The Great Lisbon Earthquake  on the 1st of November 1755 <ul><li>In the morning of November 1, 1755, a large earthquake st...
<ul><li>The main shock of the great earthquake struck Portugal at 9:40 in the morning, on the 1 st  of November in 1755 </...
Aftershocks & Tectoning Setting <ul><li>Two major aftershocks occurred on December 11 and December 23, 1755 and caused add...
The Great Lisbon Tsunami on the 1 st  of November, in 1755   <ul><li>Shortly after the quake a series of tsunami wave cras...
Tsunami Effects in the Tagus River Estuary in Lisbon and along the west and south coasts of Portugal   <ul><li>The tsunami...
Numerical Modeling Studies of Tsunami Travel Times and Heights   <ul><li>Using the postulated tsunami source parameters {3...
Death Toll and Destruction from Earthquake, Tsunami and Fire <ul><li>The earthquake destroyed Lisbon and other major citie...
Significance of the Great Lisbon Earthquake <ul><li>The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755, marked the beginning of the moder...
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The Great Lisbon Earthquake (by: Artemis Artemi 5D)

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The Great Lisbon Earthquake (by: Artemis Artemi 5D)

  1. 1. The Great Lisbon Earthquake on the 1st of November 1755 <ul><li>In the morning of November 1, 1755, a large earthquake struck Lisbon </li></ul><ul><li>It was Sunday and the religious holiday of All Saints </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Lisbon's population of 250,000 were praying in six magnificent cathedrals, including the great Basilica de Sao Vicente de Fora </li></ul><ul><li>Within minutes the port of Lisbon were affected by two major shocks of the earthquake and the waves of the catastrophic tsunami </li></ul><ul><li>Below we can see the Great Palace Square of Lisbon </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>The main shock of the great earthquake struck Portugal at 9:40 in the morning, on the 1 st of November in 1755 </li></ul><ul><li>There were no record instruments at that time to measure the magnitude of the earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Experts, after researches stated that the earthquake should be approximately 8.6 on the Richter scale </li></ul><ul><li>The epicenter reported in the literature is 38.0°N, 9.0°W. in the Atlantic Ocean, about 200 km WSW of Cape St. Vincent </li></ul><ul><li>However it is believed that this was incorrect since the first of the tsunami waves reached Lisbon about 4o minutes after the quake struck </li></ul><ul><li>There were three distinct quake shocks over a ten minute period </li></ul><ul><li>1 st shock was followed by a second one that caused the buildings toppling down </li></ul><ul><li>According to reports, the tremors and the ground motions from this shock lasted for three-and-one-half minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Gigantic fissures of up to 15 feet wide tore through the center of Lisbon. A third shock was less powerful </li></ul>Earthquake Epicenter and Magnitude
  3. 3. Aftershocks & Tectoning Setting <ul><li>Two major aftershocks occurred on December 11 and December 23, 1755 and caused added agony and despair to survivors </li></ul><ul><li>Strong aftershocks continued for many weeks </li></ul><ul><li>It is believed that the great Lisbon earthquake occurred along the Azores- Gibraltar fracture zone (AGFZ) </li></ul><ul><li>Marks the boundary of active tectonic interaction between African and the Eurasian plates </li></ul><ul><li>This is an active seismic region where large earthquakes occur with frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the larger earthquakes, particularly those occurring closer to the eastern section of AGFZ, are capable to generate tsunamis </li></ul><ul><li>The tectonic interaction on the eastern segment of AGFZ involves a thrusting component in NW direction along a NE-trending strike plane </li></ul><ul><li>Gravimetry measurements support this conclusion </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Great Lisbon Tsunami on the 1 st of November, in 1755 <ul><li>Shortly after the quake a series of tsunami wave crashed on the harbor of the city </li></ul><ul><li>It engulfed the lower part of Lisbon on the shore of the Tagus, and submerged much of the lower part of the city </li></ul><ul><li>The marble quay of Cais De Pedra, was disappeared in the water (newly built) </li></ul><ul><li>The first three of these tsunami waves were the largest and completed the destruction brought about by the two earlier strong quake shocks. 20,000 more of the terrified survivors who had rushed to the open space of the docks and the waterfront quay for safety, lost their lives to these tsunami waves </li></ul><ul><li>All boats on the city’s harbor were completely destroyed </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tsunami Effects in the Tagus River Estuary in Lisbon and along the west and south coasts of Portugal <ul><li>The tsunami destruction was particularly severe in the province of Algarve, in southern Portugal, where almost all the coastal towns and villages were severly damaged, except Faro, which was protected by sandy banks </li></ul><ul><li>In some coastal regions of Algarve, the maximum tsunami wave run-up was 30 meters </li></ul><ul><li>According to reports, the waves demolished coastal fortresses and razed houses to the ground </li></ul><ul><li>In Lagos, the waves reached the top of the city walls </li></ul>
  6. 6. Numerical Modeling Studies of Tsunami Travel Times and Heights <ul><li>Using the postulated tsunami source parameters {300 kilometers radius (282,000 square kilometers), and about 30 meters of subsidence} Dr. Mader' numerical modeling study provided estimates of the tsunami travel time and the deep water tsunami wave amplitudes along the east coast of USA, in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico </li></ul>
  7. 7. Death Toll and Destruction from Earthquake, Tsunami and Fire <ul><li>The earthquake destroyed Lisbon and other major cities in Portugal. More than 18,000 buildings, representing about 85% of the total were completely demolished. In the first two minutes of the earthquake, about 30,000 people lost their lives. The total death toll in Lisbon, a city of 230,000, was estimated to be about 90,000. Another 10,000 people were killed in Morocco…! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Significance of the Great Lisbon Earthquake <ul><li>The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755, marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Following this earthquake there were systematic efforts to catalog the times and locations of earthquakes and to study their physical effects…! </li></ul><ul><li>Done by: Artemis Artemi 5D </li></ul>

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