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Wiley Linux Bible 2007 Edition Boot Up Ubuntu, Fedora, Knoppix, Debian, Suse, And 11 Other Distributions (2007)

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  • 1. Linux Bible ® 2007 Edition Boot Up Ubuntu®, Fedora™, KNOPPIX, Debian®, SUSE™, and 11 Other Distributions Christopher Negus
  • 2. Linux Bible ® 2007 Edition Boot Up Ubuntu®, Fedora™, KNOPPIX, Debian®, SUSE™, and 11 Other Distributions Christopher Negus
  • 3. Linux® Bible 2007 Edition: Boot Up Ubuntu®, Fedora™, KNOPPIX, Debian®, SUSE™, and 11 Other Distributions Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 10475 Crosspoint Boulevard Indianapolis, IN 46256 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2007 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-0-470-08279-9 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4355, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (800) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Negus, Chris, 1957- Linux bible : boot up to Ubuntu, Fedora, KNOPPIX, Debian, SUSE, and 11 other distributions / Christopher Negus. -- 2007 ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-0-470-08279-9 (paper/dvd) 1. Linux. 2. Operating systems (Computers) I. Title. QA76.76.O63N42153 2007 005.4'32--dc22 2007000458 Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. Fedora is a trademark of Red Hat, Inc. Debian is a registered trademark of Software in the Public Interest, Inc. SUSE is a trademark of Novell, Inc. Ubuntu is a registered trademark of Canonical Limited Company. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.
  • 4. About the Authors Chris Negus has written or co-written dozens of books on Linux and UNIX, including Red Hat Linux Bible (all editions), Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux Bible, Linux Troubleshooting Bible, and the recent Linux Toys II. For eight years he worked with the organization at AT&T that developed UNIX before moving to Utah to help contribute to Novell’s short-lived UnixWare project in the early 1990s. When not writing about Linux, Chris enjoys playing soccer and just hanging out with his family. Wayne Tucker is a Linux enthusiast and has been a professional system administrator for six years. He is currently a technical manager, systems administrator, and network engineer at an Internet company in Washington state. He lives in Bellingham, Washington, with his beloved wife, Danielle, whom he would like to thank for her patience while he was working on this project. His future projects include continuing his education and working on the things that have recently accumulated on his “honey-do” list. Eric Foster-Johnson is a veteran software developer and the author or co-author of over 18 books on programming, operating systems, and open source software. William von Hagen (Bill) has been a UNIX system administrator for over twenty years, and a Linux fanatic since the early 1990s. He has worked as a systems programmer, system administra- tor, writer, application developer, programmer, drummer, and content manager. Bill has written books on such topics as Linux server hacks, Linux filesystems, SUSE Linux, Red Hat Linux, GCC, SGML, Mac OS X, and hacking the TiVo. He has also written numerous articles on Linux, embed- ded computing, Unix, and Open Source topics. Jaldhar Vyas is a 35-year-old Hindu priest and Linux consultant currently working for Linspire, Inc. Jaldhar has been using Linux for eleven years and has been one of the volunteer maintainers of Debian GNU/Linux for nine years. He lives in Jersey City, NJ with his wife Jyoti, daughter Shailaja, and son Nilagriva.
  • 5. As always, I dedicate this book to my wife, Sheree. Credits Executive Editor Project Coordinator Carol Long Bill Ramsey Acquisitions Editor Graphics and Production Specialists Kit Kemper Sean Decker Joyce Haughey Development Editor Jennifer Mayberry Sara Shlaer Alicia B. South Technical Editors Proofreading Thomas Blader Christopher Jones John Kennedy Indexing Production Editor Johnna vanHoose Dinse Angela Smith Anniversary Logo Design Copy Editor Richard Pacifico Nancy Rapoport Editorial Manager Mary Beth Wakefield Production Manager Tim Tate Vice President and Executive Group Publisher Richard Swadley Vice President and Executive Publisher Joseph B. Wikert
  • 6. I consider anyone who has contributed to the open source community to be a contributor to the book you are holding. The backbone of any Linux distribution is formed by the organizations that produce the distributions, the major projects included in Linux, and the thousands of people who give their time and code to support Linux. So, thanks to you all! As for direct contributors to the book, the good people at Wiley put together a great team of people to help bring the Linux Bible 2007 Edition in on time. Primary contributors include Wayne Tucker (who originally wrote and then updated the chapters on Debian, LAMP servers, and mail servers) and Eric Foster-Johnson (who worked through updates to six of the chapters). Bill von Hagen con- tributed updates to the SUSE, Yellow Dog, and Ubuntu chapters. Jaldhar Vyas updated the Linspire chapter. Thanks to the folks at Wiley for helping me press through the project. Kit Kemper helped put together the team to handle this edition. Sara Shlaer did her usual great job of keeping everyone on track to get the book done on time. Nancy Rapoport provided an excellent copyediting pass on the book. Thomas Blader and John Kennedy did a thorough job of technical editing. Thanks to Margot Maley Hutchison and Maureen Maloney from Waterside Productions for contracting the book for me with Wiley. And finally, special thanks to my wife, Sheree. There’s no way I could do the work I do without the solid support I get on the home front. I love you, and thanks for taking such good care of Seth, Caleb, and me. v
  • 7. Acknowledgments ..........................................................................................................................v Introduction ..............................................................................................................................xxix Part I: Linux First Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1: Starting with Linux........................................................................................................3 Chapter 2: Running Commands from the Shell ............................................................................33 Chapter 3: Getting into the Desktop ............................................................................................77 Part II: Running the Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Chapter 4: Learning Basic Administration ..................................................................................125 Chapter 5: Getting on the Internet ..............................................................................................171 Chapter 6: Securing Linux ..........................................................................................................195 Part III: Choosing and Installing a Linux Distribution . . . . . . . . 241 Chapter 7: Installing Linux ........................................................................................................243 Chapter 8: Running Fedora Core and Red Hat Enterprise Linux ................................................273 Chapter 9: Running Debian GNU/Linux ....................................................................................295 Chapter 10: Running SUSE Linux ..............................................................................................319 Chapter 11: Running KNOPPIX..................................................................................................337 Chapter 12: Running Yellow Dog Linux ......................................................................................361 Chapter 13: Running Gentoo Linux ............................................................................................381 Chapter 14: Running Slackware Linux ........................................................................................401 Chapter 15: Running Linspire and Freespire ..............................................................................417 Chapter 16: Running Mandriva ..................................................................................................433 Chapter 17: Running Ubuntu Linux ..........................................................................................447 Chapter 18: Running a Linux Firewall/Router ............................................................................467 Chapter 19: Running Bootable Linux Distributions ....................................................................493 vi
  • 8. Part IV: Running Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 Chapter 20: Playing Music and Video ........................................................................................515 Chapter 21: Working with Words and Images ............................................................................553 Chapter 22: E-Mailing and Web Browsing ..................................................................................591 Chapter 23: Gaming with Linux..................................................................................................625 Part V: Running Servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653 Chapter 24: Running a Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (LAMP) Server ..................................655 Chapter 25: Running a Mail Server ............................................................................................679 Chapter 26: Running a Print Server ............................................................................................695 Chapter 27: Running a File Server ..............................................................................................719 Part VI: Programming in Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753 Chapter 28: Programming Environments and Interfaces ............................................................755 Chapter 29: Programming Tools and Utilities..............................................................................785 Appendix A: Media ....................................................................................................................817 Appendix B: Entering the Linux Community ............................................................................827 Index ..........................................................................................................................................833 GNU General Public License ......................................................................................................849 vii
  • 9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix Part I: Linux First Steps 1 Chapter 1: Starting with Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Taking Your First Step ................................................................................................4 Starting Right Now................................................................................................................6 Understanding Linux ............................................................................................................6 Exploring Linux History........................................................................................................9 From a Free-Flowing UNIX Culture at Bell Labs..........................................................9 To a Commercialized UNIX ......................................................................................11 BSD Arrives ....................................................................................................11 UNIX Laboratory and Commercialization ........................................................12 To a GNU Free-Flowing (not) UNIX ..........................................................................13 BSD Loses Some Steam..............................................................................................14 Linus Builds the Missing Piece ..................................................................................14 What’s So Great About Linux? ............................................................................................16 Features in Linux ......................................................................................................16 OSI Open Source Definition ......................................................................................17