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Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction
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Combining General and Genre-Specific Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction

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Presentation by Mike McDonald at JALT 2008 Aston Univ. Graduate Showcase, 2 November 2008.

Presentation by Mike McDonald at JALT 2008 Aston Univ. Graduate Showcase, 2 November 2008.

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  • 1. JALT 2008 Aston University Graduate Showcase 2 November 2008 Mike McDonald
  • 2. <ul><li>Who? Writing teachers, especially for ESP </li></ul><ul><li>What? Show how very general patterns are used in most genres alongside the more obvious genre-specific patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Why? To avoid an overly narrow focus </li></ul><ul><li>How? Combine move analysis with discourse relational analysis </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>ESP = English for Specific Purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English for Academic Purposes (EAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English for Science and Technology (EST) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English for Business and Economics (EBE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English for Occupational Purposes (EOP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English for Social Sciences (ESS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>ESP writing classes often focus on specific genres, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales promotion letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job application letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipping orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic essays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lab reports </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Many genres follow fairly predictable patterns. E.g., a typical letter of complaint: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial details (addresses, date, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening salutation (e.g., “Dear Sir or Madam”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation (background, self-introduction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complaint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request for action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal closing salutation </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Initial details 25 Brighton Rd Leasington NSW 2066 29 November The Manager Steelwood Homes 21 Scott Street Leasington NSW 2006 Opening salutation Dear Sir/Madam Orientation I am writing about the stove in my apartment. Two elements aren't working and it is very difficult for me to cook a meal. Complaint I have twice repeated this problem to you (10th November and 24th November) and nothing has been done about it. Request for action This problem is urgent and I would appreciate it if you could arrange to have the stove fixed immediately. Formal closing salutation Yours sincerely Sara Johnston
  • 7. <ul><li>Move analysis is central to many ESP writing courses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show authentic examples of a target genre. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show how the examples tend to follow predictable “moves”, or stages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach students to recognise and label moves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help them transfer their genre knowledge to their own writing. </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Why teach students to write abstracts? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short, manageable target (100-200 words) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require conciseness, summarisation skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English abstracts required for 4 th -year dissertation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often required for research papers in Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to follow a recognisable pattern </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Private university in Tokyo </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd -year computer science undergrads </li></ul><ul><li>12-week course on writing abstracts </li></ul><ul><li>Average TOEIC level about 500 </li></ul><ul><li>Almost no experience of writing beyond sentence level </li></ul>
  • 10. Background The organizations of out-of-order superscalar processors are becoming more complicated. Therefore, evaluating processor architectures is indispensable for designing effective processors. Purpose In this paper, we introduce a method that uses software simulation to survey the number of instructions per clock cycle and to evaluate superscalar data paths. Approach Our method used two types of simulators: an instruction set simulator and a trace-driven simulator. An instruction set simulator was used to produce execution trace files. We used SIMIPS to output the traces of executed instructions and memory accesses. A trace-driven simulator was used to evaluate data paths. Our trace-driven simulator read the traces that we obtained by executing the instruction set simulator. (Findings and) conclusions The results indicate that our simulator gives useful information for designing processors.
  • 11. <ul><li>Maybe no problem for some students, BUT . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of my students have low-level English. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They lack basic discourse skills in writing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They interpret “moves” as a recipe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They don’t see how this relates to writing in general. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many will never write an abstract after graduation. </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>What? Show how the specific genre (abstracts) is related to other types of writing. </li></ul><ul><li>How? By teaching both genre-specific and general ways of analysing examples of a genre. </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>Genre-specific: Move analysis </li></ul><ul><li>General: Discourse relational analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the basic building blocks of discourse? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which ones are used in a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particular genre? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are they similar to or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different from genre moves? </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>According to E. Winter, there are just two basic text structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation-Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothetical-Real </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These have several variations, e.g., </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation-Evaluation-Basis for Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation-Problem-Response-Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothetical-Affirmation-Basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothetical-Denial-Correction-Basis </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>One of the most common text structures is the “Problem-Solution” or “SPRE” pattern: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Result) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Five drunk firemen stripped down to their bare essentials while singing karaoke in a Chiba bar in late September, the Chiba Fire Department said. Situation According to the department, 28 firefighters from four stations had gone to drink at the bar following a sayonara party for a colleague on Sept. 27. Problem The five men stripped off one by one while singing karaoke. One of them singed hairs on his body with a lighter, the department said. Response The department will soon set up a disciplinary committee to admonish the firefighters, aged between 20 and 39, for their high jinks. Evaluation “ It was an impermissible act for public servants,” a department official said.
  • 17. <ul><li>Find a partner. Try to think of genres that often have an SPRE structure. </li></ul>
  • 18. <ul><li>Some examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposals (business, politics, research, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertisements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How-to” texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursery stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>News reports </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Situation We now accept that grammar is not restricted to writing but is present in speech. Problem This can lead to assumptions that there is one kind of grammar for writing and one for speech. Response A large-scale corpus survey of English has been undertaken. Evaluation Results show the same system is valid for both writing and speech.
  • 20. Background Situation The organizations of out-of-order superscalar processors are becoming more complicated. Problem Therefore, evaluating processor architectures is indispensable for designing effective processors. Purpose Response In this paper, we introduce a method that uses software simulation to survey the number of instructions per clock cycle and to evaluate superscalar data paths. Approach Our method used two types of simulators: an instruction set simulator and a trace-driven simulator. An instruction set simulator was used to produce execution trace files. We used SIMIPS to output the traces of executed instructions and memory accesses. A trace-driven simulator was used to evaluate data paths. Our trace-driven simulator read the traces that we obtained by executing the instruction set simulator. (Findings and) Conclusions Evaluation The results indicate that our simulator gives useful information for designing processors.
  • 21. Dear Sir/Madam Opening salutation Initial details Situation 25 Brighton Rd Leasington NSW 2066 29th November The Manager Steelwood Homes 21 Scott Street Leasington NSW 2006 Orientation I am writing about the stove in my apartment. Problem Two elements aren't working and it is very difficult for me to cook a meal. Complaint I have twice repeated this problem to you (10th November and 24th November) and nothing has been done about it. Request for action Evaluation This problem is urgent Response and I would appreciate it if you could arrange to have the stove fixed immediately. Formal closing salutation Situation Yours sincerely Sara Johnston
  • 22. <ul><li>There is some correspondence between genre moves and discourse elements. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no one-to-one correspondence. </li></ul><ul><li>The order of moves/discourse elements is not rigidly fixed. </li></ul><ul><li>Some moves/discourse elements can be merged or omitted. </li></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>Are moves/discourse elements subjective or objective? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we “know” where a move/discourse element begins or ends? </li></ul><ul><li>The next abstract has an SPRE structure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With a partner, decide where the discourse elements begin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do the moves begin in the same places? </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. <ul><li>Most Content-Based Image Retrieval systems use image features such as </li></ul><ul><li>textures, colors, and shapes. However, in the case of a leaf image, it is not </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate to rely on color or texture features only as such features are </li></ul><ul><li>very similar in most leaves. In this paper, we propose a new and effective </li></ul><ul><li>leaf image retrieval scheme. In this scheme, we first analyze leaf venation </li></ul><ul><li>which we use for leaf categorization. We then extract and utilize </li></ul><ul><li>leafshape features to find similar leaves from the already categorized </li></ul><ul><li>group in a leaf database. The venation of a leaf corresponds to the blood </li></ul><ul><li>vessels in organisms. Leaf venations are represented using points selected </li></ul><ul><li>by a curvature scale scope corner detection method on the venation </li></ul><ul><li>image. The selected points are then categorized by calculating the </li></ul><ul><li>density of feature points using a non-parametric estimation density. </li></ul><ul><li>venation which we use for leaf categorization. We show this technique's </li></ul><ul><li>effectiveness by performing several experiments on a prototype system. </li></ul>
  • 25. Situation Background Most Content-Based Image Retrieval systems use image features such as textures, colors, and shapes. Problem However , in the case of a leaf image, it is not appropriate to rely on color or texture features only as such features are very similar in most leaves. Response Purpose In this paper, we propose a new and effective leaf image retrieval scheme. Approach In this scheme, we first analyze leaf venation which we use for leaf categorization. We then extract and utilize leaf shape features to find similar leaves from the already categorized group in a leaf database. The venation of a leaf corresponds to the blood vessels in organisms. Leaf venations are represented using points selected by a curvature scale scope corner detection method on the venation image. The selected points are then categorized by calculating the density of feature points using a non-parametric estimation density. Evaluation Findings and conclusions We show this technique's effectiveness by performing several experiments on a prototype system.
  • 26. <ul><li>Winter classifies lexical signals into three types: </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinators </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By [performing], after, when, if, although, . . . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sentence connectors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, first, then, next, in addition, . . . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lexical items </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most, not appropriate, we propose, using . . . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>There are also grammatical signals: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>systems use [Present Simple], are represented [Passive], . . . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 27. <ul><li>SPRE elements have characteristic signals. For instance, “Problem” signals include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>although, however, problem, difficult, only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moves also have characteristic signals. In abstracts, “Approach” signals include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first, next, then, by __ing, method, [Passive] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practice in identifying signals helps students “acquire” a genre. </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful – there is no one-to-one association between signalling words and moves or SPRE elements. </li></ul>
  • 28. <ul><li>Another type of signalling is repetition. </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition here includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identical wording (e.g., method, method ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase (e.g., method, approach ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-reference (e.g., method, this ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repetition often signals Problem-Response and other pairs of moves/discourse elements. </li></ul><ul><li>More generally, what does repetition signal? </li></ul>
  • 29. <ul><li>M. Hoey, Patterns of Lexis in Text (1991), shows how “lexical chains” of repetitions structure whole texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition is a simple way to identify key words. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching students the importance of repetition helps bridge the gap between genre writing and general writing. </li></ul>
  • 30. <ul><li>Look again at the abstract on leaf venation. </li></ul><ul><li>Which phrases are “repeated” at least twice? </li></ul><ul><li>How might students benefit from identifying these lexical chains? </li></ul>
  • 31. <ul><li>Most Content-Based Image Retrieval systems use image features such </li></ul><ul><li>as textures, colors, and shapes. However, in the case of a leaf image, it </li></ul><ul><li>is not appropriate to rely on color or texture features only as such </li></ul><ul><li>features are very similar in most leaves. In this paper, we propose a new </li></ul><ul><li>and effective leaf image retrieval scheme. In this scheme, we first </li></ul><ul><li>analyze leaf venation which we use for leaf categorization. We then </li></ul><ul><li>extract and utilize leaf shape features to find similar leaves from the </li></ul><ul><li>already categorized group in a leaf database. The venation of a leaf </li></ul><ul><li>corresponds to the blood vessels in organisms. Leaf venations are </li></ul><ul><li>represented using points selected by a curvature scale scope corner </li></ul><ul><li>detection method on the venation image. The selected points are then </li></ul><ul><li>categorized by calculating the density of feature points using a non- </li></ul><ul><li>parametric estimation density. We show this technique's effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>by performing several experiments on a prototype system. </li></ul>
  • 32. <ul><li>Most Content-Based Image Retrieval systems use image feature s such </li></ul><ul><li>astextures, colors, and shapes. However, in the case of a leaf image , it </li></ul><ul><li>is not appropriate to rely on color or texture feature s only as such </li></ul><ul><li>feature s are very similar in most leaves. In this paper, we propose a new </li></ul><ul><li>and effective leaf image retrieval scheme. In this scheme, we first </li></ul><ul><li>analyze leaf venation which we use for leaf categorization. We then </li></ul><ul><li>extract and utilize leaf shape feature s to find similar leaves from the </li></ul><ul><li>already categorized group in a leaf database. The venation of a leaf </li></ul><ul><li>corresponds to the blood vessels in organisms. Leaf venation s are </li></ul><ul><li>represented using points selected by a curvature scale scope corner </li></ul><ul><li>detection method on the venation image . The selected points are then </li></ul><ul><li>categorized by calculating the density of feature points using a non- </li></ul><ul><li>parametric estimation density. We show this technique's effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>by performing several experiments on a prototype system. </li></ul>
  • 33. <ul><li>The key words in the abstract are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leaf 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>image 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feature(s) 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>venation(s) 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>points 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The title uses four of these key words: </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizing venation features for efficient leaf image retrieval </li></ul>
  • 34. Summary <ul><li>Common discourse structures, e.g. SPRE, illuminate relations between genres. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising such structures may help ESP writing students generalise their skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Both genre and SPRE elements have typical lexical and grammatical signals. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising these may help students to discern text structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying lexical chains may help students to understand the gist of a text. </li></ul>

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