Located on the east bank of the River Euphrates, about 50 km south of Baghdad, Iraq.
Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC) is credited for building the legendary Hanging Gardens
has been said that the Gardens were built by him to please his wife or concubine who had been "brought up in Media and had a passion for mountain surroundings“.
historians who give detailed descriptions of the Hanging Gardens never saw them
detailed descriptions of the Gardens come from ancient Greek sources, including the writings of Strabo and Philo of Byzantium
one of the descriptions is "The Hanging Garden has plants cultivated above ground level, and the roots of the trees are embedded in an upper terrace rather than in the earth. The whole mass is supported on stone columns... Streams of water emerging from elevated sources flow down sloping channels... These waters irrigate the whole garden saturating the roots of plants and keeping the whole area moist. Hence the grass is permanently green and the leaves of trees grow firmly attached to supple branches... This is a work of art of royal luxury and its most striking feature is that the labor of cultivation is suspended above the heads of the spectators".
the only ancient world wonder that had a practical use in addition to its architectural elegance: - for sailors, it ensured a safe return to the Great Harbor
For architects, it meant even more: it was the tallest building on Earth
for scientists, it was the mysterious mirror that fascinated them most...The mirror's reflection could be seen more than 50 km (35 miles) off-shore.
located On the ancient island of Pharos, now a promontory within the city of Alexandria in Egypt.
The island was connected to the mainland by means of a dike -the Heptastadion- which gave the city a double harbor And because of dangerous sailing conditions and flat coastline in the region, the construction of a lighthouse became necessary
project was conceived and initiated by Ptolemy Soter around 290 BC, but was completed after his death, during the reign of his son Ptolemy Philadelphus
the total height of the building, including the foundation base was about 117 m
the internal core was used as a shaft to lift the fuel needed for the fire and at the top stage, the mirror reflected sunlight during the day while fire was used during the night.
in 1303 and in 1323, two earthquakes hit and left a significant impression on the structure
although, The final chapter in the history of the Lighthouse came in 1480, when the Egyptian Mamelouk Sultan, Qaitbay, decided to fortify Alexandria's defense. He built a medieval fort on the same spot where the Lighthouse once stood, using the fallen stone and marble.
the Lighthouse of Alexandria was the last to disappear (of the 6 wonders that did)