0
Protect Rama Setu:
   for sustainable development
   Valmiki ramayana, Sarga 21, Yuddhakandam
   Describes Rama’s victory ...
Heavy mineral rich Inayam Teri Sand
   Deposit, Kanyakumari district, Tamil
   Nadu
         •




                       ...
Heavy mineral beach
                                     placers
                                     (ilmenite, rutile, g...
11/19/2007
            7




   1.US Navy operational directive, 23 June
   2005
   2. Chairman TCPT replies to PMO 30
   ...
Tirutturaipoondibe
                                            ach (6000 years)




                                      ...
Canyon below the ocean?
   Question of stability of
   any channel on this slope.

   • Abstract Two suites of slumps from...
11/19/2007
           13




                                     Tectonic setting:
                                     N...
Mannar Volcanics 100 m. old: Rama Setu
   an ancient submarine canyon collapse




                                       ...
Geological, archaeological evidence:
   Dept. of Earth Sciences (March 2007)
   • Around Rameswaram, there are raised Teri...
Tsunami effect: 2,60,000 lives lost
   Destruction of Aceh island, damage in beaches north of Chennai and
   Nagapattinam
...
Tsuanmi of Dec. 26, 2004
       Result of plate tectonics in Sunda plate




                                             ...
Prof. Tad S. Murthy’s views
   • Prof. Tad S Murthy is a tsunami expert who advised Govt. of India on
     tsunami warning...
Govt. has no plans to declare Ram Setu as national
   monument

   • 15:38 IST Tuesday, August 14, 2007
     Minister for ...
Map drawn by Joseph Parks, Australian
   Botanical explorer (1788) shows Ramar
   Bridge (Map in Sarasvati Mahal Lib.,
   ...
Setu, Setubandha Rameswaram
       Hampi inscription of Krishnadevaraya Saka 1430
       (1508 CE) in Epigraphica Indica r...
Islamic expansion and changing Western views of South
                                                   (Al-Biruni’s reco...
Madras Presidency Administration Report, 1903 and a
    Travelogue, 1744 refer to the bridge
     (

   Glossary entry: Ad...
Hon’ble Mu. Karunanidhi cites evidence for Rama
   Setu, there is also evidence from Sangam
   literature

   • In a book ...
Evidence from Sangam literature
     1.kadunter iraaman udanpun.ar seetaiyaivalittakai arakkan vavviya
     jnaanr-ainilam...
Prambananan (Brahmavana),
                    Indonesia




                                                      11/19/20...
Kilakkarai and other places produce s’ankha, a cultural
       symbol venerated in Bharatiya traditions (West Bengal
     ...
S’ankha is unique
                                                                          to Bharatam
                  ...
Impact on the livelihood of coastal
   people

   U. Arulanandam, President,
    Singaravelar Fishermen's
    Forum : the ...
Setu tirtham

       Setubandha venerated as sacred
        tirtha by Alwars and Nayanmars
       Rameswaram is one of the...
Rama Setu: destruction status
   10 Oct. 2007 46.07% (Palkbay/Palkstrait)
   17 Sept. 2007 24.76% (Rama Setu/Adam’s Bridge...
Locus of Rama Setu in relation to the coastline
                http://sethusamudram.gov.in




                          ...
Nightmare ship salvage operation if
       Setusamudram is aligned as a mid-
       ocean channel passage
                ...
Eminent Jurists’ views
         Justice VR Krishna Iyer’s letter to PM: I beseech
           you to reconsider the stand t...
Rama Setu -- world heritage
      Many monuments have been declared as World Heritage
      Sites by UNESCO:

            ...
Sri Rama and s’ankha naadam
                                         Vishnu’s fight
                                      ...
Heritage tourism
   • Tamilnadu Government website says Rama
     Setu and Rameshwaram are divyakshetram
     (like Tiruma...
Floating stone for Setubandhanam
       • Erwadi…(near Rames’varam)

       • SATCHI HANUMAN TEMPLE: This is where
       ...
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Transcript of "Ramasetu1dec2007"

  1. 1. Protect Rama Setu: for sustainable development Valmiki ramayana, Sarga 21, Yuddhakandam Describes Rama’s victory over the ocean; he releases the arrow which makes a volcano erupt, resulting in a tsunami. This episode is validated by the heatflow and geotectonic maps of Bharatam in the Rama Setu region. S. Kalyanaraman, Ph.D., Sarasvati Research Centre, Former Sr. Exec., Asian Development Bank, kalyan97@gmail.com 11/19/2007 1 Thorium/titanium placer deposits due to churning action of ocean currents, with Rama Setu acting like a sieve or cyclotron Thorium deposits in Kerala (Aluva, Chavara), Tamilnadu (Manavalakurichi) that support nuclear power source for India will be desiccated if Rama Setu is damaged. If another tsunami strikes, the placer 2 deposits will be submerged in the ocean. 1 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  2. 2. Heavy mineral rich Inayam Teri Sand Deposit, Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu • 11/19/2007 3 Importance of Thorium for Bharat The currently known Indian thorium reserves (3.6 lakh tonnes) amount to 358,000 GWe-yr of electrical energy (Thorium reserves can generate 400,000 MW electricity per year for the next 389 years). • India’s vast thorium deposits permit design and operation of U-233 fuelled breeder reactors. (Th-232 + neutron yields Uranium 233) • These thorium-based breeder reactors are under development and would serve as the mainstay of the final thorium utilization stage of the Indian nuclear programme. 11/19/2007 4 http://www.barc.ernet.in/webpages/about/anu1.htm 2 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  3. 3. Heavy mineral beach placers (ilmenite, rutile, garnet and monazite) Kolachel to Kanniyakumari on 75 km. Vattakottai and Lipuram to Manavalakurichi: 5 to 6 km. With a width of 3 to 5 m from the mouth of Valliyur River. (Data base, GSI) 11/19/2007 5 Richest monazite concentration in the world (32% of world thorium reserves) The beach placers in Manavalakurichi, Aluva, Chavara, on an average contain 45 to 55% ilmenite, 7 to 14% garnet, 4 to 5% zircon, 3 to 4% monazite, 2 to 3% sillimanite, 2 to 3% rutile, 0.5 to 1% leucoxene and 10 to 25% others, including silica. (Database 1984, GSI) 11/19/2007 6 3 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  4. 4. 11/19/2007 7 1.US Navy operational directive, 23 June 2005 2. Chairman TCPT replies to PMO 30 June 2005 3. Inauguration of SSCP 2 July 2005. • Agreement between Sri Lanka (Sirimavo Bandaranaike) and India (Indira Gandhi) June 1974: declaration Gulf of Mannar as Historic waters; United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (1958), Convention of the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone recognizes HISTORIC Waters • This claim is not recognized by the United States. • U.S. conducted operational assertions in 1993 and 1994, 1999 in Gulf (or tadi eduttavan tandal kaaran) treating these as international waters. • Geopolitics: USA naval bases : Diego garcia, Trincomalee, Straits of Malacca China naval bases: Gwadar, Haumtota, Sitwe 11/19/2007 8 4 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  5. 5. Tirutturaipoondibe ach (6000 years) Kodiyakkarai Manamelgudi shoreline (6000 years) Thondi Pamban Devipattinam Ramanathapuram Talaimannar Uchchipuli 11/19/2007 9 A volcanic canyon west of Rama Setu, 1 m to 3000 m slope Location map. Inset: bathymetry map of the Gulf of Mannar (reproduced from Murty et al., 1994) http://www.Setusamudram.in/htm docs/Articles/cp_rajendran_2.htm 11/19/2007 10 5 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  6. 6. Canyon below the ocean? Question of stability of any channel on this slope. • Abstract Two suites of slumps from opposite margins of the Gulf of Mannar, between Sri Lanka and southern India, have met and coalesced. The “Eastern Comorin” Slump is the more coherent of the two with a length of 70 to 100 km. The “Colombo” side slump consists of two to four blocks 15 to 35 km in length. Both slump-suites decrease to the south. A paleoslump underlies the western toe of the East Comorin Slump at a depth of some 800 meters. To the south, an enlarging and deepening submarine canyon marks the area of slump coalescence. See William Vestal and Allen Lowrie, Geology and Geophysics Branch-Code 7220, U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office NSTL Station, 39522, MS • http://www.springerlink.com /content/m602j3k746342lnl/ 11/19/2007 11 Rama’s hotspot Heatflow in Rama Setu 100 to 180 milliwatt per sq. m. comparable to Himalayan hotsprings Will dredging in the area activate these heat zones?. 11/19/2007 12 6 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  7. 7. 11/19/2007 13 Tectonic setting: Nature magazine, 6 Sept. 2007 Plate subduction Sunda plate Direction of inferred fault- line sucking in tsunami 11/19/2007 14 7 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  8. 8. Mannar Volcanics 100 m. old: Rama Setu an ancient submarine canyon collapse 11/19/2007 15 • Destruction of Bore-hole locations on Rama Setu fragile coral islands by sediments • Likely reactivation of sub-sea heatflows • Alternatives: • Pamban; like Panama Canal, locks could be provided both in the Palk bay side and Gulf of Mannar side so that such calamities could be prevented. • Provide for tsunami-protection walls 11/19/2007 16 8 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  9. 9. Geological, archaeological evidence: Dept. of Earth Sciences (March 2007) • Around Rameswaram, there are raised Teri formations that supported a rich assemblage of mesolithic – microlithic tools indicating the presence of strong human habitation and activity in these areas as early as 8000 to 9000 years B.P and as recent as 4000 years B.P. On Sri Lanka side there are indications of human habitation extending to late Pleistocene (about 13,000 B.P) based on bone and fossils of human and animal form. • All these point to a flourishing human activity on both sides of Adams Bridge and probably when the sea levels were just right the link between India and Sri Lanka could have been established. 11/19/2007 17 Evidence from ISRO and NASA websites A news report date-lined Rameswaram, 15 April 2007 in the New Indian Express (page 7) noted:quot;... Baalu said the government and the Sethusamudram project officials had written to NASA on the Adam's Bridge, but there has been no reply from NASA.quot; ISRO image gives the answer ! Why ask NASA? Item 1: February 2000 Report of NASA http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/srilanka.htm Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) of NASA aboard space shuttle Endeavour launched in February 2000. quot;Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping- stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries.quot; Item 2: April 1966 Report of NASA http://history.nasa.gov/SP- 168/section3b.htm Exploring space with a camera by NASA quot;[193] Gemini XI. This photograph from an altitude of 410 miles encompasses all of India, an area of 1250 000 square miles,quot; GEORGE M. LOW, then the Deputy Director, Manned Spacecraft Center, NASA, notes. quot;Bombay is on the west coast, directly left of the spacecraft's can-shaped antenna New Delhi is just below the horizon near the upper left. Adam's Bridge between India and Ceylon , at the right, is clearly visible. A cloudless region surrounds the entire subcontinent. Differences in color, green near the west coast, and brown inland, delineate regions of heavy vegetation and semiarid areas.quot; The picture by NASA is available on the NASA website. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-168/p193a.jpg 11/19/2007 18 9 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  10. 10. Tsunami effect: 2,60,000 lives lost Destruction of Aceh island, damage in beaches north of Chennai and Nagapattinam Sea-bed has risen by about 200 m. in some regions 2/3 of the aquatic life and corals devastated in the Biosphere Reserve/Marine National Parks 11/19/2007 19 Seismic activity Indian plate dynamically moves northwards @6 cm. per year resulting in plate tectonics (e.g Bhuj earthquake, Aceh quake). The Indian Ocean in this region is riddled with earthquake fault-lines 11/19/2007 20 10 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  11. 11. Tsuanmi of Dec. 26, 2004 Result of plate tectonics in Sunda plate 11/19/2007 21 Build tsunami protection walls as part of any canal project: example, tsunami wall in Japan 11/19/2007 22 11 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  12. 12. Prof. Tad S. Murthy’s views • Prof. Tad S Murthy is a tsunami expert who advised Govt. of India on tsunami warning system and edited Tsunami journal for over 20 years • Prof. Tad S Murthy’s objections were cited in PMO’s letter of Jan. 2005 • He said: Change the mouth of the alignment (Bay of Bengal) norwestwards to avoid destruction of Kerala by next tsunami • quot;The Sethusamudram canal has many characteristics similar to the Alberni canal, and this is the reason I am concerned. In the March 28, 1964, Alaska earthquake tsunami, outside of Alaska the largest tsunami amplitude was at the head of the Alberni canal well inland and not at the open coast as everyone expected. Later, I explained this was due to (a phenomenon known as) quarter wave resonance • http://www.elaw.in/issue/sethu.htm 11/19/2007 23 Rama Setu: ancient monument of international importance, whether man-made or natural; even a stone or a cave or a river is a monument under the 1958 Act. From Setu to Himachalam defines the sovereign Bharatam according to the Suvey of India logo since 1767. Suggestio falsi, suppressio veri: Ambika Soni New Delhi, Mar 06, 2007: Government on Tuesday said there are no archaeological studies that reveal the existence of a Ram Setu bridge between India and Sri Lanka. However, a NASA satellite picture has shown the existence of a stretch of land bridge in the Palk Strait between the countries, Minister of Tourism and Culture Ambika Soni said in a written reply to the Rajya Sabha today. She informed the house that as there are no archaeological studies to confirm the fact, the government was not planning to take any preservation initiative in this direction. http://zeenews.com/articles.asp?aid=358346&sid=NAT 24 12 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  13. 13. Govt. has no plans to declare Ram Setu as national monument • 15:38 IST Tuesday, August 14, 2007 Minister for Tourism and Culture Smt. Ambika Soni In a written reply in the Rajya Sabha said, no archaeological study has been made in respect of Ram Setu by the Archaeological Survey of India • As per the scientific evidence available so far, Ram Setu does not fulfill the criteria to be declared as a monument of national importance under the provisions of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958. • http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=29871 11/19/2007 25 Malabar Bowen map (1747) drawn by Netherlands shows Ramarcoil I (that is, Rama temple). 11/19/2007 26 13 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  14. 14. Map drawn by Joseph Parks, Australian Botanical explorer (1788) shows Ramar Bridge (Map in Sarasvati Mahal Lib., Thanjavur), the map Hon’ble TR Baalu saw ! Map of 1804, by James Rennel, First Surveyor General of India, renamed Ramar Bridge as Adam’s bridge 27 Kamba ramayanam in Tamil has a separate sarga called Setubandha padalam. ‘Sethu’ is the waterbody in which SriRama purified himself from ‘Brammahatti dosha’ on his return from Lanka after killing Ravana. It is located in the sea in Rameshwaram area near ‘sethubandhanam’. Rameswaram is called: Setubandha Rameswaram. South Asia in the time of the Khaljis and Tughluqs, c. 1290-1390 Tulasidas: Ramacharitamanas 11/19/2007 14 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  15. 15. Setu, Setubandha Rameswaram Hampi inscription of Krishnadevaraya Saka 1430 (1508 CE) in Epigraphica Indica refers to Rama Setu 11/19/2007 29 Religious and cultural sites, 8th-12th centuries http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/schwartzberg/pager.html?object=071 Schwartzberg Atlas, p. 34. 11/19/2007 30 15 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  16. 16. Islamic expansion and changing Western views of South (Al-Biruni’s record) Asia, 7th-12th centuries http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/schwartzberg/pager.html?object=070 Schwartzberg Atlas, v. , p. 33. 11/19/2007 31 Puranic India (Bharata) http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/schwartzberg/pager.html?object=064 Schwartzberg Atlas, v. , p. 27. 11/19/2007 32 16 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  17. 17. Madras Presidency Administration Report, 1903 and a Travelogue, 1744 refer to the bridge ( Glossary entry: Adam. …”Called the bridge of Rama… It really joined Ceylon to India until 1480, when a breach was made through rocks during a storm. A subsequent storm enlarged this and foot traffic then ceased…Partly above and partly below water; but when covered has now here above three or four feet of water…” Source: Manual of the Administration of the Madras Presidency./C.D. Maclean (1903). New Delhi, AES, 3 Vols., 2440 p., Contents: Vol. 1: Chapters 1-9 Containing: The Principal Articles of the Manual Arranged so as to Conform to the Order of Subjects in the Yearly Presidency Administration Report. Vol. 2: Appendices Containing: Articles and Statements, Supplementary of the Articles in Vol. 1 Arranged Under General Heads. Vol. 3: Glossary of the Madras Presidency: A Classification of Terminology, a Gazetteer and Economic Dictionary of the Province and Other Information, the Whole Arranged Alphabetically and Indexed. Travelogue A book by Alexander Hamilton, 1744, A New Account of the East Indies: Giving an Exact and Copious Description of the Situation, P. 338 describes his visit to ‘zeloan’ (alt. spelling for Ceylon) by walking on the bridge. 11/19/2007 33 Research report Asiatic Society, 1799, Asiatick Researches: Or, Transactions of the Society Instituted in Bengal, P. 52 refers to the bridge called Setband (alt. spelling, setuband like Allahband; setu- bandha), broken in 3 places. It also notes “The people call it a bridge; or otherwise it appears to have wood growing on it, and to be inhabited.” 11/19/2007 34 17 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  18. 18. Hon’ble Mu. Karunanidhi cites evidence for Rama Setu, there is also evidence from Sangam literature • In a book titled, Ramanathapuram District Gazetteer published in 1972, Mu. Karunanidhi, the then Chief Minister writes a foreword and praises the contents • The book refers to Rama Setu (also called Adam’s bridge or Nala Setu). 11/19/2007 35 ‘setu’ in all bharatiya languages means ‘man-made bund’ • English word ‘bund’ comes from Bharatiya word: bandha • Valmiki describes the construction of Sethu in detai (85 shlokas). hastimaatraan mahaakaayaaH paaSaaNaamshca mahaabalaaH parvataamshca samutpaaTya yantraiH parivahanti ca Valmiki Ramayana 2-22-58 Vaanara having huge bodies, with mighty strength uprooted elephant- sized rocks and mountains and transported them by mechanical contrivances (yantraih). • Vedavyasa refers to Nalasetu nalasetur iti khyāto yo 'dyāpi prathito bhuvi rāmasyājñā purask tya dhāryate girisa nibha MBh. 3.267.45 .... which even today, popular on earth as Nala's bridge, mountain-like, is sustained out of respect for [Lord] Rama's command. (Nala was son of Vis’wakarma) Kalidasa's Raghuvams’a (sarga 13): Rama, while returning from SriLanka in pushpaka vimaana: quot;Behold, Sita, My Sethu of mountains dividing this frothy ocean is like the milky way dividing the sky into two partsquot; Kaavya in Prakrit by Setubandha Kavya by the King Damodara Sen (5th Century). King Pravarasena II (550-600 CE) called “Setu bandha or Ravanavaho, Dasamuha Vadhaquot; 11/19/2007 36 18 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  19. 19. Evidence from Sangam literature 1.kadunter iraaman udanpun.ar seetaiyaivalittakai arakkan vavviya jnaanr-ainilamcer madaran.i kan.d.a kurangincemmukap perunkil.ai izhaippolindaa anguaar-aa a varunakai yinidu per-r-ikume (Pur- anaanoor-u paadal 378) When Arakkan Ravana abducted Sita who came with Rama, the ornaments removed from her body and thrown by her to the ground, the monkey families adorned themselves erratically with these ornaments. People enjoyed seeing this sight. 2.venve_r- kavuniyar tonmudu ko_d.imuzhangirum pauvam iranku mun tur-aivelpo_r iraaman arumar-aikku avittapal veezh aalam po_lao_viyavintanr-aal iv azhunkaloore (Akanaanoor-u paadal 70) Before Sri Rama embarked upon his journey to Sri Lanka, he sat below a big banyan tree on the banks of the sacred Setu (tiruvan.aikkarai) and was engrossed in conversation with his friends. The birds on the banyan tree were chirping. Sri Rama stopped the chirping by his command. 11/19/2007 37 Ancient Setu (Aryachakravarti) coins of Jaffna, 13th century and Parantaka Chola copper plate (10th cent.) Setupati coinage, 16th and 17th century Obverse: Sri Ganapati, seated.Reverse, in Tamil, Se-Tu-Pa-(Ti missing). Tamil script. (Nagaswamy R. 1979. Thiruttani and Velanjeri Copper Plates. State Dept. Of Archaeology, Tamilnadu. Madras. See: L’Hernault F. 1978. L’Iconographie de Subrahmanya au Tamilnad, Institut Francais d’ Indologie. Pondichery, p.111, ph. 63.) The copper plates indicate that Aparajitavarman went to Setutirtha. 38 19 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  20. 20. Prambananan (Brahmavana), Indonesia 11/19/2007 39 Rama Setu in sculptures (9th and 10th centuries CE) • Stone steles from the Ramayana wall carvings at Prambanan Temple, Java, Indonesia (built during the ninth and tenth centuries Common Era). Classical Javanese dance performances of the Ramayana are held seasonally at Prambanan temple. A 2006 earthquake in Central Java, however, caused considerable damage to the World Heritage Site. • Devi Sita talking to Sri Hanuman • Vaanara Sena carrying stones, in their arms and on their heads, to build Rama Setu, followed by Sri Rama, carrying a sword. • Fish and other sea creatures handling stones from Rama's bridge to Lanka, during the construction of Nala Setu (Rama Setu). • Source: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multimedia/2616 11/19/2007 40 20 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  21. 21. Kilakkarai and other places produce s’ankha, a cultural symbol venerated in Bharatiya traditions (West Bengal Dev. Corpn. In Kilakarai has an annual turnover of Rs. 100 crores to procure s’ankha from Rama Setu coastal zone) 11/19/2007 41 Only Bharatam coastline produces s’ankha 11/19/2007 42 21 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  22. 22. S’ankha is unique to Bharatam coastline, not found anywhere else in the world Date of the woman’s burial with ornaments 6500 Years Before Common Era. Wide shell- bangle and shell ornaments 43 43 8,500 year-old S’ankha industry, Gulf of Mannar Seven shell bangles from burial of S’ankha industry thrives in an elderly woman, Harappa; worn Kilakkarai (Rs. 100 crore annual on the left arm; three on the turnover); s’ankha kr.s’aana upper arm and four on the (S’ankha cutter) mentioned in forearm; 6.3 X 5.7 cm to 8x9 cm Rigveda, Atharvaveda marine shell, Turbinella pyrum Wide bangle made from a single (After Fig. 7.43, Kenoyer, 1998) Harappa museum. H87- 635 to 637; 676 to 679. conch shell and carved with a chevron motif, Harappa; marine shell, Turbinella pyrum (After Fig. 7.44, Kenoyer, 1998) National Museum, Karachi. 54.3554. HM 44 13828. 22 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  23. 23. Impact on the livelihood of coastal people U. Arulanandam, President, Singaravelar Fishermen's Forum : the project is being implemented to enforce the international boundary line in the waters. http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2201/stories/20050114005902400.htm 11/19/2007 45 Save marine wealth: Vegetarian sea-cow, green turtle The only place in the world where dugong lives. Dugong is a sea-cow which eats only sea-grass. There are over 3,600 unique aquatic species in the Gulf of Mannar Bioreserve national parks. 11/19/2007 46 23 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  24. 24. Setu tirtham Setubandha venerated as sacred tirtha by Alwars and Nayanmars Rameswaram is one of the 12 jyotirlinga sthalams. Pilgrimage to Ganga (Kas’ivis’wanatha) is complete only after the pilgrimage to Rameswaram and Setutirtham. 11/19/2007 47 Traditions Setutirtha snaanam as sacred. Mahatittha in Sri Lanka. Setutirham for mothers desirous of children No ploughs are used in Ramanathapuram district : peoples’ belief that the earth is sacred since Sri Rama made three s’ivalinga using this earth Any fisherman extracting stone together with algae does prayas’cittam • Skanda Purana (III.1.2.1-114), Vishnu Purana (IV.4.40- 49), Agni Purana (V-XI), Brahma Purana (138.1-40) refer to the construction of Rama Setu. Skanda Purana (VI.101.1-44) describes the installation of three Shiva linga at the end, middle and beginning of Rama Setu and making the same bridge submerged and thereby creating Setu-Teertham. This is also related in Kurma Purana (21.10-61). Garuda Purana (1.81.1-22) lists sacred places including Setubandh and Rameswar. Narada Purana (Uttara Bhag 76.1-20) extols the greatness of Rama-Setu. 11/19/2007 48 24 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  25. 25. Rama Setu: destruction status 10 Oct. 2007 46.07% (Palkbay/Palkstrait) 17 Sept. 2007 24.76% (Rama Setu/Adam’s Bridge) 11/19/2007 49 Project location 11/19/2007 50 25 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  26. 26. Locus of Rama Setu in relation to the coastline http://sethusamudram.gov.in 11/19/2007 51 Sir AR Mudaliar Committee Report 1956: Choose canal, NOT mid-ocean channel passage Reasons: •Shifting Sandbanks •No possibility of construction of protective works… definite navigational hazard •Channel would border on the Sethusamudram Medial Line. “In these circumstances we have no doubt, whatever that the junction between the two sea should be effected by a Canal; and the idea of cutting a passage in the sea through Adam’s Bridge should be abandoned.” 11/19/2007 52 26 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  27. 27. Nightmare ship salvage operation if Setusamudram is aligned as a mid- ocean channel passage Suez canal uses special bollards every 200 ft. to salvage a grounded vessel Such bollards are possible only if a land-based canal is used. 11/19/2007 53 Project does NOT make nautical sense According to Capt. Balakrishnan, the saving in time from Kolkata to Tuthukudi (Tuticorin) for a ship will be only 1.5 hrs. Crossing channel at 6 nautical miles paying pilotage charges (approx. Rs. 5 lakhs per passage)? Even many small ships with only 30,000 Dead Weight Tonnes may prefer to navigate around Srilanka instead of using the channel. 11/19/2007 54 27 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  28. 28. Eminent Jurists’ views Justice VR Krishna Iyer’s letter to PM: I beseech you to reconsider the stand taken if any already. This is a matter of political party business or popularity or pro-American yen…the grave issue with which the nation shall defend its survival. Justice KT Thomas: It is our duty to make in-depth study of all possible repercussions before destroy the natural geological formations. That apart, the religious sentiments of the majority community in India that Lord Rama created such sea wall must he honored and respected. 11/19/2007 55 Court Orders • Evidence for Rama Setu accepted. Courts use the word Rama Setu • Violation of Section 295 of IPC (AIR 1958 SC 1032 Veerapathra Chettiar Vs. Ramaswamy Naicker) • Section 295: “with the intention of hereby insulting the religion of any class of persons or with the knowledge that any class of persons is likely to consider such destruction, damage or defilement as an insult to the religion.” • HC noted: Sir A. Ramaswamy Mudaliar Committee expressly rejected the idea of cutting a channel through the bridge and said that the idea should be abandoned. • Punjab and Haryana High Court held that Brahmasarovar was deemed to be a monument • Ramanathapuram judge: Final opinion could be pronounced only after subjecting their documents to thorough scrutiny with the opinions of experts in the field (archaeology and geology) • SC order: “Till September 14, the alleged Rama Sethu/Adam’s bridge shall not be damaged in any manner. Dredging activity may be carried out so long as it does not damage Rama Sethu.” • More details at: http://kalyan97.wordpress.com 11/19/2007 56 28 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  29. 29. Rama Setu -- world heritage Many monuments have been declared as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO: Coiba National Park and its Special Zone of Marine Protection in Panama Tubbataha Reef Marine Park in the Philippines Kvarken Archipelago / High Coast in Sweden/Finland Giant's causeway and Causeway coast in UK Great Barrier Reef in Australia Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System in Belize Mont St. Michel and its bay in France Ha Long Bay in Vietnam Matobo Hills in Zimbabwe US court backs Indian tribe (Navajo) to prevent desiccation of a sacred mountain in USA http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/nation/20070312-1046-environment-navajos.html 11/19/2007 57 http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/ Why save Rama Setu ? To remember Sri Rama. The only surviving monument related to Sri Rama who walked from Ayodhya to Srilanka This social, cultural memory is sacred Sri Rama vigrahavaan dharmah (the very embodiment of dharma) Sri Rama is the role model for bharatiya values based on dharma and for integrity of the rashtram 11/19/2007 58 29 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  30. 30. Sri Rama and s’ankha naadam Vishnu’s fight Vishnu’ with the Rakshasas led by Malyavaan, Maali Malyavaa Maa and Sumaali as Sumaa narrated in the Uttarkanda of the Ramayana (Canto VI-VIII) VI- A Terracotta Panel from Bhitargaon Showing a Ramayana Scene By P. Banerjee Banerjee http://ignca.nic.in/pb0020.htm 11/19/2007 59 Sustainable development alternatives Transport system alternatives: • railwayline between Thutukudi and Villupuram (near Chennai) • Pipelines connecting west coast and east coast for distribution of oil and gas Heritage tourism • Heritage tourism development by delcaring Rames’waram and Rama Setu as divya-kshetram 11/19/2007 60 30 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  31. 31. Heritage tourism • Tamilnadu Government website says Rama Setu and Rameshwaram are divyakshetram (like Tirumala) with reference to floating stones used to build the bridge (Setu). • “The stone said to have used to construct the floating bridge Sethu Bandanam could be seen here…” 11/19/2007 61 Rames’varam – holy, jyotirlinga • The Holy abode of the Hindu God, Shri Ram (addressed so with all respect & humility) is a virtual paradise for the devout. No Hindu’s journey is complete without a pilgrimage to both Varanasi and Rameswaram for the culmination of his quest for salvation and is hallowed by the epic ‘Ramayana’. Folklore mentions about God Ram’s presence in this land, after his 14-year exile. (Ramnad, govt. website) 11/19/2007 62 31 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  32. 32. Floating stone for Setubandhanam • Erwadi…(near Rames’varam) • SATCHI HANUMAN TEMPLE: This is where Hanuman is said to have delivered the good news of sita's well being to Rama with an evidance choodamanai(Jewel) of Sita. • FIVE FACED HANUMAN TEMPLE: Hanuman is adorned with senthooram here. The stone said to have used to construct the floating bridge Sethu Bandanam could be seen here… • http://www.ramnad.tn.nic.in/tourism.htm 11/19/2007 63 (Om versus Rome!) • Rama Setu is divya-kshetram • It is our sacred duty, dharma to protect this teerthasthaanam • Let pranava, omkaara, anaahata naadam emanating from sacred s’ankha reverberate around the world • Let us save the ecosphere, nation’s wealth, uphold nation’s sovereignty • Security of rashtram cannot be compromised or privatised 11/19/2007 32 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
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