Stress

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  • Hand out exam review
  • Stress

    1. 1. Group Project <ul><li>Phase I: Theory > Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Your theory will be built from in-depth interviews of 4 people who are as different from one another as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to develop your own interview questions and decide who will be performing the interviews. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am going to give you 30 minutes at the beginning of class today to do so as a group </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Group Project <ul><li>Phase I: Theory > Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Once your interviews are completed, you will distill the most interesting themes from your interviews into 3 specific hypotheses that can be tested with data </li></ul><ul><li>Try to complete your interviews ASAP because… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am going to give you 30 minutes at the beginning of class on Thursday,2/8 to generate your hypotheses as a group </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Stress January 27, 2010
    4. 4. Stressful Life Events
    5. 5. Should We Avoid Stress? <ul><li>One can, with 100% certainty, avoid the 3 most stressful events in life simply by not getting married. Does that mean people shouldn’t get married? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you excited about graduation? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you plan to attend graduate school? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you hope to change your job or retire someday? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you want to have children someday? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Should We Avoid Stress? <ul><li>Stress is the result of having something to lose </li></ul><ul><li>The more you “succeed” in life, the more you have to lose, so… </li></ul><ul><li>The key is to cope with stress </li></ul>
    7. 7. Definitions <ul><li>Stressors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demands that cause people to experience stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A psychological response to demands where there is something at stake and where coping with the demands taxes or exceeds a person’s capacity or resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The physical and emotional responses to stress </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. How Much Stress Do You Cause Yourself?
    9. 9. Will You Be Exposed to Stress at Work? <ul><li>OSHA found that 40% of American workers feel their jobs are “very stressful” or “extremely stressful” </li></ul><ul><li>Managers are 21% more likely than the average worker to describe their job as stressful </li></ul>
    10. 10. Stress Levels Across Jobs
    11. 11. Stressor-Stress-Strain Framework STRESS STRAIN STRESSORS Work Hindrance Work Challenge Nonwork Hindrance Nonwork Challenge
    12. 12. Types of Stressors <ul><li>Hindrance Stressors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived as hindering progress toward personal accomplishments or goal attainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often trigger anger and anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge Stressors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived as opportunities for learning, growth, and achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often trigger pride and enthusiasm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stressors can also be classified by whether they are work or nonwork related </li></ul>
    13. 13. Types of Stressors Hindrance Challenge Work Nonwork <ul><li>Role conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Role ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Role overload </li></ul><ul><li>Time pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Work complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Work responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Work-family conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Negative life events </li></ul><ul><li>Family time demands </li></ul><ul><li>Personal development </li></ul><ul><li>Positive life events </li></ul>
    14. 14. Work Hindrance Stressors <ul><li>Role conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicting expectations that other people may have of us </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role ambiguity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of information regarding what needs to be done in a role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role overload </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the number of demanding roles a person holds is so high that the person cannot perform some or all of the roles effectively </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Work Challenge Stressors <ul><li>Time pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong sense that there is not enough time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree to which the requirements of the work tax or exceed the capabilities of the employee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level is higher when the number, scope, and importance of obligations in a job are higher </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Non-work Hindrance Stressors <ul><li>Work-family conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the demands of work role conflict with demands of family role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing work problems home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing home problems to work </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Stressful Life Events
    18. 18. Non-work Challenge Stressors <ul><li>Family time demands </li></ul><ul><li>Personal development </li></ul><ul><li>Positive life events </li></ul><ul><li>Anything you enjoy that demands your time and attention </li></ul>
    19. 19. Stressor-Stress-Strain Framework STRESS STRAIN STRESSORS Work Hindrance Work Challenge Nonwork Hindrance Nonwork Challenge
    20. 20. Stress <ul><li>Primary Appraisal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate significance and meaning of stressors encountered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this stressful? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Appraisal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can I cope? </li></ul></ul>STRESS
    21. 21. Coping With Stress <ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Coping Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professor Wild’s last ditch solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational Level Policies </li></ul>
    22. 22. Individual Differences <ul><li>Not everyone reacts to stressors in the same way. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cope better: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Affect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others cope worse: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type A Behavior Pattern </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Individual Differences <ul><li>Not everyone reacts to stressors in the same way. </li></ul><ul><li>People with Type A Behavior : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a strong sense of time urgency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be impatient, hard-driving, competitive, controlling, aggressive, and even hostile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expose themselves to more stressors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to appraise demands as stressful </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Measuring Type A Behavior Pattern <ul><li>Having work to complete “stirs me into action” more than other people </li></ul><ul><li>When a person is talking and takes too long to come to the point, I frequently feel like hurrying the person along </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays, I consider myself to be relaxed and easygoing (R) </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, I get irritated extremely easily </li></ul><ul><li>My best friends would rate my general activity level as very high </li></ul><ul><li>I definitely tend to do most things in a hurry </li></ul>
    25. 25. Measuring Type A Behavior Pattern <ul><li>I take my work much more seriously than most </li></ul><ul><li>I seldom get angry (R) </li></ul><ul><li>I often set deadlines for myself work-wise </li></ul><ul><li>I feel very impatient when I have to wait in line </li></ul><ul><li>I put much more effort into my work than other people do </li></ul><ul><li>Compared with others, I approach life much less seriously (R) </li></ul>
    26. 26. How Can You Cope? <ul><li>Behavioral Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem focused coping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work harder, seek assistance, acquire additional resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion focused coping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engage in alternative activities, seek support, vent anger </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. How Can You Cope? <ul><li>Cognitive Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem focused coping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategize, self-motivate, change priorities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion focused coping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid or ignore, look for the positive in the negative, reappraise </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. How Can You Cope? <ul><li>Physiological Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate sleep </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. How Can You Cope? <ul><li>Social Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help people receive when confronted with stressful demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help people receive in addressing the stressful demand directly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help people receive in addressing the emotional distress that accompanies stressful demands </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. How Can You Cope?
    31. 31. How Can Organizations Help? <ul><li>Attack the stressor side of the equation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the work environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attack the strain side of the equation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide wellness programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide flexibility programs </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. How Can Organizations Help? <ul><li>Wellness Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee Assistance Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-site exercise facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidized health care memberships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced health insurance payments for participation in such programs </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. How Can Organizations Help? <ul><li>Flexibility Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flextime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommuting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed work week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-site child care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacations </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Stressor-Stress-Strain Framework STRESS STRAIN STRESSORS Work Hindrance Work Challenge Nonwork Hindrance Nonwork Challenge
    35. 35. Consequences of Stress <ul><li>General Adaptation Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The body has a set of responses that allow it to adapt and function effectively in the face of stressful demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, if stressful demands do not ramp down or the demand occurs too frequently, the body’s adaptive responses turn toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race car analogy </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Consequences of Stress-Strain
    37. 37. Consequences of Stress-Strain <ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illness, high blood pressure, headaches, back pain, stomachaches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression, anxiety, irritability, forgetfulness, inability to think clearly, reduced confidence, burnout </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teeth-grinding, compulsive behaviors, overeating, alcohol and drug abuse </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. When Stress Leads to Strain <ul><li>What sorts of signs of strain do we see in this video clip, not only by Ted Striker, but also by the other individuals involved? </li></ul>
    39. 39. How Important is Stress?
    40. 40. Next Time <ul><li>Test Review: Monday 2/1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I will not be posting slides from test review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test #1: Wednesday, 2/3 </li></ul><ul><li>Start your interviews ASAP! </li></ul>

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