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Raymond Ppt Raymond Ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Raymond Cattell Factor Analytic Trait Theory
  • Biography
    • Cattell was born in England in 1905 to a family of engineers.
    • Cattell was a bright student, graduating with his doctorate in psychology in 1929 from the University of London at 23.
    •   A bleak job market forced Cattell to take a clinical position doing school psychology for 5 years.
    • This helped him with his future career in personality research.
  • Biography contd.
    • In 1937, Cattell was invited to the states by E.L. Thorndike in New York.
    • Cattell stayed in the US after this, taking positions at Clark University, Harvard University, and the University of Illinois.
    • It was in Illinois, that he spent his most productive years developing personality tests.  
    • In 1997, he was awarded a lifetime achievement award from the American Psychological Foundation.
  • Factor Analytic Theories
    • Factor analytic theories strive to summarize the relationships among a large number of variables into fewer, more general patterns.
    • This is done to describe the fundamental dimensions of individual differences.
  • Personality—Cattell’s time-line
    • Cattell argued--personality went through 3 phases.
    • Phase 1: Occurred from ancient times till the 1900s century, when scholars wrote about their intuitive insights into personality.
    • Phase 2: In the early 1900s, clinically oriented theorists proposed their views of personality (Freud, Adler, Jung) with some experimental work.
    • Phase 3: Following WWI, theorists employed more experimental & quantitative methods to assess personality.
  • What did Cattell believe was his place in personality field?
    • Cattell observed the important insights of earlier theorists & used modern methods & technology (computers) to assess the importance of these insights in determining personality.
  • Factor Analysis
    • A statistical produce based on correlation, that is used to examine factor analytic theories.
    • A correlation coefficient provides an index of the relationship between two or more variables.
    • It may range from –1.00 to +1.00, where the sign indicates the direction & the # indicates the magnitude of the relationship.
  • Factor Analysis contd.
    • Many correlation coefficients are computed during the course of a factor analysis.
    • The correlations among all pairs of variables are computed to form a correlation matrix.
    • Patterns of correlations often disclose redundant information , which may be systematically described.
    • Factor analysis allows the personality researcher to identify a smaller number of dimensions (factors) that the variables fit into.
  • Example:
    • Imagine we administer intelligence tests.
    • We would find that:
    • Tests of verbal ability would be positively correlated (vocabulary, grammar, & spelling), but have lower correlations with tests of mathematical abilities.
    • Tests of math ability would be positively correlated (geometry, algebra, calculus), but have lower correlations with tests of verbal ability.
    • Factor analysis of these variables would reveals two factors: mathematical ability a& verbal ability.
  • Cattell’s view of traits
    • Cattell saw traits as important units of personality that have predictive value.
    • In contrast to Allport, who felt traits were part of our biology, Cattell thought of traits as abstract concepts.
  • Measurement
    • Cattell sought to systematically & methodically describe personality.
    • He believed that it was imperative to have a method for obtaining reliable & valid measure of personality factors.
    • His best known personality test is the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) that can be used with normal Ss & with clinical populations.
  • Types of data
    • 1. Q-data ( questionnaire data) –is obtained by asking people to describe themselves in response to a set of standard questions (Multiple choice, true/false).
    • Pros —easy to administer & quick access to information.
    • Con – people may impression manage (e.g., lie to make themselves look good).
  • Types of data
    • 2. T-data (objective test data) –is obtained by asking people to take various tests (projective, physical, reaction times) in which the purpose of the test isn’t obvious.
    • Pros- this should reduce impression managing; provides objective data.
    • Cons -objective tests may be of limited use.
  • Types of data
    • 3. L-data (life record data) – is obtained by gathering life history of person (personal records), such as grade point average, driving history, letters of recommendation, etc.
    • Pros —information can be obtained with requiring Ss to fill out questionnaires.
    • Cons – provides limited information about the individual.
  • Surface traits
    • Refers to those traits that seem readily apparent.
    • E.g., you encounter a friendly, gregarious librarian who is very helpful & you infer she possesses the trait of sociability.
    • However, surface traits are based on people’s perceptions of personality; they don’t necessarily provide the best description of underlying personality dimensions.
  • Source traits
    • Refers to the deeper patterns underlying personality.
    • These source traits emerge despite differences in testing situations, questionnaire methods, & so forth.
    • Cattell used factor analysis to identify 16 source traits. Using these 16 source traits he developed the 16PF.
    • The set of scores on all factors is the profile of the individual.
  • Second-Order Factors
    • There may be correlations among the 16 factors. That is, there is some redundancy in the 16 source traits Cattell identified.
    • We can reduce this number down, by doing another factor analysis on the 16 personality factors.
    • This second-order analysis, often yields 5 second-order factors.
  • Three types of traits
    • 1 . Ability traits- define intelligence.
    • Cattell argued that we have 2 types of intelligence: Fluid & crystallized.
    • Fluid intelligence -the innate ability to learn
    • Crystallized intelligence -what has been learned from education.
  • Intelligence
    • Cattell believed that 80% of the variance in intelligence was the result of heredity; the remaining 20% due to experience.
    • This position supported both the Eugenics movement & the Nazis.
  • 2. Temperament traits
    • These traits determine the general way a person behaviors. (high-strungness, speed, energy, etc.)
    • ****Thought to be largely inherited. **
    •   Dynamic traits— are motivational. These guide us in our behaviors & interactions with others.
    • Cattell felt some of these are inherited, others learned.
  • The Big Five
    • Based on Cattell’s model of factor analysis, five factors have been identified that may describe the full spectrum of personality.
    • The proponents of the Big Five are Paul Costa Jr. & Robert McCrae, who are interested in describing personality.
  • The Big Five
    • Five broad factors have been identified to describe personality. They are:
    • Extraversion
    • Agreeableness
    • Neuroticism
    • Conscientiousness
    • Openness
    • (They spell “OCEAN”)
  • 1. Extraversion
    • People high in extraversion are often talkative, passionate, active, dominant, & sociable.
    • Those scoring high have more interactions with others than those scoring low.
    • Extraverts tend to develop more social relationships during college, are more likely to fall in love, & are more responsive to pleasure.
  • 2. Agreeableness
    • Agreeableness refers to how “likable” we are.
    • People scoring high on agreeableness tend to be good-natured, soft-hearted, and trusting. Those low on the factor are irritable, ruthless, and suspicious.
    • People who score high on this factor report little conflict in their relationships. They are less likely to assert power when they do experience conflict as well.
  • 3 . Neuroticism
    • Describes people who frequently are troubled by negative emotions such as worry & insecurity.
    • People high on neuroticism can be described as those who worry, those who emotionally unstable, they are often anxious, & have low self-esteem.
    • People who score low on this factor report being much happier than people scoring higher on this dimension.
  • Conscientiousness
    • Describes someone who is hardworking, dependable, ambitious, responsible, & is tenacious.
    • People scoring high on this dimension value cleanliness, & ambitiousness.
    • They tend to be organized, punctual, do well academically, are well liked by their superiors, & dedicated to their significant others.
  • Openness
    • Refers to how cultured, intelligent, & receptive a person is to new ideas, places, & interests.
    • Those who score high in openness are more likely to be artistic, curious, imaginative, insightful, and intuitive.
  •