central processing unit (CPU): Also called a microprocessor or processor. The heart and brain of the computer, which receives data input, processes information, and executes instructions.
expansion cards: A circuit board inserted into a slot on the motherboard to enhance the capability of the computer. expansion slot: A narrow slot on the motherboard where an expansion card can be inserted. Expansion slots connect to a bus on the motherboard.
chipset: A group of chips on the motherboard that controls the timing and flow of data and instructions to and from the CPU.
DIMM (dual inline memory module): A miniature circuit board installed on a motherboard to hold memory. DIMMs can hold up to 2 GB of RAM on a single module.
bus: The paths, or lines, on the motherboard on which data, instructions, and electrical power move from component to component. data bus: The lines on the system bus that the CPU uses to send and receive data. data path size: The number of lines on a bus that can hold data, for example, 8, 16, 32, and 64 lines, which can accommodate 8, 16, 32, and 64 bits at a time.
clock speed: The speed, or frequency, expressed in MHz, that controls activity on the motherboard and is generated by a crystal or oscillator located somewhere on the motherboard.
cards: Adapter boards or interface cards placed into expansion slots to expand the functions of a computer, allowing it to communicate with external devices such as monitors or speakers.
BIOS (basic input/output system): Firmware that can control much of a computer’s input/output functions, such as communication with the floppy drive and the monitor. Also called ROM BIOS. firmware: Software that is permanently stored in a chip. The BIOS on a motherboard is an example of firmware. CMOS (complementary metaloxide semiconductor): The technology used to manufacture microchips. CMOS chips require less electricity, hold data longer after the electricity is turned off, are slower, and produce less heat than earlier technologies. The configuration, or setup, chip is a CMOS chip. CMOS RAM: region of memory that uses battery power to retain data after the PC is shut off. CMOS setup: A chip on the motherboard that contains a very small amount of memory, or RAM enough to hold configuration, or setup, information about the computer The chip is powered by a battery when the PC is turned off. Also called CMOS configuration chip or CMOS RAM chip.
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) Specification developed by Intel, Compaq, Phoenix, Microsoft, and Toshiba to control power on notebooks and other devices. Windows 98 and Windows 2000/XP support ACPI. Advanced Power Management(APM): Power management standard developed by Intel and Microsoft. APM has been superseded by ACPI.
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 1 Introducing Hardware Tuesday, August 11, 2009
Processing, temporary storage, communication, power
All devices communicate with CPU on motherboard
A peripheral device links to motherboard via cable
Some motherboard ports outside of the case:
Keyboard, mouse, parallel, USB ports, sound ports
Figure 1-9 All hardware components are either located on the motherboard or directly or indirectly connected to it because they must all communicate with the CPU RAM boards are called memory modules ☻ Looking at Motherboards Video
Figure 1-10 A motherboard provides ports for common I/O devices FireWire:Used for high speed multimedia such as digital camcorders ☻ USB: Used for external hard drives, keyboards, printers, scanners, etc. ☻ ch01a Quick Quiz
Applies only to hard drives and not to other drives
Some IDE devices: hard drives,
Zip drives, CD drive
3.5-inch disk holding 1.44 MB of data
Floppy drive connector is distinct from IDE connectors
CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory) drive
Standard equipment for reading software distributions
Figure 1-22 A motherboard usually provides a connection for a floppy drive cable Figure 1-22 A motherboard usually provides a connection for a hard drive cable and a CD-ROM drive also. ch01b Quick Quiz
Motherboard Components Used For Communication Between Devices
Traces: circuits or paths that move data and power
Bus: system of pathways and transmission protocols
Lines in a bus that carry the data
Binary bits correspond to voltage values of on or off
Data path sizes: 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 bits wide
Main bus on motherboard (system bus, memory bus)
Communicates with CPU, memory, and chipset
Pulse of system clock carried by line on motherboard
Figure 1-26 A data bus has traces or lines that carry voltage interpreted by the CPU and other devices as bits The width of the data bus is called the data path size. ☻
Motherboard Components Used For Communication Between Devices (cont.)
Devices work according to beats (or cycles)
Clock speed is measured in hertz (cycles/second)
One megahertz (MHz): one million cycles per second
One gigahertz (GHz): one billion cycles per second
Common ratings for motherboard buses
1066 MHz, 800 MHz, 533 MHz, or 400 MHz
Range of CPU speeds: 166 MHz to 4 GHz
Buses for expansion slots: PCI, AGP, ISA
Figure 1-29 PCI bus expansion slots are shorter than ISA slots and offset farther; the one AGP slot is set farther from the edge of the board Expansion cards are installed in long narrow slots on the motherboard ☻ Figure 1-28: The lines of the bus terminate at an expansion slot where they connect to pins that connect to lines on the expansion card inserted in the slot.
Sound: provides ports for speakers and microphones
Network: provides a port for a network cable
Modem: provides ports for phone lines
Determine a card’s function by identifying its port
Figure 1-31 This circuit board is a modem card and is mounted in a PCI slot on the motherboard Figure 1-32 This easiest way to identify this video card is to look at the port on the end of the card. Identifying Expansion Cards Video
17. Of the two types of storage in a system, which type is generally faster and holds data and instructions while the data is being processed? Which type of storage is generally slower, but more permanent?
2. Based on what you have learned in this chapter, when working on a Word document, why is it important to save your work often? Explain your answer using the two terms, primary storage and secondary storage.
5. In this chapter, a light bulb is used to demonstrate the binary concept used for computer storage and communication. Give another example in everyday life to explain this binary concept. Get creative
6. If the CMOS battery inside your computer system died, when you first turn on your system, will you expect the system to boot up normally to the operating system level? What information do you think the system would not have available for a successful boot?