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Unit Four Portfolio Final08 Office 1997 2003

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Luke Marjoram

Luke Marjoram

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  • 1. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Youth Ministry Internship Scheme Diploma of Youth Work (CHC50502) UNIT FOUR Learning & Assessment Portfolio Manage Service Response to Young People in Crisis (CHCYTH8B) & Respond to Critical Situations (CHCYTH7C) This portfolio belongs to: Luke Marjoram Due Date: Monday, 6th October, 2008 Page 1
  • 2. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Student Details Student Name: Luke Marjoram Home Phone: Work Phone: Mobile Phone: 0432 597601 Email Address: new_marjorams@yahoo.com.au Postal Address: P.O Box 907 Childers Qld 4660 Workplace Details Name of Organisation: Scripture Union Queensland Your Role Description: Chaplain for Childers Primary Phone: Mob: Fax: Email Address: Postal Address: Mungomery Street Childers QLD 4660 Page 2
  • 3. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 CONTENTS What is a Learning and Assessment Portfolio? 4 CHCYTH8B Unit Descriptor 6 CHCYTH7C Unit Descriptor 8 UNIT FOUR Suggested Unit Study Guide 12 Student Checklist 13 Assessment Task AT1 Online Tasks 14 AT2 Risk Management for Activities 15 AT3 Critical Incident Management Planning 21 AT4 The 5 Stages of Suicide Intervention 27 Assessor’s Marking Sheet 34 Page 3
  • 4. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 What is a Learning and Assessment Portfolio? The Learning and Assessment Portfolio is a central recording tool for you as a student to collate and record components of this course, which will serve as evidence in a judgment of your competence in the various aspects of this course. The material recorded and compiled in this document will be drawn from your experiences across all aspects of this course, from your workplace through to in-class activities and homework tasks. It also serves as a structured and reflective journal for your various experiences throughout your youth work training. Each Unit within the course has a related Portfolio to serve as a record; therefore, by the end of your training you will have completed all the required portfolios. This is an important document that should be kept safe and you as the trainee are responsible for the care of this document and all material that is recorded in it. In short the answer to this question is ‘a collection of an extensive range of tasks’. Each Portfolio is quite different and will contain activities that are relevant to the various knowledge and skills focused on in each Unit. Some of the components of the portfolios include:  Personal diary like entries about your place of work and other training experiences  Planning or Report forms for you to complete in relation to specified tasks  Self-assessment or Peer assessment recordings  Case-studies  Homework tasks  Examples of work or materials collected  Third Party Reports for your work peers or senior staff to complete It will be very clear for each page of the portfolio what is required of you so there should be little confusion as to what you are required to complete and when. How do I use this Portfolio? Page 4
  • 5. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 At times you may be directed to your portfolio by a specific lecture requiring you to complete a task or a homework exercise that is contained within the portfolio. At other times you will be completing personal entries in reflection on experiences from everyday aspects of your training. Though there will be some clearly dictated activities at prescribed times throughout the term of your training, you are alone responsible for directing the completion of each component of the portfolio and its safe handling. It is highly recommended that you read through this portfolio in detail when you receive it and plan how it will be completed, especially when there are specified activities that require organisation within the period of your training for the given Unit. Beyond that, the best way to ensure its completion is to weekly peruse the portfolio, reflect and write about your experiences, and of course complete relevant reports and tasks. Additionally, you should plan a regular time to reflect with your peers, senior staff and trainers and give them opportunity to also write in the sections that are relevant to them. Important Note – Completion of all activities, questions, reports and reflections in this portfolio is mandatory. You may not select to complete some pages and not others. If you do not submit a completed portfolio you cannot be deemed Competent for this unit. CHCYTH8B Unit Descriptor Page 5
  • 6. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Developing an agency approach to young people in crisis: ELEMENTS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 1. Implement a framework for 1.1 A framework which addresses prevention and preventing crisis situations response to critical situations is developed and reflects consideration of beliefs, rights and needs of the client and responsibilities of the organisation within a legislative and statutory context 1.2 Appropriate resources and mechanisms are established to assist workers deal with crisis situations 1.3 Details of the organisation’s responsiveness to crisis situations is defined and articulated to relevant personnel 1.4 All information related to crisis situations is stored and maintained to maximise accessibility, accuracy, currency and legibility 1.5 Procedures are implemented to ensure clients have ready access to information which may assist in resolving crisis situations 2. Support staff in responding to 2.1 Appropriate protocols are established for a crisis managing potential and actual crisis situations 2.2 Procedures for the management of crises are drafted, regularly updated and communicated to staff and other relevant personnel 2.3 Crisis management procedures which are developed are consistent with legal and organisational obligations and constraints 2.4 Resources are allocated for the prompt and effective response to crisis situations 2.5 Appropriate crisis response training and update briefings are provided to workers on a regular basis Page 6
  • 7. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 ELEMENTS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 2.6 Appropriate advice is formulated for the upgrade of organisational procedures including those related to occupational health and safety and other industrial and legislative requirements 3. Follow up crisis situations 3.1 All required reporting is completed and is comprehensive, accurate and consistent with the organisation’s policies and procedures 3.2 Debriefing procedures are defined and implemented routinely 3.3 Opportunity is provide for participation in review and evaluation of organisational responsiveness 3.4 Needs of all specific parties which arise from a crisis situation are identified and strategies developed to ensure they are addressed CHCYTH7C Unit Descriptor This unit is concerned with the competencies required to provide guidance and role models to young people and their families to maintain positive and supportive relationships while identifying problems and establishing goals for change based on maintaining support from family and the general community Page 7
  • 8. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 ELEMENTS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 1. Establish effective 1.1 Use interaction with young people to encourage personal rapport with young reflection on relationships and personal responsibility people and families 1.2 Use a range of communication strategies to gather information about the background and circumstances of young people and their families 1.3 Information provided to young people and their families is factual, clear and designed to promote positive responses 1.4 Identify issues arising from the circumstances of young people and their families and the need for changes to behaviour and relationships 1.5 Maintain clear, ethical and honest relationships with young people and their families 1.6 All information relevant to intervention contact with young people and their families is recorded and reported according to the organisation's procedures and consideration of confidentiality and discretion 2. Assess the needs 2.1 Identify and respond to the immediate needs of young and circumstances people according to nature and degree of urgency of young people 2.2 Provide young people and their families with information which is tailored to their capacity to absorb and which is designed to calm and reassure 2.3 Observe and note any signs of distress, anxiety, aggression and apathy 2.4 Observe and note signs of impairment of functioning in individuals and relationships Page 8
  • 9. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 3. Facilitate goal 3.1 Emphasise and negotiate clients' responsibility for setting and action determining and achieving their goals planning 3.2 Assess options for clients' goals and outcomes for change and negotiate agreements based on realistic goals and purpose 3.3 Check and confirm the information and resources required by clients to set their goals 3.4 Negotiate suitable and available resources and support 3.5 Encourage clients to identify and prioritise long and short term goals based on individual responsibility and personal choice 3.6 Encourage clients to identify and analyse the factors which have contributed to past behaviour and the obstacles to achieving individual and family goals 3.7 Identify unrealistic expectations challenge negative attitudes and unacceptable objectives and re-negotiate plans when required 4. Provide targeted assistance and 4.1 The type and nature of services available to clients are referral identified and clearly communicated 4.2 Appropriate work is undertaken to ensure assistance provided: Is in an appropriate manner Meets client needs Is consistent with legal and statutory provisions Meets resource and time constraints Complies with organisational policy Encourages young people to access alternative services and resources and to be self managing as possible Page 9
  • 10. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 4.3 Systems are established to ensure information and referral sources within the organisation are up to date, comprehensive, accurate, accessible and relevant to clients 4.4 Procedures are implemented to ensure workers have access to additional advice, expertise and support from others as required 4.5 The effectiveness of service delivery is continually monitored and problems of access, services or resources are resolved as appropriate 4.6 All reporting is in accordance with organisational procedures 5. Minimise the 5.1 Respond to incidents confidently, effectively, appropriately impact of critical and in accordance with agreed processes incidents 5.2 Identify the possible causes of incidents and assess these for relevance to the safety and welfare of young people and the service environment 5.3 Identify and provide information on potential responses to the appropriate team members for action and support 5.4 Request assistance clearly and promptly 5.5 Use protective strategies according to instructions and procedures 6. Prevent escalation 6.1 The persons behaviour pattern is routinely monitored to of violent ensure aggressive or abusive behaviour is minimised behaviour 6.2 A plan of care outlining ways to prevent, and respond to clients expressions of violence against self or others, is developed, communicated to relevant personnel, and implemented 6.3 Individual response to crisis situations promotes calm and reassurance 6.4 Procedures used to protect clients from endangering themselves or others, are consistent with legal, ethical and organisation requirements, and safety considerations 6.5 Appropriate judgements, in relation to physical restraint, based on the balance of risk and the safety of all, are enacted 6.6 First aid and other assistance is administered as necessary Page 10
  • 11. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 7. Secure the safety 7.1 Anticipate potential causes of conflict and harmful of clients behaviour and make appropriate responses to prevent escalation 7.2 Use calm, confident and assertive communication to establish positive personal interaction and exchange information 7.3 Provide information designed to promote positive decision making based on the relationship between actions and consequences 7.4 Provide information to all relevant individuals in a clear, accurate and comprehensive manner. 7.5 Select response and action designed to minimise risk, prevent escalation and to preserve the safety and security of all involved 7.6 Responses and emergency action give priority to the protection of individuals from severe harm. 7.7 Use of force for the maintenance of safety complies with procedures and is applied with minimum force to establish control Page 11
  • 12. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 UNIT FOUR Suggested Unit Study Guide Week One  Online Task One.  Reading for Assessment Task Two Week Two  Online Task Two.  Complete Assessment Task Two Week Three  Online Task Three.  Reading for Assessment Task Three Week Four  Online Task Four.  Complete Assessment Task Three Week Five  Online Task Five.  Reading for Assignment Task Four Week Six  No Online Task  Complete Assignment Task Four School Holidays  No Online Task  Complete any Outstanding Assessment Tasks  Submit Unit Portfolio for Assessment Page 12
  • 13. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Student Checklist This page has been provided for student use only as desired. It provides you with a guide to help you manage the completion of the portfolio. As you plan and Assessment Planned date to complete Complete complete each assessment task in the portfolioactivities use this document to you can track your progress; it should provide a useful organizational tool for you.  & details of any Monday Afternoon/Sunday Evening AT1 - Online Tasks End of Week 2 AT2 – Risk Management for Activities End of Week 3 AT3 – Critical Incident Management Planning End of Week 4 AT4 – The 5 Stages of Suicide Intervention Page 13
  • 14. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Task One Online Tasks OLT1 – SU Qld Chaplaincy and Suicide Prevention Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C - Various OLT2 – Crises Come in All Shapes and Sizes Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C - Various OLT3 – Does Debriefing Trauma Victims Really Work? Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C - Various OLT4 – Negotiation Skills for Crises Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C – 6.1; 6.2; 6.3; 6.4; 6.5; 6.6; 7.2; 7.3; 7.4; 7.5; 7.6; 7.7 OLT5 – Funerals and Memorial Services Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C - Various Task Two Risk Management for Activities Page 14
  • 15. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Introduction to the Task For an organisation like SU Qld, it is important that safe environments for children and young people are created in all activities (EG - through chaplaincy services, camps or community outreach programs etc). If SU Qld is not able to do this, it will not be able to achieve its vision and mission with children and young people; will lose the confidence of the parents and caregivers of children and young people; as well as lose its reputation in the community for providing high quality child and youth programs and services. Having said that, all activities carry some kind of risk and not all risks can be controlled. But the aim of any organisation, particularly those that work with children and young people, should be to minimize the risks and to manage them as best as they can. Risk Management then, is the process by which an organisation identifies, analyses, evaluates and treats the potential and actual risks they face in their activities. The goal of risk management is to avoid a critical incident; to make the levels of risk acceptable so that the organisation can carry out its functions, and achieve its vision and mission. The Task In this task, you are to design a Risk Management Plan for the activity outlined in the scenario below, by following the process outlined below. This will involve:  Reading the scenario  Reading up on Risk Management Planning processes  Responding to the questions in the various planning stages outlined below 2.1 Read the Following Scenario: Day Trip Bush Walk: You are the SU Qld school chaplain in the local high school and you have been asked to run a program that supports the year 9 and 10 boys in the school who are “at risk” of disengaging from school (eg they have been either truanting or receiving suspensions from school for various behaviour issues). The group has been meeting weekly with you over the last four weeks during Wednesday afternoon sport time, and you think its time for the group to do a novel team building activity. The activity is aimed to be fun, but challenging, with an emphasis on learning individual skills and working cooperatively as a group. You have decided to take the boys on a day trip bush walk, with the boys back packing 5 km up to the higher reaches of the YMIS River. The terrain around this river system often has occasional drops of 100 metres down steep slopes (cliffs) and into gorges where the river runs. The walk is an off track expedition that requires each student to follow a compass bearing given to them by the leader. To limit rock hopping, the group will follow a course that keeps them up off the river for most of the hike. The bush walk also includes swimming in a water hole along the river. The boys need to supply and carry their own supplies and lunch. 2.2 Read Up on Risk Management Processes (all readings on Moodle): Page 15
  • 16. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 1. “CCYPCG Safe Environments for Young People – Child Protection – Managing the Risks Resource Book”: (Part A: Section 3 – Risk Management & Part B: 3.2 Activities; 3.3 Special Events; 3.6.5 Sample Risk Management Template 2. “CCYPCG Safe Environments for Young People – Child Protection – Managing the Risks (Fact Sheet)” 3. “Queensland Government Risk Management Training Program” (8 Booklets including Introduction; Steps 1 to 5; Review; and Summary) 2.3 Risk Management Planning Process Write your responses to the bullet pointed questions in the boxes provided at each stage of the Risk Management Process. You can respond to each bullet point specifically or by writing in your own words. 2.3.1 - Step One: Establish the Context The first step in the risk management process is to focus on the environment in which your event operates. Consider this environment to establish the boundaries within which the risks must be managed, and to guide your decisions on managing the risks:  What is the youth work context of this event?  What are the objectives or proposed outcomes of the event?  What is the actual environment that the event takes place in?  What are the strengths of the young people involved?  What are the needs of the young people involved?  Who are the stakeholders who need to be involved?  What activities make up the event? The youth work context of this event is in encouraging the boys to have a faith in themselves to accomplish a set task while having fun and working as a group. The objectives or proposed outcomes of the event are a safe and successful navigation to the upper reaches of the river. The actual environment that the event takes place in is beside and along a river with several drops along the way of up to 100 meters. The strengths of the young people involved include their youth, the local knowledge they would have of the area, most if not all would be reasonably fit and ready for a challenge. The needs of the young people involved include the need to be recognized as a person, to achieve an outcome set, to complete an activity to boost their self worth. The need to be trusted to accomplish something given to them. The stakeholders who need to be involved are the school the boys come from, the parents of the boys, the P&C association of the school and S.U. Queensland. The activities that make up this event are the 5km bushwalk, the swim in the rock pool along the way and the basic orienteering that will be required to navigate to the top of the river. 2.3.2 - Step Two: Identify the Risks Page 16
  • 17. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 The second step is to identify the risks of the event, and to consider when and where the risks may arise. A risk is anything that can cause harm, either physically, psychologically or emotionally. In this stage, it is recommended that key stakeholders get together to discuss the risks and the potential responses.  Brainstorm with stakeholders: What are the risks? What can happen? How can it happen?  Environmental Factors  Human Factors  Equipment Factors Risks include: Rain making the track slippery, extreme heat on the day, faulty compasses, maps not up to date or damaged, disagreements between participants on where to go, how to proceed, who is to lead. What can happen? If the track is slippery then slips or falls could occur, if the day is hot and the boys do not take enough water then dehydration could set in, sunburn if the correct clothing is not worn which can lead to further dehydration, fights over leadership if disagreements get out of hand, getting lost if equipment is faulty or maps are out of date or damaged. How could these happen? Boys not taking enough care while on the walk, not debriefed correctly on where they were to go and how, not prepared properly eg: Water Bottles accessible, Broad brimmed hats, sunscreen, not trained in use of compasses, map reading. Environmental Factors can include rain, mud, rockslide if any loose rocks are along the proposed trail, the river flooding with a lot of rain, animals protecting nests if breeding or birthing season, availability of shade, too much sun, height of cliffs (is someone scared of heights?) Human Factors can be: other bushwalkers or campers and holiday makers. Is there a need to drive to the start of the walk? What will traffic be like? Equipment Factors can include compass failure, is there magnetic ore in the region that will fool the compass? Are the maps up to date? Does each boy have a suitable pair of hiking shoes? A broad brimmed hat? Suitable clothing? Decent Backpack? What will be provided and what will not? 2.3.3 - Step Three: Analyse the Risks For the risks identified, assess the level of risk based on the likelihood they will occur and consequence for children, young people and the organization (see CCYPCG templates on p17 for help with last three boxes of template below / NOTE – these templates appear under the heading of “Evaluating the Risk”, not “Analyse the Risks”, but they belong here for our purposes)  List the activities making up the event  Description of Risks  Existing Controls  Likelihood of Risk Occurring – Almost Certain; Likely; Possible; Unlikely; or Rare  Consequences – Catastrophic; Major; Moderate; Minor; or Insignificant  Level of Risk – Extreme; High; Moderate; or Low (You can use a template like this and the box provided over the page, or just the box provided) Page 17
  • 18. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Activity: Swimming Description of Risks: Sharp Rocks in pool, animals in pool, non-swimmers in group, water temperature. Existing control: None Likelihood of Risk occurring: Unlikely Consequences: Moderate Level of Risk: Moderate Activity: Orienteering Description of Risks: Equipment failure, inability to read map or understand compass Existing control: Training to take place, set time for arrival, area checked Likelihood of Risk occurring: Unlikely Consequences: Minor Level of Risk: Low Activity: Bushwalk. Description of Risks: 100 M cliffs in some areas, condition of ground. Existing control: None. Likelihood of Risk occurring: Unlikely. Consequences: Moderate to High. Level of Risk: High. Page 18
  • 19. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 2.3.4 - Step Four: Evaluate the Risks Prioritise the risks to minimise the impact, to focus efforts in treating identified risks and to guide action planning and allocation of resources  Is the risk acceptable or unacceptable?  What is the criteria for determining the risk’s acceptability?  What priority will be given to what risks and their management? Is the risk acceptable or unacceptable? 1. Bushwalking Risk: Unacceptable 2. Swimming: Acceptable 3. Orienteering: Acceptable What is the criteria for determining the risk’s acceptability? 1. How much bushwalking have the group done before? How close to the cliffs will The group go? Will they be on the top of or at the bottom of the cliffs? What will be Done if there is high rainfall the night before? 2. Are there non-swimmers in the group? How deep is the pool? Is there the possibility of any animal being in the pool that could harm the boys? How cold is the pool and would it cause any problems? 3. In what state of repair is the equipment in? Have the compasses been checked for faults? Are the maps up to date? Has a preliminary walk been done by the chaplain? Do the boys know what to check their gear for? What priority will be given to what risks and their management? 1. High priority: Can a path be determined that will minimise the amount of top cliff time? Can a few practice walks be done? Teach the boys what to look for in their own gear. Chaplain to do a walk to check ground. Check and update maps as required. 2.3.5 - Step Five: Treat the Risks Consider the options for reducing the likelihood and / or consequences of each risk (EG - Stop the activity; Eliminate the risk; Minimise the harm; or Transfer the liability)  Brainstorm all possible solutions to treat the risks  Select the most feasible and cost effective solution  Develop and implement a strategy to implement that solution – What, How, Who, When? 1. Know the ground, plan the route. Go on some short practice hikes to test gear and fitness levels. 2. Know the swimming strengths of the boys, check the pool for depth, rocks and animals. 3. Check and organise equipment. Brief the boys on what to bring. The most feasible and cost effective solution is the one that is already in place, there is a minimal cost to the students and to the chaplain, apart from the possibility of needing to buy new compasses or maps it is entirely based on what is on hand at the time. A strategy to implement this solution is to carefully consider what would need replacing and why then shop around for the best equipment with the best price. Page 19
  • 20. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 2.3.6 - Step Six: Review and Revise Risks and Control Measures The strategies used to mange risks need to be constantly monitored and evaluated, as the factors that contribute to risks are constantly changing.  How might some of the risks change over time?  How could a review of the risks be best done? Environmental factors are major in this activity, if it rains heavily before the walk then the possibility of slippery areas along the line of walk are increased, as is the depth of the pool. Movement of animals in the area cannot really be tracked. After rainfall, If any, the chaplain will need to do a recheck of the area to determine safety and any new risks that may need to be addressed Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTH8B – 1.1; 1.5; 2.1; 2.2; 2.3; 2.6; 3.1; 3.3; 4.3;4.4; 4.5; 4.6  CHCYTH7C – 3.6; 4.2; 4.3; 4.4; 5.2; 5.3; 5.5; 6.2; 6.4; 7.1; 7.3; 7.4; 7.5 Page 20
  • 21. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Task Three Critical Incident Management Planning Introduction to the Task A critical incident can be defined as a traumatic event which causes or is likely to cause extreme physical and/or emotional distress to the people involved and to the surrounding community and may be regarded as outside the normal range of experience of the people affected. It is any event or series of events that is sudden, overwhelming, threatening or protracted. Some examples of critical incidents that affect a community or school are:  Fire  Bomb threat or explosion  Gas or chemical hazard  Natural disaster – flood, earthquake, tsunami  Transport accident  Death  Destruction of the whole or part of the school, church, workplace or town  Break-in accompanied by major vandalism  Person lost or injured on an excursion or event  Person being taken hostage  Person witnessing serious injury or death  Robbery, violence or assault on a person  Child sexual assault  Suicide Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) or Critical Incident Management (CIM) is a comprehensive series of strategies that organizations can put in place to assist in the recovery of people experiencing distress after a critical incident. There are a number of stages to a CIM process and they can be outlined in a few different ways, but essentially, the stages of CIM involve:  Preparation and prevention of critical incidents  Managing a critical incident and the immediate response  Follow up of a critical incident (including – demobilization, debriefing and defusing)  Review of CIM At each stage, there are a number of important activities and tasks that need to be completed. The completion of these tasks at each stage increase the likelihood of a more positive response from people to a critical incident, although there are other factors involved in this that are difficult if not impossible to control. As in all Risk Management processes, it is important to go through the process of doing all that is possible to identify the risks and effectively respond to them. The Task In this task, you are being asked to:  Read up on CIM  Define the different stages of CIM and give 5 examples of strategies for each of these stages  Write a student journal account of your involvement in one of these stages of responding to a critical incident  Describe how that involvement fit into the other stages Page 21
  • 22. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 3.1 Read Up on CIM (all readings on Moodle) Essential Reading (you should read all of these): 1. Critical Incidents Management Guide for Newcastle University (Factsheet) 2. Workplace Health – Coping with a Critical Incident (Factsheet) 3. Resource Guide for Critical Incident Stress and Debriefing for Human Service Agencies 4. School Matters – pp 29 – 32 School Policy and Critical Incidents & pp 63 – 65 Tool 7 Critical Incident Management Plan 5. Educating for Life – pp 29 – 33 Critical Incident Management & pp 42 – 45 Responding to the Student who is Suicidal or Self Harming Going Deeper Reading (you should read at least one of these): 6. Traumatic Incidents Affecting Schools 7. Responding to Traumatic Incidents: Supporting Documentation for Schools 8. Emergency / Disaster Planning for Principals 9. Crisis Management – Student Services Competencies – Appendix XVI (p63) onwards 3.2 Stages and Activities of CIM Stages 3.2.1 Preparation & Prevention of Critical Incidents: Definition of Stage Putting into place measures to prepare for and or prevent a Critical Incident by informing people, be they students, staff, parents or others what is to take place in the event of an incident. Page 22
  • 23. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 5 examples of what can happen at this stage and a brief description of each example 1. Writing of a critical incident response plan and placing it in easy to access places for those who will need to know how to respond to various incidents. 2. Gathering information and writing a list of which aid organizations are available in the local area to help in the event of a critical incident. 3. Training of staff in Critical incident management and response. 4. Testing the critical incident response plan through drills such as lockdowns and fire drills. 5. Monitoring, reviewing and changing the plan as required to ensure optimum response. 3.2.2 Managing a Critical Incident and the Immediate Response Definition of Stage The response of an organization or company to a critical incident and what the organization or company does to ensure those involved are looked after properly. 5 examples of what happens at this stage and a brief description of each example 1. The critical incident management team will need to identify what has occurred as best they can and who is involved in the incident, they will also need to identify who is in charge of the situation so there will not be “too many chiefs”. 2. If required (IE Bomb scare or fire) then evacuation procedures should be enacted while the appropriate authorities are called. 3. Contacting emergency services if the situation requires it or a predetermined security or response group. IE If there is a car accident outside school or a student is hit by a car the call should be to 000 for Ambulance and Police, if a child falls over and breaks their arm in the playground then the school nurse/first aider should be called first and they ring the ambulance. 4. Assessment of correct follow up procedure by the CIM team to assess the need for the best follow up procedures. Page 23
  • 24. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 5. Set up a quiet area for those affected by the incident and/or their families only. 3.2.3 Follow Up (including demobilization, defusing and debriefing) Definition of Stage Talking to staff, students, emergency services personnel or anyone involved in a critical incident either in answer to a call out to respond to one or actually being involved in one for the purpose of lessening trauma and stress to those involved. 5 examples of what happens at this stage and a brief description of each example 1. Demobilisation is the term used for a meeting that is to take place just after the incident, is organized by a manager or person in charge who has not been immediately affected by the incident in order to assist staff to move from the incident back to a more normal frame of mind. 2. Defusing is a structured session held before people involved leave the scene of an incident in order to begin recovery psychologically and allow immediate expressions and feelings to be aired. 3. Debriefing is undertaken by experienced debriefers and are set in place to help people involved in a critical incident to set in place what happened for them, how they are handling the stress and giving information on what help they feel they may be needing. 4. Follow up meetings need to be arranged with trained counselors if the need arises or time organized to meet with a school guidance officer or chaplain if it is a school incident. 5. The critical incident team should meet about one month after the incident to discuss how follow up procedures have gone and to evaluate how well the incident had been/ was being managed. Page 24
  • 25. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 3.2.4 Review of CIM Procedures Definition of Stage When the CIM team meet to discuss what happened, how effective the response and follow up was and what procedures need to be put into place to improve follow up procedures and responses, and to discuss how those affected by the incident are going. 5 examples of what happens at this stage and a brief description of each example 1. A meeting is organized for a date several weeks after the incident in order to go over how the incident was handled, what happened on the day and how follow up procedures were initiated and the effectiveness these have had on the well being of those involved. 2. A restructuring of the event and the outcome of the handling of the incident by the CIMT in order to better handle any other Incidents. 3. Check ups on the on-going support and counseling of staff, students and others involved in the incident, who has stayed, who has gone and why. 4. Procedures are reviewed and updated as required. 5. The CIMT is fully debriefed and made aware of any changes that have taken place since the Incident. Page 25
  • 26. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 3.2.5 – Student Journal Account of Participating in a Response to a Critical Incident Write 250 words on a time when you participated in a response to a critical incident, with particular reference to your involvement in one of the 4 CIM stages outlined. (If you haven’t participated in a critical incident then consider how you might be involved in your current role as SU Qld Chaplain in your school and community) If a critical incident was to occur within any of the schools I am chaplain in I believe my role would be initially in the comfort of any students or staff involved in the incident. If I was first on the scene then keeping students back and safe, sending someone to get teachers to help, the school first aid officer/nurse. Further down the track I would work with those that are more affected by the incident by referring on if need be or by acting as a sympathetic ear to those that needed it. My involvement would be more in the managing of a critical incident and the follow up, probably more in the defusing and helping in the quiet area that will have been set up. If a quiet area has not been organized then either offering the chappy room and immediate area as the gather point for those requiring a time out point. I would encourage students, staff or parents to come and sit down in the quiet area, organise cups of whatever and try to make them as comfortable as possible while keeping them away from the incident scene and getting what info I could from them. I would gather names of students that would require further follow up and in the following days at school would get them into the chappy room for a talk or more “chill out” time while doing what I can to get them back to a semblance of normalcy. Write 250 words on how your contribution fit in to what was going on or had gone on in the other 3 stages, making references to the other 3 stages of the CIM process. Page 26
  • 27. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 The contribution I would hope to give to a critical incident would fit in with the planning that has (hopefully) already been put into place at the three schools I am at. Organising and being at a quiet area would help to free up other staff to carry out other duties as directed by the principal of the school. A calming presence may also help others to keep their cool and think more easily during what would be a highly stressful time. Parents coming in would be able to be directed straight over to wait where someone can come and fill them in instead of rushing around possibly endangering themselves or hindering rescue workers. If first on the scene then the dispersion of onlookers would also help if those involved in the incident are in an embarrassing or life threatening situation, giving others jobs to do who would otherwise only get in the way of those who could help would aid in the finalizing of and organizing of the incident. The students already know me and so this would make follow up with them and their families somewhat easier than opening up to a total stranger. This would also come in handy when or if referrals are needed to as a level of trust has already been established. When the CIMT meets to discuss how the incident was managed then any information from my point of view would also help in organizing updates to their procedures, if any are needed. Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTH8B – all criteria covered in this task  CHCYTH7C – 2.1; 2.3; 3.1; 3.2; 4.1; 4.2; 4.3; 4.4 Page 27
  • 28. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Task Four The 5 Stages of Suicide Intervention Introduction to the Task Suicidal behaviours are those that revolve around the desire and intention to end one’s own life. The reasons why people think suicidal thoughts and engage in suicidal behaviours are complex and interrelated with other broader societal factors. Many people who die by suicide are affected by mental disorders, often combined with an adverse family situation and / or other social disadvantage. Some suicides are impulsive and many who attempt it are not motivated by a desire to embrace death, but to escape pain in life. There are many, many good arguments for providing programs for the prevention and intervention of suicide, and the full scope and nature of these interventions need to be as broad and interrelated as the causal factors. The intervention strategies for suicidal behaviour can be divided into 5 stages: 1. Primary Prevention – General activities that enhance the protective factors and reduce the risk factors for children and young people in the area of suicidal behaviour 2. Early Intervention – Activities that identify and support children and young people who are “at risk” of engaging in suicidal behaviour 3. Intervention – Activities that assess the vulnerability of children and young people to suicidal behaviour and provide immediate crisis support to those exhibiting suicidal behaviours 4. Treatment – Activities that treat the underlying mental health issues associated with suicidal behaviours 5. Post-vention – Activities that provide support to those affected by a death by suicide or an attempted death by suicide, seeking to minimise the potential for suicide contagion and to support the personal and community grieving process Any effective prevention and intervention planning process in the area of suicidal thoughts and behaviours needs to take into consideration these 5 stages. The Task In this task, you will be reading up on suicidal behaviour and then writing a short paper (1000 words minimum) on how the 5 stages of intervention for suicidal behaviour apply in your role as an SU Qld Chaplain in a Queensland state school. The paper will include:  An introduction / overview on suicidal behaviour in children and young people  Your own definition of each of the 5 stages of intervention for suicidal behaviour, a description of each stage and 5 examples of activities that could take place at each of the stages  Your understanding on how these activities might relate to the CIM process in your school  A reflection on which stage or stages your SU Qld Chaplaincy role is most likely to be involved in during an intervention, and how this would fit into the work being done in the other stages of intervention Page 28
  • 29. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 4.1 Read Up on Suicidal Behaviours and the 5 Stages of Intervention 4.1.1 Websites on Suicide  Reach Out! - Wanting to End Your Life – A range of fact sheets: EG - “Wanting to Take Your Own Life”, “If a Friend Threatens to Take Their Own Life”, “If a Friend Has Taken Pills or Hurt Themselves” etc)  Rethink - Suicide – A range of fact sheets: EG – “Suicide and Mental Illness”, “Helping a Suicidal Friend or Relative”, “Myths about Suicide”, “If You Are Thinking of Suicide”  www.suicidehelpline.org.au – home – (A range of headings: EG – “Understanding Suicide”, “Helping Someone Who’s Suicidal”, “Coping with Suicidal Death” etc)  itsallright : The Facts : Suicide – “Suicide” fact sheet  www.kidshelpline.com.au – home – info about KHL – resources and research – info sheets – “Suicide-Related Issues 2006” AND / OR home – info about KHL – resources and research – publications – “Lives on the Line”  Ybblue: A youth depression awareness campaign – Click on “download now” for “Fact sheet 19 – Suicide” 4.1.2 Readings on Suicide (on Moodle under “Unit 4 / Resources / AT4”) Shorter Documents / Fact Sheets  LIFE – Australian Suicide Statistics, 2004 – Key Findings  Response-ability – (a range of fact sheets on suicidal behaviour and responses at the bottom of the page) (Essential Reading)  SANE – Suicide and Self Harm Fact Sheet  Lifeline - Just Ask – Tool Kit  Mind Your Mind – Suicide Fact Sheet Longer Documents / Research Papers and Reports  LIFE – Learnings About Suicide (Essential Reading)  Mind Matters – Educating for Life Resource (Essential Reading)  Understanding Youth Suicide – Information Kit  Qld State Government – Suicide Prevention Strategy for 2003 to 2008  Qld State Government – Reducing Suicide Action Plan 4.2 Short Paper on “The 5 Stages of Intervention for Suicidal Behaviours” Page 29
  • 30. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 4.2.1 Introduction to the Paper on Suicide Write 350 words (minimum) by way of introduction to your paper that includes:  A definition of suicidal behaviour  Suicide and young people in Australia  Individual and environmental risk factors  Individual and environmental protective factors  Why we need to understand the “5 stages of intervention” “The 5 Stages of Intervention for Suicidal Behaviours” Suicidal behaviour can be defined as: The behaviour of an individual that points towards or is a pre-cursor to acts of self harm leading to the attempt, generally “successful” of taking their own life. Sometimes suicidal behaviour can be that of self harming. Occasionally an individual will not demonstrate any behaviour that could be defined as suicidal before attempting to take their own life. In Australia the rate of suicide among young people (aged between 14 and 19) while not the highest in the western world is still a matter of great concern. More than 1 in 10 young people choose to end their own lives (2005 Australian Bureau of Statistics http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/mf/3309.0/), both male and female, in other words, out of a class of 30 youth 3 or more are thinking of suicide, have tried suicide and been found before they died or will attempt suicide before they are 19. Factors that increase the risk of a young person suiciding include family breakups, social outcasting, living in a remote area, the inability to perform well at school, mental impairments, abuse from home and trouble with police or other law enforcing bodies. For those that are shunned at school or teased for any reason, be it intelligence, lack of strength, lack of attractiveness, different cultural beliefs or more add to the risk of a young person contemplating and then attempting suicide. If there is a lack of distractions, social interactions or possibility of socializing as can happen in remote or rural towns the rate of suicide is even higher as boredom and frustration continue to build. Young people from small towns can also face difficulty in finding employment within their home town and many move to larger towns or cities losing contact with friends and family and sometimes increasing their social withdrawal. Factors decreasing the risk of suicide of a young person include close family ties, ability to socialize, physical wellbeing, living in a large population area with entertainment available, religion and a sense of purpose. Several studies on suicidal behaviour among young people have discovered that those who identify as homosexual are more at risk of suicide than heterosexual young people. In understanding the “5 stages of intervention” we should be able to significantly and successfully decrease the risk factors of suicidal behaviour and increase the protective factors, hopefully lowering and eventually erasing the suicide rate among young people and therefore as those young people grow, among the older population and following generations. Page 30
  • 31. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 4.2.2 Primary Prevention  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Primary prevention occurs sometimes even before a person demonstrates suicidal behaviour, it is aimed at encouraging people and showing them that there is someone “out there” who cares about them and wants to know about them. Often suicide can be prevented just by the spending of time with another. Encourage acceptance within the school community of people educating the students that no matter what colour a person is or their mannerisms all people deserve a fair go. Pursue possible entertainment options within the town, encourage the council and community to see young people as people and not gang members or hooligans. Identify various cultural groups within the population and see if a “day” can be organized for members of that group to present information on their culture to the school. See if the school has an Adopt-a-Cop program and get the police involved in the school community so that students see them as people to be respected and not people to be feared. Encourage teamwork activities within classrooms and in the playground that enable all students to use their strengths so that outcasting is either minimized or gone. Fitting these into a CIM process in school should not be very difficult, make time to spend time with students who may be demonstrating anti-social behaviour, who are being shunned and cast out of their normal social group. Accept students in who want to join a game, listen if a student talks to you. Talk to the principal about a culture day at school and in getting the schools adopted officer in to spend time with the students. 4.2.3 Early Intervention  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Page 31
  • 32. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Early Intervention occurs when a child or young person has been identified as being “at risk” of suicidal behaviour, the activities in early intervention would need to be tailored towards individual needs rather than a broad community style activity found in the primary prevention stage. Focus on what the student enjoys doing, showing that you pay attention to them. When you are spending time with them let other students know that you are working with the one student and are not available for others. Work with the teacher of the young person to help engage the student in class, to encourage them to be involved, not feel inadequate. Encourage the young person in a hobby or sport Talk to them, spend time with them when possible, demonstrate an interest in them and their life. Encouraging a young person to seek out friends and activities to give them a sense of purpose, to give them something to focus on and work towards. Help them, if they are shy, to engage with other young people they would get on with. The CIM process would need to include the allowance of students to spend time with an adult who would be able to come in to the school for the sole purpose of working with one student. Have a broad range of activities available for students within the school environment so that significance is not placed on just one or two main strengths. 4.2.4 Intervention  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Intervention is when a child or young person has exhibited suicidal behaviour and procedures are enacted to support the young person and provide counseling for them if needed. Direct questioning of the student to determine why they are exhibiting such behaviour, determining if it a trend they are following, something one off or more serious. Giving them a list of services available (Kids Help Line, Salvation Army etc) that they can contact to talk to about their behaviour. Referring the student out to a fully trained counselor if needed. Continuing to show support for the student, showing interest in them and their well being. Demonstrating care and consideration when interacting with them, not shying away from how they feel or what their behaviour is. Hopefully the school would have a list of available counseling services that students can contact already in place, support of the student by those within the school that need to know and not spreading tales of them to aid in the self-worth building of the student. Page 32
  • 33. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Case Study: You are an SU Qld School Chaplain at the local primary school. A Year 7 girl comes to see you in your office and says to you that she can’t stop crying and she doesn’t know why. She says that if this doesn’t stop, then she doesn’t want to live any more… Think about this interaction: What knowledge and skills regarding suicidal behaviour will you need to be mindful of to help her? What counselling skills will you need to apply to encourage trust and safety? I would need to be aware of the socio-economic background of the girl, is the girl an outcast of the school?, has she just moved into the area? and if yes, where from? What is her family life like? Discovering the background of the girl would lead to a greater understanding of her and hopefully pin point why she is crying. I would need to show her that I am willing to listen, I would need to demonstrate patience, sincerity, a willingness to give her space, an interest in who she is. If I did not already know it I would ask her for her name, class and teacher. See if she wants to talk or just sit for a while and cry where she will not be teased for it. Give her somewhere comfortable to sit and if she wanted one and if it was available, a soft toy to hug. 4.2.5 Treatment  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Page 33
  • 34. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Treatment of suicidal behaviour gets right into how the person is thinking. Discovering and responding to their social and economic position comes into this stage. This stage is all about the individual and enhancing the protective factors available to them within their community. Specialist counseling should be undertaken at this stage, a trained counselor or psychiatrist that the person has contacted to undergo treatment. Continuation of the basic support of the person that has been happening during the previous stages. Encouragement of the person in continuing social contact with others. Non-judgemental attitude towards the person, getting them involved in self-worth building activities. The school itself would need to show an extra level of support for people undergoing the treatment stage of suicidal behaviour, debriefing of the person occurring through the guidance officer or the chaplain, or someone placed in the school specifically for that purpose. 4.2.6 Post-vention  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Post-vention occurs after a death by suicide to support the family, friends and those affected by the suicide, it is also in place to minimize copy cat behaviour by others within the community. The support of the family of the person who has suicided by simply being there for them, identifying grief counselors, aiding with funeral arrangements. Not glamourising the suicide, keeping media coverage low or non-existent and allowing personal grieving to occur. Offering a place for friends to come (school room, chappy room, out of the way corner of playground) to support each other through the loss of someone close to them. Organising meals to be provided for the affected family while they come to terms with what has happened. Encouraging support and understanding among the community, family and friends and not subjecting those affected to deep scrutiny or questioning. Giving time for family and friends to work through their grief, debriefing and follow up meetings held for friends within the school. 4.2.7 Reflections on the Chaplaincy Role and the “5 Stages” Given the nature of your role as an SU Qld Chaplain, it is likely that you will be involved somewhere in a school’s response to the prevention and intervention of suicidal behaviours. In this last section, reflect on which stage or stages you think your chaplaincy service would make the most valuable contribution to and outline your thinking on behind that. Page 34
  • 35. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 As a Chaplain I believe I would be involved in the early intervention, intervention and post- vention stages. I do not possess the training or knowledge required for the treatment stage. The most valuable contribution my chaplaincy service could offer would come in the early intervention and post-vention stages, only slightly in intervention stage as this requires more specialist treatment. As a chaplain I am not to engage in counseling with anyone, I am not a counselor and have not been trained as one and so believe that to engage in the treatment stage could probably do more harm than good. Getting too heavily into the intervention stage would also involve a form of counseling, again, having not been trained in counseling I believe I would not help the person coming to me at this stage. A chaplains strength lies in the ability to connect with people in an unbiased manner, no matter what their race, colour, creed, background, religious beliefs or mannerisms, in offering support and comfort on a basic level to people who come to us with a wide range of worries, troubles and concerns. We are also able to offer understanding and support in times of grief and loss, placing a personal rather than professional shadow on doing this. A chaplain works by identifying with a person or group of people and meeting them where they are and working with them as they are, this is why I believe early intervention and post-vention are where a chaplain can best be used. Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTH8B – 1.1; 2.3; 3.1; 3.4  CHCYTH7C – all criteria covered in this task UNIT FOUR Assessor’s Marking Sheet Assessor Name: Date: Page 35
  • 36. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Signature: Comments: Results Unit of Competency Outcome CHCNET4A CHCYTH3C Feedback Feedback given: yes no Feedback verbal mechanism: written Notes: Page 36