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Design Chapter 9 - Curriculum Development
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Design Chapter 9 - Curriculum Development

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  • The available courses are normally prepared by good instructors and have been delivered and tested successfully. Occasionally, some of the things listed come up and it is up to YOU to develop a training course to meet the needs of your department.
  • Listed web site is an excellent reference for the ISD process. There will be numerous references to that site during this chapter.
  • The next several slides will build on each other.
  • This particular example will build on itself as the slides go by. Start: engine sets brake in front of structure fire End: water on fire Time: within two minutes You can easily observe the stopping and break setting, pulling, advancing, and charging the hose line, and applying water to the fire. Think about it. Each of the items in last sentence are specific actions.
  • For position of driver/engineer in applying water to a fire. a. D/E in a safe manner arrives at fire scene, properly places apparatus, and sets brakes b. As hose line is being pulled and advanced, D/E places truck in pump c. Once hose line is in place and crew calls for it, charge the line
  • Components: arrive safely – properly position – apply braking system Activities: be sure all have seat belts fastened Sequence: prior to pulling out – turn and look at each position – etc. Conditions: dark and a blinding rain storm or what ever conditions you desire to train for Performance standards: Apply water to a fire within a given period of time.
  • The local newspaper reported “it took 20 minutes for them to get there and do anything”. Incident commander observed poor technique in advancing the hose lines. A discussion was held with the crew.
  • If we are going to be involved in training, it is a good idea to know what it is. A reasonable point of discussion would be when is it training as opposed to just a drill? Then again, is a drill training?
  • How often is training done strictly because it is mandated? Sadly, way too often.
  • Observation: See the task at a fire scene and record time for each step Simulated: Like observation; but simulated. Should be as close to actual conditions as possible Content: Analyze technical models to determine steps and standards. Hey, someone has probably done it. Interview: Consultation with subject matter experts Unless you have content analysis information available, it is most likely that you will develop performance measures based on simulated task analysis.
  • Instructors: You will likely want to do this in groups; however, if you wish, individual projects will work. Assign a task to your groups or individuals. They should do the Analyze phase of the ISD process. You should probably be the one to give the assigned topics. The minimum standard curriculum is full of possibilities; however, you are not limited to that at all. Use your imagination. Just remember, the other 4 steps of the ISD process will follow with the same topic.
  • Each to be discussed.
  • Click on view – master – slide master will bring you to a similar slide. You create your program using this master and all slides within that program will follow the same format.
  • Certainly, our D/E in the Analyze phase should have been required to have had driver training and probably and EVOC course. The firefighters, required FF I & II.
  • Goals are very broad. The expected learning outcome. Then objectives come into play as statements of expected behavior, conditions they are performed under, and what determines successful completion. Remember our goal is to apply water to the fire. The statement might read, the student shall apply water to a fire. The objective is more specific. It may read, under simulated fire conditions, the students will be able to apply water to a fire using safe and appropriate methods.
  • Terminal – Remember back in analyze: The student will safely apply water to the fire. Then we broke it down to the individual positions on the apparatus. The D/E position was first. Enabling – Then we further broke it down to arriving safely, positioning, etc.
  • This information needs to be clearly communicated to the instructor and the student so the goal or objective can be met. As with any class offered, evaluate to be sure you met the goals and objectives and if necessary, adjust your program as needed. Be sure they understand this. If there is doubt in your mind, go to page 249 and, if necessary, read the two paragraphs of Basic Principles.
  • Audience – Engine company crew Behavior – apply water to a fire in safe and timely manner (define timely) Condition – under simulated conditions at the training ground drill tower Degree – within two and one half minutes from setting engine parking break
  • In groups or individually, have the students write the terminal and enabling objectives for the driver/engineer position with the goal of applying water to a fire.
  • Taxonomy - Originally the term taxonomy referred to the science of classifying living organisms (now known as alpha taxonomy ); however, the term is now applied in a wider, more general sense and now may refer to a classification of things, as well as to the principles underlying such a classification. (Wikipedia)
  • Specific objective might include, the student (remember the D/E) will name and describe the method of putting the engine into pump mode.
  • From the department SOGs, the student (D/E) will describe the proper position of the engine.
  • Abstract - 1 a : disassociated from any specific instance <an abstract entity> b : difficult to understand : ABSTRUSE < abstract problems> c : insufficiently factual : FORMAL <possessed only an abstract right> 2 : expressing a quality apart from an object <the word poem is concrete, poetry is abstract > Merriam-Webster on line dictionary. The student (D/E) will demonstrate safe driving habits on the city streets. This is abstract because there are so many variables to safe driving habits and obviously so also with city streets.
  • The participant (D/E) will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of forward vs. reverse hose lays. Do you notice each of the levels becomes harder?
  • Participant (D/E) will be able to write the procedures for placing the engine into pump mode.
  • Participant (D/E) will be able to evaluate a firefighter “riding up” in the D/E position and doing their portion of applying water to a fire.
  • Cognitive deals with knowledge and facts. Level 1 – have the knowledge, understand it, and be able to apply it. Level 2 – will the department SOG and the law match Level 3 – synthesis and evaluation All six levels of the educational process are involved and go from the easiest to the hardest.
  • Level 1 – see and then do. Remember Tactics i? Unconsciously incompetent and then with practice, consciously competent. Level 2 – Consciously competent, think about it and do. Still needs some coaching. Level 3 – Unconsciously competent, can basically do it without a lot or any thought
  • Level 1 – get the knowledge and be able to appreciate and defend it. Be willing to actively participate in the learning process Level 2 – the perception that the new behavior is worth the effort. Level 3 – integrate different beliefs and reconcile the differences. Then develop own values system that will govern your behavior. (Chapter 3)
  • You completed the Analyze section earlier. Time to look at Design. Develop terminal and enabling objectives for your class. Identify the learning steps that will be required for a student. Develop any tests you need to show mastery of the tasks you are training for. Any prerequisites? Be sure to sequence and structure the learning objectives.
  • Summary slide. Each topic discussed individually.
  • Preparing a class for a driver/engineer’s role in applying water to a fire might include all. They must have cognitive knowledge that might come from reading and understanding the driving laws. Psychomotor obviously could include the driving skills. Information on safe procedures might be your affective learning. A D/E reads the laws governing driving an emergency vehicle. In a lecture style format, allow them to read along as you explain the law. Then have them drive and explain each aspect of the law as they precede. Instructors: have your students list activities for the D/E in learning steps necessary for their position in applying water to a fire.
  • Have students discuss the best methods of delivery for the D/E. While there will likely be a variety of thoughts, I would believe that leaning towards some sort of practical exercises would work best.
  • You may be surprised that there are so many programs already in place. Ask the class where they might start looking. Obviously, the first place is their individual department Ask other departments Check with training facilities. On-line is a tremendous resource. Just remember that some items are copyrighted so be careful how you use them.
  • http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_5.htm - Good Article on John Keller’s ARCS. Keller is from Florida State University. Only two pages and may be worth printing for a hand-out.
  • This is Ocala FD. By the way. You can use virtually any pictures from the web site www.firefighterclosecalls.com without any special permission as long as you give them credit.
  • Apply to D/E position we have been talking about. If you are not familiar with Maslow, there is plenty on the web and there is a section in Company Officer text.
  • This slide presents some interesting challenges for the instructor. Just what is your perception of letting the learner succeed. Does everyone pass? Feedback and information overload are not in question. What about learners feeling in control? Both of these pose interesting topics for discussion.
  • Extrinsic –”not forming part of or belonging to a thing” Merriam-Webster Intrinsic – “ belonging to the essential nature or constitution of a thing” Merriam-Webster
  • Synthesis – “to combine or produce” Merriam-Webster Timing is one of the most difficult things to master. This is especially true if there is student participation because class sizes and make up will vary. If you are doing strictly lecture, it is usually fairly easy to gauge time. The time for this class is very dependent on numbers. Do you have a single group for activities or multiple groups? Practice is your best bet. A test or pilot class is very helpful.
  • Continue to add the development stage in your group for your assigned topic. This will likely take the longest of your five steps.
  • This course description can be used for advertising or announcement purposes. Not every course is for everyone. Decide and list who your target will be. This can include a lot of things. What comes to mind is location, costs, books etc. Don’t forget you need to measure results so be sure tests are administered consistently. Much of this will be set by the training institution you are working for. Does this sound like objectives?
  • Students need to know how things will flow and some idea of timing. Is it to be all lecture or a combination of teaching styles? Where it is possible, try to keep electronic copies of materials as well as hard copies. Remember how easy it can be to misplace hard copies. Instructor I, II, III or maybe Live Fire Training Instructor Any material not covered in 1-10 that may pertain to the class. My first thought was rosters but those should be taken care of in which step? Obviously administration directions.
  • TTT classes will be available for this new presentation and should potential instructors should take advantage of them. While they may be used to teaching this program, the materials are basically new.
  • Lets look at Evaluation before we move on.
  • Continuing your topic, use the implement and evaluation phases of the ISD process.
  • Guide is underlined because, lesson plans are not carved in stone. You must have flexibility for those unknowns. There may well be prepared lesson plans from publishers, Federal agencies, and even your training facility. You don’t always have to start from square 1. Just make sure they meet your requirements.
  • Everything from easel charts and markers to fire apparatus that you will need should be on the list and ready to go.
  • Considerations: Instructor/student ratios Physical location of the class Environmental factors in the classroom Several suggestions in your text but one thing for sure is #4. Don’t plan breaks that interrupt momentum.
  • Reviewing the final exam is not saying that you should “teach the test”; however, it is a good mark in your lesson plan to be sure that everything you felt was important is covered. Look back at Bloom – Knowledge is the basic followed by; understanding, application, analysis, syntheses, and evaluation.
  • Edit File Print – brings you this drop down Handouts – can include 1 to 6 slides per page – preview will appear based on number Color – grayscale will do the print job in black and white. You can print all slides or very specific ones depending on you need. Not sure what you are getting, click on preview to see. From my experience, it is cheaper and faster to make one copy and then use a copy machine for larger numbers. Many copy machines will allow printing on both sides of a sheet cutting the usage in half.
  • Two of several variations of printing power point programs.
  • You have gone through the Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate processes. Now, develop a lesson plan for your group project using the slide information and the text.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Course Design Curriculum Development Chapter Nine
    • 2. Terminal Objective
      • The participant will be able to design and develop a training course and lesson plan upon completion of this chapter.
      Course number
    • 3. Enabling Objectives
      • Upon completion, the student shall be able to:
        • List and describe the five phases of the instructional design process
        • Construct goals and objectives for a class
        • Explain how a lesson plan is used
    • 4. Why?
      • Many excellent courses on the market
      • However
        • New innovations
        • New techniques
        • New agency services
    • 5. Curriculum Development
      • Five phases of the Instruction System Design (ISD) process
        • Analyze
        • Design
        • Develop
        • Implement
        • Evaluate
      http://www.nwlink.com/~Donclark/hrd/sat1.html
    • 6. Analyze
      • The system
        • System may be your department, a portion of your department, or even a task that needs to be taught
    • 7. Analyze
      • Compile a Task Inventory
        • Review department organizational chart
        • Review positions and their responsibility to perform tasks
        • Coordinate objectives and materials to meet job performance requirements
    • 8. Analyze
      • What is a task?
        • Has a beginning and an end
        • Usually measured in time
        • Is observable
        • Independent of other actions
        • Not dependent on components of a procedure
        • Task statement describes a specific action
          • Don’t confuse with an objective
    • 9. Analyze
      • Job descriptions list duties describing what needs to be done
      • Typically, a combination of related or like tasks
    • 10. Analyze
      • Needs analysis – examination of how people work
      • Five step process
        • Determine components of competent performance
        • Determine activities
        • Determine sequence
        • Determine conditions
        • Determine performance standards
    • 11. Analyze
      • Needs Assessment - do we really need this?
      • Can be any or all of the following
        • Observation Questionnaires
        • Key consultation Print media
        • Interviews Group discussion
        • Tests Records or reports
        • Work samples
    • 12. Analyze
      • Just what is training?
        • Training is defined as learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job (Nadler, 1984) .
    • 13. Analyze
      • Selecting tasks for training
        • Is it mandated?
        • Would self-study work instead of formal training?
        • Can you hire those already trained?
        • Is it needed to ensure legal positions?
        • What happens if we don’t? or do?
        • If we don’t, how do people learn?
        • Will it help us achieve our goals?
    • 14. Analyze
      • Build performance measures – how do we do it?
        • Observation task analysis
        • Simulated task analysis
        • Content analysis
        • Interview analysis
    • 15. Analyze
      • Chose instructional setting
        • Classroom, outside practical, etc.
      • Estimate the cost
        • Materials, travel, facilities, and don’t forget time
    • 16. Your turn
    • 17. Design
      • Key points
        • Style guide
        • Entry behaviors
        • Learning goals and objectives
        • Learning steps
        • Performance test
        • Program structure and sequence outline
    • 18. Design
      • Style Guide
        • Used to maintain consistency and provide a guide for writing styles
        • Several people have worked on this project. A master slide was established so that it would be the same regardless of the individual author
    • 19. Titles = 40 pt. Arial bold centered
      • First level = 32 pt. (body copy is Times New Roman bold)
        • Second level = 28 pt. (Bullets ONLY fly from right; acceptable bullets are numbers, dots, check marks, Maltese crosses, five-point stars, medical crosses, as appropriate to content
          • Third level = 24 pt. (vary transitions only as artwork requires, not at random)
            • Fourth level = 20 pt. (seldom go this small; instead open up another slide to show more details)
              • Fifth level = 20 pt.
    • 20. Design
      • Entry behaviors
        • What a learner must know before entering into the training program
        • I think we call them prerequisites
      Course number
    • 21. Design
      • Learning goals and objectives
        • Specific instructor points for each subject
        • Define what the students are to learn
        • Establish guidelines for testing and evaluation
    • 22. Design
      • Learning objectives
        • Terminal (TLO) – the instructor expectation of student performance at the end of the lesson
          • Remember precise, observable, and measurable
        • Enabling (EO) – consider the steps
          • Again, precise, observable, and measurable
    • 23. Design
      • Goals and objectives – basic principles
        • Concrete
        • Identifiable and measurable outcomes
        • Which is better
          • The student will understand application of water to a fire
          • The student will demonstrate under simulated conditions safe and proper application of water to a fire
    • 24. Design
      • Goals may be philosophical in nature
        • Don’t communicate specifics
          • How to accomplish, measure, or perform
        • Viewed as a mission statement or vision
        • Semantics – often referred to as primary objectives, first level objectives, or expected learning outcomes
        • Many ways to write them
          • Over 2 million hits on ‘writing goals and objectives”
      Google
    • 25. Design
      • Template example: ABCD
      • Audience – who are they
      • Behavior – observable and measurable
      • Condition – actual, simulated, classroom
      • Degree – acceptable performance
        • I.e.: time, accuracy, quality, or quantity
    • 26. Design
      • Common characteristics of objectives
        • State how behavior is observed
        • State how it is to be measured
        • Written in plain language
        • Measurable in quality and quantity
        • Be sure to look at pages 254 and 255
    • 27. Design
      • Bloom’s taxonomy
      • A guideline for six levels of the educational process
      http://www.officeport.com/edu/blooms.htm
    • 28. Design
      • First Level – knowledge
        • Specific facts and terms
        • How to deal with the specifics
        • Principles, theories, and generalizations
    • 29. Design
      • Second Level – Comprehension
        • Translation
        • Interpretation
        • Extrapolation of information
    • 30. Design
      • Third level – application
        • Abstractions for particular situations
    • 31. Design
      • Fourth level – analysis
        • Objectives that break the whole into parts and distinguish
          • Elements
          • Relationships
          • Organizational principles
    • 32. Design
      • Fifth level – synthesis
        • Put the parts together in a new form
          • Unique communications
          • Plan of operation
    • 33. Design
      • Sixth level – evaluation
        • Addresses making judgments
          • Internal evidence or logical consistency
          • External evidence with facts developed elsewhere
    • 34. Design
      • Cognitive domain – remembering or reproducing something already known about a subject
        • Level 1 – Knowledge, comprehension, and application
        • Level 2 – Analysis
        • Level 3 – Synthesis and evaluation
      • Note all six levels of the educational process
    • 35. Design
      • Psychomotor domain – emphasizes motor skills
        • Level 1 – imitation and manipulation
        • Level 2 – precision
        • Level 3 – articulation and naturalization
    • 36. Design
      • Affective Domain – attitudes and values
        • Level 1 – receiving and responding
        • Level 2 – valuing
        • Level 3 – organizing and characterizing
    • 37. Design
      • Learning (performance) steps
        • Each department or educational facility will be, at least, slightly different. Look at page 258 & 259.
      • Performance testing
        • Refer back to Chapter 7
    • 38. Design
      • Structure and sequence
        • Be sure it meets learning objectives
        • Provides a pattern so each activity will have purpose
        • Meaningful content is easier to learn and easier to teach
    • 39. Guess What!!!! Your turn
    • 40. Develop
      • List activities that will help students learn
      • Select instructional delivery method
      • Review existing material
      • Develop courseware
      • Synthesize courseware into viable training program
      • Confirm you met the goals
    • 41. Develop
      • List activities that help the student learn the task
        • What are they? Cognitive, psychomotor or affective ?
        • Remember retention rates
          • 10% of what we read
          • 40% of what we see and hear
          • 90% of what we can say and do
    • 42. Develop
      • Select Delivery method
        • Classroom
        • Lecture
        • Video
        • On-the-job training
    • 43. Develop
      • Review existing material
        • You may not need to come up with something new
        • It may already be there and be just what you need
    • 44. Develop
      • ARCS – John Keller, Florida State University
        • Attention
        • Relevance
        • Confidence
        • Satisfaction
    • 45. Develop
      • Attention – Get it and keep it
        • Story telling
        • Demos
        • How not to
        • Explain importance
      Firefighterclosecalls.com
    • 46. Develop
      • Relevance
        • How it will improve the student
        • Answers WIIFM (what’s in it for me?)
        • What about tomorrow
        • Matching needs (Maslow’s hierarchy of Needs)
        • Allow students to use learning method they like best
      Relavance
    • 47. Develop
      • Confidence
        • Let the learner succeed; but, with a degree of challenge
          • Objectives and prerequisites
          • Don’t put students into information overload
          • Provide feedback
          • Help learners feel in control
      Confidence
    • 48. Develop
      • Satisfaction
        • Provide feedback and reinforcement
        • Feeling good is a motivation to learn
        • Based on motivation
          • Intrinsic or extrinsic
      Satisfaction
    • 49. Develop
      • Synthesize into viable training program
        • Integrate training material and media
        • Follow a sequence and build
        • Build in strategies and don’t forget breaks
        • Determine time blocks
        • Make sure it meets your objectives
    • 50. Do I need to say it? Your turn
    • 51. Implement
      • Develop a management plan
        • A clear and complete course description
        • Description of target audience
        • Administration directions
        • Directions for testing
        • Directions for guidance, assistance, and evaluation of learners
        • A list of tasks to be taught
    • 52.
      • Develop a management plan
        • Course map or sequence
        • How the course is to be taught
        • A copy of all training materials
        • Instructor and staff training requirements
        • Any other administrative documents for the course
    • 53. Implement
      • You may need train-the-trainers
      • Teach the class
        • The instructor role begins
        • Pilot classes are a good idea if you have the opportunity
    • 54. And next? Ah ha fooled you; not yet.
    • 55. Evaluation
      • Review and evaluate each phase
        • Be sure it meets objectives
      • External evaluations
        • Be sure what they are learning can be actually applied to the job
      • Adjust
        • If you need to, make corrections
    • 56. And? Your turn
    • 57. Lesson Plans
      • An effective way to organize
      • A guide to follow
      • Assists in the evaluation process
      • Along with objectives, define what is to be covered in class
      • Does not take the place of preparation
    • 58. Needs Assessment
      • Similar to what you use in curriculum development
      • Make sure you know
        • Who
        • What
        • Where
        • When
    • 59. Needs Assessment
      • Who
        • Age and experience
        • Travel distances and traffic
        • Breaks and lunch
        • Motivation – “have to be vs. want to be”
        • Educational background
        • Technology requirements
        • Work schedules or other commitments
    • 60. Lesson Plan
      • Have a list of needs
      • Be sure you have it all
      • Most important – Be sure it works and you know how to use it
    • 61. Lesson Plan
      • Schedule has so many variables
      • Remember – “the mind will only absorb what the bottom will tolerate”.
    • 62. Lesson Plan
      • Determine content
        • Is awareness or mastery required?
        • You may want to review your final exam
    • 63. Lesson Plan
      • Student tools
        • Encourage note taking
        • Provide an outline
        • Copy computer generated plans and hand out
    • 64.  
    • 65.  
    • 66. Lesson Plan
      • Evaluate plan and presentation
        • Compare goals, objectives and content
        • Should build on previous goals and objectives
        • Educational and practical should support each other
        • Goal of instruction, lesson objectives, and the actual content
          • DO THEY AGREE?
    • 67. Lesson Plan
      • Summative Evaluation
        • How effective was your teaching
        • How do you improve
          • Survey tools
          • Tests and quizzes – don’t forget student feedback
          • Student participation in designing improvement plans
    • 68. Summary
      • Established course
      • Creating course
        • Important to understand objectives and lesson plans
      • First question normally asked “how long will class last?”
      • A good lesson plan will allow you to finish in the time allotted
    • 69. Your turn