Seven World Wonders of the Ancient WorldPresentation Transcript
The Seven Ancient World Wonders By:Kamil Delacruz
Great Pyramid of Giza
is the oldest and last remaining of the Seven Wonders of the World
the pyramid was constructed over a 20 year period concluding around 2560 BC
located at the city of Giza, a necropolis of ancient Memphis, and today part of Greater Cairo, Egypt.
thirty times larger than the Empire State Building (in mass), the Pyramid's features are so large they can be seen from the Moon.
believed to be built as the tomb of Fourth dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu (Cheops), after whom it is sometimes called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu
ranked as the tallest structure on Earth for more than 43 centuries, only to be surpassed in height in the nineteenth century AD
area covered by the Great pyramid can accommodate St Peter's in Rome, the cathedrals of Florence and Milan, and Westminster and St Paul's in London combined
temperature inside The Great Pyramid is at a constant 68 degrees Fahrenheit, which is exactly the same at the earths internal temperature.
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Located on the east bank of the River Euphrates, about 50 km south of Baghdad, Iraq.
Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC) is credited for building the legendary Hanging Gardens
has been said that the Gardens were built by him to please his wife or concubine who had been "brought up in Media and had a passion for mountain surroundings“.
historians who give detailed descriptions of the Hanging Gardens never saw them
detailed descriptions of the Gardens come from ancient Greek sources, including the writings of Strabo and Philo of Byzantium
one of the descriptions is "The Hanging Garden has plants cultivated above ground level, and the roots of the trees are embedded in an upper terrace rather than in the earth. The whole mass is supported on stone columns... Streams of water emerging from elevated sources flow down sloping channels... These waters irrigate the whole garden saturating the roots of plants and keeping the whole area moist. Hence the grass is permanently green and the leaves of trees grow firmly attached to supple branches... This is a work of art of royal luxury and its most striking feature is that the labor of cultivation is suspended above the heads of the spectators".
The Temple of Artemis
built in honor of the Greek goddess of hunting and wild nature
located at The ancient city of Ephesus near the modern town of Selcuk, about 50 km south of Izmir (Smyrna) in Turkey
foundation of the temple dates back to the seventh century BC, but the structure that earned a spot in the list of Wonders was built around 550 BC
Referred to as the great marble temple, or temple D
sponsored by the Lydian king Croesus and was designed by the Greek architect Chersiphron
decorated with bronze statues sculpted by the most skilled artists of their time: Pheidias, Polycleitus, Kresilas, and Phradmon
served as both a marketplace and a religious institution
a man named Herostratus burned the temple to ground in an attempt to immortalize his name On the night of July 21, 356 BC
Over the next two decades, the temple was restored and is labeled "temple E" by archeologists
The final chapter came when in AD 401 the Temple of Artemis was torn down by St John Chrysostom, Ephesus was later deserted, and only in the late nineteenth century has the site been excavated
The digging revealed the temple's foundation and the road to the now swampy site. Attempts were recently made to rebuild the temple, but only a few columns have been re-erected.
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia
statue of the god in whose honor the Ancient Olympic games were held
At the time of the games, wars stopped, and athletes came from Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Sicily to celebrate the Olympics and to worship Zeus
located at the ancient town of Olympia, on the west coast of modern Greece, about 150 km west of Athens
temple of Zeus was designed by the architect Libon and was built around 450 BC
Athenian sculptor Phidias was assigned for the "sacred" task, to build the statue of Zeus
After the Olympic games were banned in AD 391 by the emperor Theodosius I as Pagan practices, the temple of Zeus was ordered closed.
Olympia was further struck by earthquakes, landslides and floods, and the temple was damaged by fire in the fifth century AD.
Earlier, the statue had been transported by wealthy Greeks to a palace in Constantinople, it survived until it was destroyed by a severe fire in AD 462
today nothing remains at the site of the old temple except rocks and debris, the foundation of the buildings, and fallen columns.
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
burial place of an ancient king
beauty of the tomb rather than its size that fascinated its visitors for years
located In the city of Bodrum (formally known as Halicarnassus) on the Aegean Sea, in south-west Turkey
The construction of the tomb was envisioned by his wife and sister Artemisia, and the construction might have started during the king's lifetime
The Mausoleum was completed around 350 BC, three years after Maussollos death, and one year after Artemisia's
designed by four Greek architects - Bryaxis, Leochares, Scopas and Timotheus
The beauty of the Mausoleum is not only in the structure itself, but in the decorations and statues that adorned the outside at different levels on the podium and the roof
These were tens of life-size as well as under and over life-size free-standing statues of people, lions, horses, and other animals.
Because the statues were of people and animals, the Mausoleum holds a special place in history as it was not dedicated to the gods of Ancient Greece
For 16 centuries, the Mausoleum remained in good condition until an earthquake caused some damage to the roof and colonnade. In the early fifteenth century
to this day, only the foundation remains of the once magnificent Wonder
The Colossus of Rhodes
located At the entrance of the harbor of the Mediterranean island of Rhodes in Greece
symbol of unity of the people who inhabited that beautiful Mediterranean island
a giant statue of the god Helios, erected on the Greek island of Rhodes by Chares of Lindos
about the same size as the Statue of Liberty in New York, although it stood on a lower platform
the base was made of white marble, and the feet and ankle of the statue were first fixed. The structure was gradually raised as the bronze form was equipped with an iron and stone framework.
When the colossus was finished, it stood about 33 m (110 ft) high.
construction took 12 years and was finished in 282 BC
For years, the statue stood at the harbor entrance, until a strong earthquake hit Rhodes about 226 BC; The city was badly damaged, and the Colossus was broken at its weakest point (the knee)
For almost a millennium, the statue laid broken in ruins, then In AD 654, the Arabs invaded Rhodes and disassembled the remains of the broken Colossus and sold them to a Jew from Syria.
The Pharos of Alexandria
the only ancient world wonder that had a practical use in addition to its architectural elegance: - for sailors, it ensured a safe return to the Great Harbor
For architects, it meant even more: it was the tallest building on Earth
for scientists, it was the mysterious mirror that fascinated them most...The mirror's reflection could be seen more than 50 km (35 miles) off-shore.
located On the ancient island of Pharos, now a promontory within the city of Alexandria in Egypt.
The island was connected to the mainland by means of a dike -the Heptastadion- which gave the city a double harbor And because of dangerous sailing conditions and flat coastline in the region, the construction of a lighthouse became necessary
project was conceived and initiated by Ptolemy Soter around 290 BC, but was completed after his death, during the reign of his son Ptolemy Philadelphus
the total height of the building, including the foundation base was about 117 m
the internal core was used as a shaft to lift the fuel needed for the fire and at the top stage, the mirror reflected sunlight during the day while fire was used during the night.
in 1303 and in 1323, two earthquakes hit and left a significant impression on the structure
although, The final chapter in the history of the Lighthouse came in 1480, when the Egyptian Mamelouk Sultan, Qaitbay, decided to fortify Alexandria's defense. He built a medieval fort on the same spot where the Lighthouse once stood, using the fallen stone and marble.
the Lighthouse of Alexandria was the last to disappear (of the 6 wonders that did)