock increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students' attention decreases </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Bell – friend or enemy? <ul><li>3 minutes before the end of the lecture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher continues with instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are quietly closing books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are gathering their materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are packing their backpacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No student will volunteer any comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No student will ask questions </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Bell – friend or enemy? <ul><li>1 minute before the end of the lecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are fully packed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students pay no attention to the teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All students are watching the second hand on the clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students anticipate the bell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ringing any second </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Bell – friend or enemy? <ul><li>The bell rings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students bolt from their seats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students ignore any final instructions from their teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if teacher asks students to stay extra minute, students do not pay attention and likely do not remember what teacher said. </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Bell – friend or enemy? <ul><li>So what would happen if bell would be eliminated? </li></ul><ul><li>Positive effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers would decide within minute or two when their class would end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture would end more naturally (when work was done and questions answered) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are more likely to pay attention till the end of the lecture </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Bell – friend or enemy? <ul><li>So what would happen if bell would be eliminated? </li></ul><ul><li>Negative effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different classes are dismissed at different times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dismissed students are loud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students dismissed earlier can disrupt other lectures in progress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harder to supervise students dismissed at different times </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Bell – friend or enemy? <ul><li>There is no clear solution to keeping or eliminating the school bell </li></ul><ul><li>One thing remains </li></ul><ul><li>Time allotted to instruction is precious </li></ul><ul><li>and needs to be used effectively </li></ul>
  • 14. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Traditional schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 or 8 periods a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each period is about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 minutes long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and topics </li></ul></ul>Art 2:01-2:51 Period 7 PE 1:08-1:58 Period 6 Lunch 12:02-1:05 Period 5 Geometry 11:09-11:59 Period 4 Social Studies 10:16-11:06 Period 3 English 9:23 – 10:13 Period 2 Physics 8:30 – 9:20 Period 1
  • 15. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Problems with traditional schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 minutes is not enough for significant intellectual engagement </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Problems with traditional schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short periods encourages teachers to use lecture rather than more experimental, interactive teaching methods </li></ul></ul>versus
  • 17. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Problems with traditional schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different school subjects need different amount of instructional time </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Problems with traditional schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 7-period day contains too many time-wasting transitions </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Problems with traditional schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ and teachers’ motivation decreases with 180 days of mundane routine </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Problems with traditional schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dividing studies into variety subjects and periods sends a wrong message about the nature of knowledge and learning in the real world. </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Problems with traditional schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues with creation of complex schedule with variety classes and several ability levels </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>(Federal government Prisoners of Time report) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer school year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocation of nonacademic pursuits (driver education, physical education) to after-school programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endorsement of flexible block schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longer variable chunks of time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 23. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Reasons for considering alternative schedule? </li></ul><ul><li>It is all about effective use of time! </li></ul>
  • 24. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>With better us of schedules </li></ul><ul><li>there will be more time for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ample teaching time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity for faculty and department meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate prep time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative and busy work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual consultations with students and parents </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Sample of block schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each block is somewhere between 90-100 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students alternate between day 1 and day 2 </li></ul></ul>Day 1 Day 2 PE 1:08-2:51 Period 5 Lunch English 10:16-11:59 Period 3 Science 8:30 – 10:13 Period 1 Spanish 1:08-2:51 Period 6 Lunch Math 10:16-11:59 Period 4 History 8:30 – 10:13 Period 2
  • 26. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Alternate day model </li></ul><ul><li>Students take six typical classes </li></ul><ul><li>Each class meets for ninety-minutes every other day </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 1 –English, math, music and elective A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 2 – science, social studies, foreign language and elective B </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>4x4 model </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional year-long courses are compressed into semester-long versions </li></ul><ul><li>Each semester students take only 4 classes </li></ul><ul><li>Each class meets for 90 minutes </li></ul>
  • 28. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Copernican model </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from summer school programs </li></ul><ul><li>School year is divided into three 60-day segments </li></ul><ul><li>Each segment is dedicated to few concentrated courses </li></ul>
  • 29. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Trimester model </li></ul><ul><li>Two 70-day sessions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students take 5 classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>30-day spring semester </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive study of one or two subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time to make up lost credits </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Potential obstacles of alternative schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to rework old schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers used to old routines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfers between traditional and alternative schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciding best instruction for given class (e.g. music requires daily practice all year long) </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. Traditional versus alternative schedule <ul><li>Potential problems with alternative schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to make up absences in block schedules (large chunks of material covered) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about kids who fail class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the qualification and development of teachers to insure the effective us of longer time slots </li></ul></ul>

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