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LSD Presentation

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A powerpoint from my group's LSD Presentation for Psych 420

A powerpoint from my group's LSD Presentation for Psych 420

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  • The correct reference is: Sewell RA, Halpern JH, Pope HG Jr. Response of cluster headache to psilocybin and LSD. Neurology 2006; 66:920-922.
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  • Production of Tolerance to Psychosis-Producing Doses of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide - H. A. Abramson, B. Sklarofsky, M. O. Baron, N. Fremont-Smith
  • 5HT2, 5HT1A, 5HT1C are all located in the cerebral cortex
  • Effects of LSD ill-defined because: 1. Media hysteria drove research dry 2. Complex drug affecting complex organism (neocortex), effects variable even in lesser animals!LSD’s main effects lie within cerebral cortex stimulation; it is a human drug.
  • 1963 LSD first hits the streets. 1965 Owsley Stanley succeeds in synthesizing crystalline LSDSummer 1969: Orange Sunshine appears1970 Windowpane & blotter forms appears
  • Neurotics mental life is characterized by a more or less complete separation form causative memories and from the inner psyche. Which results in mental tension, states of fear and anxiety characterized by preoccupation with symptoms, lack of purpose and direction in life.All patients were either severe obsessional neurotics with a bad prognosis or were patients who had been ill for a considerable time and who had previously had prolonged treatment either by psychotherapy or other means without improvement.Patients were in danger of becoming permanent mental invalids, life-long neurotics or of ending their lives by suicide.Of 3 classical obsessionalnueortics, 2 recovered after an average of 40 treatmentsPatients who have been ill for up to ten years have required only a small number of treatments& unlike other treatments, LSD 25 is almost as effective in patients who have been ill for up to ten years as it is in more recent cases.Conclusion: LSD when used as an adjunct to skilled psychotherapy is of the greatest value in the obsessional and anxiety groups accompanied by mental tension.
  • http://www.maps.org/w3pb/new/2006/2006_Sewell_22779_1.pdfCluster headaches are often considered the most painful of all types of headaches. The disorder is categorized as either episodic, occurring for 1-week to 1-year periods interspersed with pain-free remission periods or chronic, in which the headaches occur constantly for more than a year with no remission longer than one month.Researchers searched message boards and support groups for patients who had used lsd or psilocybin treatments.Narrowed down to 53, 58% had never used the drugs prior to treatment, only 25% had used them recreationally.RESULTS: 17 of 19 users found psilocybin to be effective in aborting an attack (within 20 minutes) Only one user used LSD to abort an acute attack, but with success.29 subjects used psilocybin during a cluster period with 52% experiencing total cessation of the attacks and 41% reporting partial efficacy.5 of 6 LSD users reported cluster period termination. 4 of 5 patients were able to extend their remissions with LSDTwo of the LSD users were diagnosed with “chronic cluster headaches”. One reported no attacks for 10 days after a subhallucinogenic dose and the other reported no attacks for 2 months after a subhallucinogenic dose.Overall, 42% of the 53 subjects reported partial or complete efficacy from subhallucinogenic doses of psilocybin or LSDNo other medication has been reported to terminate a cluster period. The results are remarkable considering the low doses and number of treatments
  • Research began in 1959 when the interest in lsd in psychotherapy was on the riseTreated 12 children suffering from autistic-schizophreniaVarying doses were given on one or two occasions3 children showed evidence of catatonia, none of the children ate their lunchesNew bodily sensations: all but 4 of the children were observed to repeatedly stroke or move a particular area- most often the mouth or lips
  • Some of the negative effects of the lsd treatment were rapid mood swings, from extreme elation to extreme depressionOne hope of this study was to induce speech in previously mute children, but the hoped for change from muteness to speech did not occur.LSD studies on autism continued into the 1970s with mixed results. Many studies concluded the effects of LSD treatment were very promising and could even be considered excellent for the majority of children.Others found the promise of LSD to be short-lived with many children becoming unresponsive and immobile on the drug, which threw some doubt on its use as a therapeutic adjunct.
  • “… in 1953 Frank Oldson jumped to his death from a New York City hotel window after he was unwittingly dosed with LSD "while attending a meeting with CIA personnel working on a test project that involved the administration of mind-bending drugs to unsuspecting Americans."““The three-day meeting had taken place in a remote area of Maryland called Deep Creek Lake and involved the LSD dosing of not just one man but several. According to The New York Times at least three participants in the meeting were given after-dinner drinks laced with a relatively small amount of LSD, about 70 micrograms. “…Starrs's exam revealed "startling results." There were no traces of LSD in Olson's corpse; there was "a highly suspicious blunt force wound" on Olson's frontal skull, most likely caused by a hammer or similar object; Olson's skull revealed "many fractures," so many that "It would not be possible unless he were on a trampoline. "“http://www.crimemagazine.com/olson.htm
  • “The 7000-pound bull elephant named Tusko was injected with a huge dose of LSD (297 mg) into one buttock with a dart rifle. Five minutes later, the elephant collapsed and went into convulsions.”“Twenty minutes after the initial injection of LSD… …2800 mg of chlorpromazine hydrochloride was injected into his ear over a period of 11 minutes, and only partially relieved the seizures and respiratory distress.” Sixty minutes after, “Dr. West injected Tusko with an unspecified quantity of pentobarbital sodium directly into a vein. The elephant died 1 hour and 40 minutes after the LSD had been given.”Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride – Causes dopamine receptor blockage in the central nervous system.Its used for management of manic phase of manic-depressive disorder; treatment of schizophrenia; relief of anxiety and restlessness prior to surgery; adjunct in treatment of tetanus; management of acute intermittent porphyria and severe behavioral and conduct disorders in children 1 to 12 years of age; control of nausea and vomiting; relief of intractable hiccoughs.Pentobarbital Sodium – A barbiturate used as a short-acting sedative and hypnotic.http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd_history4.shtml
  • “Mr. A., a 20-year-old college undergraduate, completely disrobed and jumped from a window to his death while under the influence of self-administered LSD.”He complained of symptoms of anxiety and of difficulty in studying and was adjudged to be mildly or moderately disturbed…”He took LSD in the company of others, was observed to pace in and out of the room in which the others were, and, without explanation, while by himself, disrobed and took his life
  • Also on the drug war facts web site, there is an overdose “chapter” and it talks about Alcohol, Cannabis, Cocaine, Heroin, Methadone, Methamphetamine, and then talked about the “Bottom-Line” of drugs, however, nowhere on the page is LSD mentioned.
  • 1 – Its hard to find accurate information.2 – It seems like deaths, involving LSD, haven’t been documented well.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Lysergic
      ACID
      Diethylamide
      By: Holly George, Sam Irish, & Joel Vidmore
    • 2. LSD “Educational” Video
      www.youtube.com/watch?v=FqGegSpMVOA
    • 3. Myth-Conceptions of ACID
      Acid changes your chromosomes.
      Myth – It originates from a study dating back to 1967 which showed that LSD caused "chromosomal breaks“/damage to DNA. It was later proven to be false.
      Acid stays in your spinal cord and cracking your back can make you trip out again.
      Myth –Flash backs do happen but rarely, most of the time they are based on visual or auditory cues or intense emotional situations, but not due to LSD being left in the body.
    • 4. Psych322 Review of LSD
      Half Life: 110min or 3-5hr
      Duration: 8-12hr
      Structurally similar to serotonin (5HT)
      Produced by a lower fungus (Clavicepspurpurea) that grows parasitically on rye (and other species of grain and wild grasses)
    • 5.
    • 6.
    • 7. Dosing
      Human ED50: .0003-.001mg/kg
      Consumed most often via GI Tract
      Sugar Cube, Blotter, liquid, crystal
      Therapeutic Index (LD50/ED50) so high for humans that it hasn’t been determined!
      Approximation: .2mg/kg (200ug/kg)
      I weight 155lbs = 70.3kg = LD ~140 doses!
      One tsp. = 50,000 doses
    • 8. Absorption & Biotransformation
      GI absorbs LSD easily and completely, thus unnecessary to inject (or occular)
      80% biotransformed via liver
      1-10% passes through unaltered
      Remainder is various biotransformed products
    • 9. Distribution
      Unexpectedly, LSD has the lowestdistribution to brain
      Concentrated in certain centers of midbrain that regulate emotion
      Only 1% of theabsorbed dose makes it to the brain
      1/10 grain of sand per effective dose, 1/100th gets through blood-brain barrier, meaning: 1/1000th the mass of a grain of sand of LSD in the brain is all that is necessary to elicit the INTENSE psychological effects!
      Concentration in body compartments at maximum 10-15min after ingestion, falls swiftly
      Exception: small intestine reach max concentration in 2hr
    • 10. LSD in Animals
      Mouse: motor disturbances, alteration in licking behavior.
      Cat: Piloerection and salivation. Indication of hallucination; staring anxiously in the air. Doesn’t attack mouse, may even fear it.
      Fish: Unusual swimming postures
      Chimpanzees: caged community reacts very sensitively if a member receives LSD. “The whole cage gets in an uproar because the LSD chimpanzee no longer observes the laws of its finely coordinated hierarchical tribal order.”
      Spiders: Alterations in web building. Low optimum dose: webs better proportioned and exactly built than normal, higher doses webs were badly and rudimentarily made.
    • 11. LD50 in Animals
      Mouse: 50-60mg/kg
      Rats: 16.5mg/kg
      Rabbit: .3mg/kg
      Elephant: .06mg/kg (Tusko @ .297g/500kg)
      Most animals die from respiratory arrest
    • 12. Cross Tolerant with…
      Psilocybin/Psilocin
      Mescaline
      Congeners
      “MLD-42 produces in man and the Siamese fighting fish reactions that are essentially indistinguishable from those produced by LSD-25, but there are higher reaction thresholds.” (1/3 as effective in man, 1/10 in fish)
      BOL-148 : Some tolerance, no psychological component
    • 13. Chemical Modifications of LSD
      Spatially Distinct Forms
      LSD = d-lysergic acid diethylamide
      Iso-LSD = d-isolysergic acid diethylamide
      L-LSD = l-lysergic acid diethylamide
      L-iso-LSD = l-isolysergic acid diethylamide
      Potency: last three show no psychic effect up to doses of .5mg (20-fold times active dose LSD)
    • 14. Chemical Modifications, Cont.
      Congeners 2
      ALD-52 (1-Acetyl-N,N-diethyllysergamide)
      Purportedly Stronger (“Orange Sunshine”)
      MLD-41 (1-Methyl lysergic acid diethylamide)
      Effects indistinguishable from LSD (1/3 potency))
      BOL-148 (bromo-LSD)
      No Psychedelic Effects
      Highest activity as 5HT blocker
      5HT blocking plays a role in allergic-inflammatory processes and generation of a migrain
      LAE-23 (monoethylamide of lysergic acid)
      Hydrogen atom replaces ethyl group
      10 times less psychoactive as LSD
      Hallucinations qualitatively different: narcotic component
      LA-111 (lysergic acid amide)
      Narcotic effect > LAE-23
      Naturally occurring active principle of Mexican ololiuqui
    • 15. Effect on the Brain
      5HT2 Receptor Partial Antagonist
      5HT1A & 5HT1C Receptor Agonist
      Downregulation of 5HT2 Receptors
      Implications?
      Enhance glutamate release directly from the terminals thalamocortical inputs to layer V pyramidal cells by 5-HT2A receptor stimulation
      Enhance the sensory responsivity of Locus Coeruleus neurons  contributes to (via extensive cortical projection) the characteristic intensification of perceptual experience produced by these drugs
    • 16. Non-Behavioral Effects
      Sweating & Chills
      Nausea
      Headache
      Uterine Constriction
      Dry Mouth
      Tachycardia
      Dilated Pupils
      Hyperthermia
      This is sympathetic nervous system response
    • 17. Subjective Effects
      Hallucinations as distortions of reality
      As opposed to intensification of reality
      Closed & Open eye visuals
      Kaleidoscopic & Geometric patterns
      Cross Modal experience (Synaesthesia)
      Evokes strong emotional reaction
      Time Distortion
      Ego-death/transcendence
      Repetitive/looping thought patterns
      Rapid Mood Shifts
      Extremely stimulated imagination
      “Despite the mass of published reports, definitive evidence is generally lacking, particularly with regard to the subjective and behavioral effects both during and subsequent to the LSD induced State.” - Robert E. Mogar, Current Status and Future Trends in Psychedelic (LSD) Research. J. human Psychol., Vol. 2, 1965, pp. 147-166
    • 18. Subjective Effects @ 2:00
      www.youtube.com/watch?v=yHkTnHR12I0&feature=related
    • 19. Hofmann’s “Peculiar Presentiment”
      Hofmann was researching a medicament to facilitate uterine contractions & aid in obstetrics.
      Intended circulatory and respiratory stimulant (analeptic)
      Years later wanted to look into LSD-25 again, maybe missed something.
      “The feeling that this substance (LSD-25) could possess properties other than those established in the first investigations"
    • 20. First LSD Experience
      While re-synthesizing Hofmann is assumed to have absorbed LSD in an undetermined way
      "Last Friday, April 16, 1943, I was forced to interrupt my work in the laboratory in the middle of the afternoon and proceed home, being affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition, characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dreamlike state, with eyes closed (I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring), I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. After some two hours this condition faded away."
    • 21. Second LSD Experience
      Hofmann intentionally ingested 250ug
      Wartime: Bicycled home
      External world became stranger & stranger
      When home, “room had changed”
      Objects had different form, color, and significance
      Inanimate objects become ‘alive’
      Heaven  Hellish  Heaven
      Colloquially known as “Bicycle Day”
    • 22. What is the LSD experience?
      Activity evoked by LSD similar to Mescaline (peyotlby the Aztecs) but novel in its high activity (5,000 – 10,000 times more active) & high specificity (aimed at human psyche)
      "The psychic effects of LSD, which are produced by such minimal quantities of material, are too meaningful and too multiform to be explained by toxic alterations of brain functioning. If LSD acted only through a toxic effect on the brain, then LSD experiences would be entirely psychopathological in meaning, without any psychological or psychiatric interest. ” - Albert Hofmann, LSD: My Problem Child
    • 23. Doors of Perception
      "If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, infinite. For man has closed himself up, till he sees all things through narrow chinks of his cavern.” - William Blake, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell
      Aldous Huxley’s “Doors of Perception” 1953
      Account of his first Mescaline experience (4/10g)
      Evoked a response akin to religious, mystical, and psychotic experience
      Claims: Urge to transcend self is universal‘Healthier doors’ than alcohol & cigarettes are neededIdeally, self-transcendence should be found in religion, but this doesn’t seem feasible.
      Mescaline is not necessary but helpful, especially so for the intellectual who is immersed in words & symbols
      The person who has this mystical experience will be transformed for the better.
      Huxley later had an LSD experience that was deemed more profound than his mescaline trip from Doors of Perception!
    • 24. Government Intervention
      Oct. 6, 1966: LSD made illegal in California
      Oct. 24, 1968: Staggers-Dodd Bill, LSD possession is banned federally
      Oct. 27, 1970: The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act passed. Part II is Controlled Substance Act (CSA) placing most known hallucinogens in Schedule I, including LSD.
    • 25. Treatment of Obsessional Neurosis
      N= 36 neurotics
      Ranged from 2 to 58 treatments
      20 received previous psychotherapy
      14 recovered
      3 showed moderate improvement
      2 did not improve
      1 too early to asses
      Almost as effective in patients who have been ill for up to 10 years
      Sandison, R. A. & Spencer, A. M. (1953). The therapeutic value of lysergic acid diethylamide in mental illness.
    • 26. Treatment of Cluster Headaches
      N= 53 diagnosed with cluster headaches
      58% had never used LSD or psilocybin
      5 of 6 LSD users reported termination
      22% reported partial or complete efficacy from sub-hallucinogenic doses of LSD or psilocybin
      One dose of LSD vs. ~3 of psilocybin
      Sewell, R. A. & Pope, H. G. Jr. (2006). Response of cluster headache to psilocybin and LSD. Neurology 2006. 66, 1920-1922.
    • 27. Treatment of Autism
      10 boys, 2 girls (5 yrs. 11 mo.- 11 yrs. 10 mo.)
      Sessions of 50, 100, or 200 micrograms
      Positive results:
      Increased physical contact
      Disappearance of physical mannerisms
      Development of new bodily sensations
      Improved play behaviors
      Increased social responsiveness
      Decrease in stereotyped movements
      Sigafoos, J., Green, V., Edrisinha, C., & Lancioni, G. (2007). Flashback to the 1960s: LSD in the treatment of autism. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 10(1), 75-81.
    • 28. Treatment of Autism (cont.)
      Negative results:
      Rapid mood swings
      Increased anxiety
      Auditory and visual hallucinations
      No improvement of speech
      Sigafoos, J., Green, V., Edrisinha, C., & Lancioni, G. (2007). Flashback to the 1960s: LSD in the treatment of autism. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 10(1), 75-81.
    • 29. Treatment of Alcoholism @4:03
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-bafNxQDUmo
    • 30. Treatment of Color Blindness
      Case studies from erowid.org:
      “Since I have tripped, I have visited the optometrist once and got 8 out of 15 numbers right in the colorblindness test when before I would only get 3 at the most.”
      “I am at the extreme end of the colorblindness scale… Yet under the influence of LSD, my color perceptions began to heighten… steadily I began to notice, for the first time a difference in appearance between the leaves of a tree and its bark.”
    • 31. What Some Attribute to LSD
      The Mysterious Death of CIA Scientist Frank Olson
    • 32. What Some Attribute to LSD
      Tusko the Elephant - 1962
    • 33. What Some Attribute to LSD
      Tusko the Elephant - 1962
      Questions
      Was LSD was the cause of the fatality?
      Did Jolly West acted irresponsibly and unscientifically?
      Was the Thorazine (chlorpromazine) more likely to be the direct cause of death?
      Were there any additional drugs administered which were not reported in the article?
      Did Jolly West have had ulterior motives in his work because of his interests in the potential mind-control and warfare uses of LSD?
      http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd_history4.shtml
    • 34. What Some Attribute to LSD
      Suicide During an LSD Reaction – 1967
      MR. A + Disturbed + LSD + Window
      Keeler, M. H., Reifler, C. B. (1967). Suicide During an LSD Reaction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 123, 884-885.
    • 35. What Some Attribute to LSD
      Death of 20 Year old Diane Linkletter – 1969
      “… Diane Linkletter, the daughter of the television and radio personality Art Linkletter, jumped from a window to her death while on LSD…(an autopsy later found no evidence of the drug in her body)”
      Art Linkletter became a strong voice against drug use, continually attributing his daughters death to her LSD use.
      http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/08/books/08book.html
    • 36. What Some Attribute to LSD
      Teen Faces Charges in Death -October 16, 2004
      “Cameron James Jester, 18…told investigators he gave the woman about 10 doses of the hallucinogen in a drink and then let her have some of his drink, which also had about the same number of droplet-sized doses.”
      “Gloria Discerni, 18, of Cottage Grove, Ore., died Friday after an apparent LSD overdose put her in a coma Tuesday night.”
      http://journalstar.com/news/local/article_e09b5805-fb49-5700-bbff-9e90b28d10ed.html
    • 37. What Some Attribute to LSD
      Teen Faces Charges in Death -October 16, 2004
      “Police are awaiting toxicology results to determine if the drug was actually LSD or if Discerni had taken any medications or had any other medical conditions which might have contributed to her death. (Updated 9.22.06: Toxicology reports later showed it was a designer drug.)”
      http://journalstar.com/news/local/article_e09b5805-fb49-5700-bbff-9e90b28d10ed.html
    • 38. What Some Attribute to LSD
      According to DrugWarFacts.Com
      In 2000, it was reported the annual causes of death in the US as:
      Tobacco 435,000
      Poor Diet and Physical Inactivity 365,000
      Alcohol 85,000
      Microbial Agents 75,000
      Toxic Agents 55,000
      Motor Vehicle Crashes 26,347
      Adverse Reactions to Prescription Drugs 32,000
      Suicide 30,622
      Incidents Involving Firearms 29,000
      Homicide 20,308
      Sexual Behaviors 20,000
      All Illicit Drug Use, Direct and Indirect 17,000
      Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Such As Aspirin 7,600
      Marijuana 0
    • 39. What Some Attribute to LSD
      “In 1999, according to (DAWN) Medical Examiner data, LSD was mentioned in 5 deaths by medical examiners reporting to DAWN. Of these 5 deaths, three were male and two were female. All deceased were white and under the age of 25. Reasons for the deaths were accidental/unexpected, and other/unknown.“
      http://www.sigep.org/documents/lsd-fact-sheet.pdf
    • 40. What Some Attribute to LSD
      Discovery of Double Helix DNA Structure by Francis Crick
      “told a fellow scientist that he often used small doses of LSD then an experimental drug used in psychotherapy to boost his powers of thought. He said it was LSD, not the Eagle's warm beer, that helped him to unravel the structure of DNA, the discovery that won him the Nobel Prize.”
      http://www.miqel.com/entheogens/francis_crick_dna_lsd.html
    • 41. What Some Attribute to LSD
      Invention of PCR by Dr. Kerry Mullis in 1983
      Polymerase Chain Reaction - a method to start and stop DNA polymerase enzyme activity at specific points along a single strand of DNA.
      Invention of Shareware by Bob Wallace
      Shareware – a tool used to provide free software to users who in turn may purchase it.
      Videos:
      www.youtube.com/watch?v=wibQv5aebZs
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ku3jz_NGUfU
    • 42. Inventions @ 9:25
      www.youtube.com/watch?v=wibQv5aebZs
    • 43. Inventions (cont)
      www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ku3jz_NGUfU&feature=related

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