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  • Sugarland – All I want to do
  • central processing unit (CPU): Also called a microprocessor or processor. The heart and brain of the computer, which receives data input, processes information, and executes instructions.
  • expansion cards: A circuit board inserted into a slot on the motherboard to enhance the capability of the computer. expansion slot: A narrow slot on the motherboard where an expansion card can be inserted. Expansion slots connect to a bus on the motherboard.
  • chipset: A group of chips on the motherboard that controls the timing and flow of data and instructions to and from the CPU.
  • DIMM (dual inline memory module): A miniature circuit board installed on a motherboard to hold memory. DIMMs can hold up to 2 GB of RAM on a single module.
  • bus: The paths, or lines, on the motherboard on which data, instructions, and electrical power move from component to component. data bus: The lines on the system bus that the CPU uses to send and receive data. data path size: The number of lines on a bus that can hold data, for example, 8, 16, 32, and 64 lines, which can accommodate 8, 16, 32, and 64 bits at a time.
  • clock speed: The speed, or frequency, expressed in MHz, that controls activity on the motherboard and is generated by a crystal or oscillator located somewhere on the motherboard.
  • cards: Adapter boards or interface cards placed into expansion slots to expand the functions of a computer, allowing it to communicate with external devices such as monitors or speakers.
  • BIOS (basic input/output system): Firmware that can control much of a computer’s input/output functions, such as communication with the floppy drive and the monitor. Also called ROM BIOS. firmware: Software that is permanently stored in a chip. The BIOS on a motherboard is an example of firmware. CMOS (complementary metaloxide semiconductor): The technology used to manufacture microchips. CMOS chips require less electricity, hold data longer after the electricity is turned off, are slower, and produce less heat than earlier technologies. The configuration, or setup, chip is a CMOS chip. CMOS RAM: region of memory that uses battery power to retain data after the PC is shut off. CMOS setup: A chip on the motherboard that contains a very small amount of memory, or RAM enough to hold configuration, or setup, information about the computer The chip is powered by a battery when the PC is turned off. Also called CMOS configuration chip or CMOS RAM chip.
  • Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) Specification developed by Intel, Compaq, Phoenix, Microsoft, and Toshiba to control power on notebooks and other devices. Windows 98 and Windows 2000/XP support ACPI. Advanced Power Management(APM): Power management standard developed by Intel and Microsoft. APM has been superseded by ACPI.
  • a+ ptc

    1. 1. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 1 Introducing Hardware Tuesday, August 11, 2009
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Learn that a computer requires both hardware and software to work </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about the many different hardware components inside of and connected to a computer </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>End users need not know how a computer works </li></ul><ul><li>To add to your end user knowledge, </li></ul><ul><li>study is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Studying this text will help you do the </li></ul><ul><li>following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install new hardware and software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnose hardware and software problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solve hardware and software problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate new hardware and operating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass the A+ series of exams </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Hardware Needs Software to Work <ul><li>Software: instructions used to manipulate hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements: input, processing, storage, output </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware: physical portion of a computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Components: monitor, keyboard, memory, hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All hardware operations are based on binary values </li></ul><ul><li>Binary number system consists of two digits: 0 and 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental groupings of binary numbers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bit: binary digit that can take on values of 0 or 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nibble: four bits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byte: four bits </li></ul></ul>☻ ☻ ☻
    5. 5. Computer hardware provides 4 major services to software: 1. input 2. output 3. processing 4. storage
    6. 6. Figure 1-2 All communication, storage, and processing of data inside a computer are in binary form until presented as output to the user
    7. 7. Information entered into the computer from the keyboard is in ASCII form
    8. 8. PC Hardware Components <ul><li>Most input/output (I/O) devices are external to the case </li></ul><ul><li>Most processing and storage devices are internal </li></ul><ul><li>Central processing unit (CPU) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the processor or microprocessor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reads input, processes data, writes data to storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elements required by I/O and storage devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A method for CPU to communicate with the device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software to instruct and control the device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity to power the device </li></ul></ul>☻
    9. 9. Hardware Used for Input and Output <ul><li>Connections to the case can be cabled or wireless </li></ul><ul><li>Port: access point located in back or front of case </li></ul><ul><li>Chief input devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard: enhanced type holds 104 keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse: pointing device used to select screen items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chief output devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor: visually displays primary output of computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer: produces output on paper (hard copy) </li></ul></ul>☻
    10. 10. Most computer ports are located on the back of the case. Examining the back of a PC Video
    11. 11. Figure 1-6 The two most popular output devices are the monitor and the printer Figure 1-5 The two most popular input devices are the keyboard and the mouse
    12. 12. You will need to become familiar with the different types of connectors used with computers
    13. 13. Hardware Inside the Computer Case <ul><li>Most storage and processing occurs in the case </li></ul><ul><li>Internal devices common to most computers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motherboard containing CPU, memory, other parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy drive, hard drive, CD drive for persistent storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power supply with power cords supplying electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit boards for internal and external communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cables to connect devices to all circuit boards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expansion cards are installed in expansion </li></ul><ul><li>slots </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of cables: data (communication) </li></ul><ul><li>and power </li></ul>
    14. 14. Figure 1-8: Inside the computer case Looking inside the PC Video
    15. 15. The Motherboard <ul><li>The largest and most important circuit board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as the main board or system board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the CPU, expansion slots, other devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Categories used to group motherboard components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing, temporary storage, communication, power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All devices communicate with CPU on motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>A peripheral device links to motherboard via cable </li></ul><ul><li>Some motherboard ports outside of the case: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard, mouse, parallel, USB ports, sound ports </li></ul></ul>☻
    16. 16. Figure 1-9 All hardware components are either located on the motherboard or directly or indirectly connected to it because they must all communicate with the CPU RAM boards are called memory modules ☻ Looking at Motherboards Video
    17. 17. Figure 1-10 A motherboard provides ports for common I/O devices FireWire:Used for high speed multimedia such as digital camcorders ☻ USB: Used for external hard drives, keyboards, printers, scanners, etc. ☻ ch01a Quick Quiz
    18. 18. The Processor and the Chipset <ul><li>CPU: chip that performs most data processing </li></ul><ul><li>Chipset: group of microchips controlling data flow </li></ul><ul><li>Personal computer (PC): chief focus of this text </li></ul><ul><li>Major manufacturers of CPUs and chipsets for PCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Corporation, AMD, VIA, SiS, and Cyrix </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Figure 1-11: The processor is hidden underneath the fan and heat sink, which keep it cool.
    20. 20. Figure 1-12 This motherboard uses two chips in its chipset (notice the bus lines coming from each chip used for communication) ☻ All circuit boards contain microchips
    21. 21. Storage Devices <ul><li>Primary storage (main memory): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary storage used by the processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds data while being processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary storage is faster and more expensive than Secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary storage (permanent storage): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables data to persist after the machine is turned off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: hard drive, CD, floppy disk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analogy to primary-secondary memory relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Book stacks in a library are like permanent storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books can be moved to a desk (temporary storage) </li></ul></ul>☻ ☻ (random access memory)
    22. 22. Figure 1-13 Memory is a temporary place to hold instructions and data while the CPU processes both
    23. 23. Primary Storage <ul><li>RAM (random access memory): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device providing temporary storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located on motherboard and on other circuit boards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three types of RAM boards (memory modules): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIMM (dual inline memory module) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RIMM (Rambus inline memory module) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIMM (single inline memory module) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RAM is volatile (data does not persist) </li></ul><ul><li>ROM (read-only memory) is nonvolatile </li></ul>
    24. 24. Figure 1-14 A SIMM, DIMM, or RIMM holds RAM and is mounted directly on a motherboard.
    25. 25. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Secondary storage is permanent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before a CPU can use the data stored in a permanent storage device, the data must be copied into main memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case containing disks that rotate at high speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An arm with a read/write head traverses the platter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology used internally by a hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ATA (AT Attachment) standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies motherboard-hard drive interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types: Serial ATA or parallel ATA (Enhanced IDE) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel ATA accommodates up to four IDE devices </li></ul>
    26. 26. Figure 1-16 Hard drive with sealed cover removed Identifying Drives Video
    27. 27. Figure 1-18 Two IDE devices connected to a motherboard using both IDE connections and two cables
    28. 28. Secondary Storage (cont.) <ul><li>Serial ATA standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for more than four drives in a system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies only to hard drives and not to other drives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some IDE devices: hard drives, </li></ul><ul><li>Zip drives, CD drive </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.5-inch disk holding 1.44 MB of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy drive connector is distinct from IDE connectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory) drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard equipment for reading software distributions </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Figure 1-22 A motherboard usually provides a connection for a floppy drive cable Figure 1-22 A motherboard usually provides a connection for a hard drive cable and a CD-ROM drive also. ch01b Quick Quiz
    30. 30. Motherboard Components Used For Communication Between Devices <ul><li>Traces: circuits or paths that move data and power </li></ul><ul><li>Bus: system of pathways and transmission protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Data bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines in a bus that carry the data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary bits correspond to voltage values of on or off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data path sizes: 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 bits wide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main bus on motherboard (system bus, memory bus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates with CPU, memory, and chipset </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pulse of system clock carried by line on motherboard </li></ul>☻
    31. 33. Figure 1-26 A data bus has traces or lines that carry voltage interpreted by the CPU and other devices as bits The width of the data bus is called the data path size. ☻
    32. 34. Motherboard Components Used For Communication Between Devices (cont.) <ul><li>Devices work according to beats (or cycles) </li></ul><ul><li>Clock speed is measured in hertz (cycles/second) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One megahertz (MHz): one million cycles per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One gigahertz (GHz): one billion cycles per second </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common ratings for motherboard buses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1066 MHz, 800 MHz, 533 MHz, or 400 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Range of CPU speeds: 166 MHz to 4 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>Buses for expansion slots: PCI, AGP, ISA </li></ul>☻
    33. 35. Figure 1-29 PCI bus expansion slots are shorter than ISA slots and offset farther; the one AGP slot is set farther from the edge of the board Expansion cards are installed in long narrow slots on the motherboard ☻ Figure 1-28: The lines of the bus terminate at an expansion slot where they connect to pins that connect to lines on the expansion card inserted in the slot.
    34. 36. Interface (Expansion) Cards <ul><li>Some names for circuits mounted in expansion slots: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit cards, adapter boards, expansion cards, cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cards that connect the CPU to an external device: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video: provides a port for the monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound: provides ports for speakers and microphones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network: provides a port for a network cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modem: provides ports for phone lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine a card’s function by identifying its port </li></ul>☻
    35. 37. Figure 1-31 This circuit board is a modem card and is mounted in a PCI slot on the motherboard Figure 1-32 This easiest way to identify this video card is to look at the port on the end of the card. Identifying Expansion Cards Video
    36. 38. The Electrical System <ul><li>Power supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important electrical component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts AC voltage external source to DC voltage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces voltage from 110-120 volts to 12 volts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs a fan to cool the inside of the computer case </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperatures > 185 ° F can cause component failure </li></ul><ul><li>Motherboard has 1 or 2 connections to power supply </li></ul>
    37. 39. The Power supply has multiple outputs to drive the internal components including the motherboard, floppy drive, hard drive etc.
    38. 40. Figure 1-35 The motherboard receives its power from the power supply by way of one or more connections located near the edge of the board or near the processor
    39. 41. Instructions Stored on the Motherboard and Other Boards <ul><li>BIOS (basic input/output system) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data and instructions stored on ROM chips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ROM BIOS chips are a type of firmware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three purposes served by motherboard ROM BIOS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System BIOS: used to manage simple devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Startup BIOS: used to start the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMOS setup: used to change motherboard settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMOS RAM: includes date, time, port configurations </li></ul><ul><li>Flash ROM: ROM chips the can be overwritten </li></ul>
    40. 42. Figure 1-36 This firmware chip contains flash ROM and CMOS RAM; CMOS RAM is powered by the coin battery located near the chip
    41. 43. Advanced Configuration and Power Interface <ul><li>Also known as ACPI </li></ul><ul><li>Standards specifying a power saving feature </li></ul><ul><li>Enables a system to power up by a keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by most systems, such as Windows XP </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Power Management (APM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older BIOS power management standard </li></ul></ul>☻
    42. 44. Plug and Play <ul><li>Also known as PnP </li></ul><ul><li>Standard simplifying installation of hardware devices </li></ul><ul><li>PnP BIOS begins process of configuring devices </li></ul><ul><li>PnP-compliant operating system completes configuration </li></ul><ul><li>ESCD (extended system configuration data) Plug and Play BIOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced version of PnP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores manual configuration steps </li></ul></ul>ch01c Quick Quiz
    43. 45. Summary <ul><li>A computer comprises hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>Main functions: input, output, processing, storage </li></ul><ul><li>Data is stored in a binary format (1 or 0, on or off) </li></ul><ul><li>Input/output devices: keyboard, mouse, printer, monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Motherboard (system board): contains the CPU, access to other circuit boards and peripherals </li></ul>
    44. 46. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Primary storage (RAM) is volatile (temporary) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary storage is nonvolatile (permanent) </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel and serial ATA standards: enable secondary storage devices to interface with the motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>Computer bus: system of communication pathways and protocols </li></ul><ul><li>ROM BIOS helps start PCs, manage simple devices, and change some motherboard settings </li></ul>
    45. 47. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 1 Introducing Hardware The End
    46. 48. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 1 Introducing Hardware Textbook Questions
    47. 49. Reviewing the Basics Chapter 1 Introducing Hardware
    48. 50. <ul><li>1. Why is all data stored in a computer in binary form? </li></ul>ANSWER
    49. 51. <ul><li>2. What are the four primary functions of hardware? </li></ul>ANSWER
    50. 52. <ul><li>3. What are the two main input devices and two main output devices? </li></ul>ANSWER
    51. 53. <ul><li>4. What three things do electronic hardware devices need in order to function? </li></ul>ANSWER
    52. 54. <ul><li>5. How many bits are in a byte? </li></ul>ANSWER
    53. 55. <ul><li>6. What is the purpose of an expansion slot on a motherboard? </li></ul>ANSWER
    54. 56. <ul><li>7. Which component on the motherboard is used primarily for processing? </li></ul>ANSWER
    55. 57. <ul><li>8. Name three CPU manufacturers. </li></ul>ANSWER
    56. 58. <ul><li>9. What technology is most often used today to manufacture microchips? </li></ul>ANSWER
    57. 59. <ul><li>10. What are two other names for the system bus? </li></ul>ANSWER
    58. 60. <ul><li>11. What are two other names for the motherboard? </li></ul>ANSWER
    59. 61. <ul><li>12. What are the two basic types of cables found inside a computer case and what are their basic functions? </li></ul>ANSWER
    60. 62. <ul><li>13. List three types of ports that are often found coming directly off the motherboard to be used by external devices. </li></ul>ANSWER
    61. 63. <ul><li>14. What is the purpose of the S/PDIF port? </li></ul>ANSWER
    62. 64. <ul><li>15. List three kinds of memory modules. </li></ul>ANSWER
    63. 65. <ul><li>16. What is the difference between volatile and nonvolatile memory? </li></ul>ANSWER
    64. 66. <ul><li>17. Of the two types of storage in a system, which type is generally faster and holds data and instructions while the data is being processed? Which type of storage is generally slower, but more permanent? </li></ul>ANSWER
    65. 67. <ul><li>18. What technology standard provides for up to four devices on a system, including the hard drive as one of those devices? What are two common industry names loosely used to describe this standard? </li></ul>ANSWER
    66. 68. <ul><li>19. What is the size of the data path on most system buses today? </li></ul>ANSWER
    67. 69. <ul><li>20. What is the measurement of frequency of a system bus and CPU? Which is faster, the system bus or the CPU? </li></ul>ANSWER
    68. 70. <ul><li>21. Name four types of buses that are likely to be on a motherboard today. </li></ul>ANSWER
    69. 71. <ul><li>22. A power supply receives 120 volts of ___ power from a wall outlet and converts it to 3.3, 5, and 12 volts of ____ power. </li></ul>ANSWER
    70. 72. <ul><li>23. ROM BIOS or firmware chips that can be upgraded without replacing the chips are called ________. </li></ul>ANSWER
    71. 73. <ul><li>24. CMOS setup allows a technician to change configuration settings on a motherboard stored in ______. </li></ul>ANSWER
    72. 74. <ul><li>25. Name three examples of secondary storage devices. </li></ul>ANSWER
    73. 75. <ul><li>26. A hertz is ________ cycle per second; a megahertz is ________ cycles per second, and a gigahertz is ________ cycles per second. </li></ul>ANSWER
    74. 76. <ul><li>27. An AGP slot is normally used for a(n) _______ expansion card. </li></ul>ANSWER
    75. 77. <ul><li>28. How many sizes of PCI Express slots are currently manufactured for personal computers? </li></ul>ANSWER
    76. 78. <ul><li>29. Name the three purposes the motherboard ROM BIOS serves. </li></ul>ANSWER
    77. 79. <ul><li>30. From where does CMOS RAM receive its power? </li></ul>ANSWER
    78. 80. Thinking Critically Chapter 1 Introducing Hardware
    79. 81. <ul><li>1. When selecting secondary storage devices for a new desktop PC, which is more important, a CD-ROM drive or a floppy drive? Why? </li></ul>ANSWER
    80. 82. <ul><li>2. Based on what you have learned in this chapter, when working on a Word document, why is it important to save your work often? Explain your answer using the two terms, primary storage and secondary storage. </li></ul>ANSWER
    81. 83. <ul><li>3. Most buses are 16, 32, 64, or 128 bits wide. Why do you think these bus widths are multiples of eight? </li></ul>ANSWER
    82. 84. <ul><li>4. Why would it be difficult to install four hard drives, one CD-ROM drive, and one DVD drive in a single low-end system? </li></ul>ANSWER
    83. 85. <ul><li>5. In this chapter, a light bulb is used to demonstrate the binary concept used for computer storage and communication. Give another example in everyday life to explain this binary concept. Get creative </li></ul>ANSWER
    84. 86. <ul><li>6. If the CMOS battery inside your computer system died, when you first turn on your system, will you expect the system to boot up normally to the operating system level? What information do you think the system would not have available for a successful boot? </li></ul>ANSWER
    85. 87. <ul><li>7. Why is it more accurate to describe the CPU and motherboard bus using the term frequency rather than speed? Explain your answer. </li></ul>ANSWER
    86. 88. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 1 Introducing Hardware The End