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S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
S T A K E H O L D E R  Fact  Finding
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S T A K E H O L D E R Fact Finding

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  • 1. STAKEHOLDER Fact Finding Methods
  • 2. Fact Finding Methods <ul><li>Conduct interviews and discussion with users </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute and collect stakeholder questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Review existing reports, forms, and procedure descriptions </li></ul>
  • 3. Fact Finding Methods <ul><li>Observe business processes and workflows </li></ul><ul><li>Build prototypes </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct JAD ( Joint Application Development ) sessions </li></ul><ul><li>RAD ( Rapid Application Development) </li></ul>
  • 4. Fact Finding Methods <ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JAD sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAD </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Interviews <ul><li>Primary technique for fact finding and information gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective way to understand business functions and business rules </li></ul><ul><li>Usually requires multiple sessions </li></ul>
  • 6. Interviews <ul><li>Usually conducted with customers/clients/users </li></ul><ul><li>Clients are not always able to express their requirements clearly  it is up to the analyst to ask the right questions to help the client express their requirements </li></ul>
  • 7. Interviews <ul><li>We are going to concentrate on interview techniques; the rest of the slides explain the other methods for fact finding </li></ul>
  • 8. Conducting effective interviews <ul><li>Determine who you are going to interview </li></ul><ul><li>Know what information that stakeholder can provide for you </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up on the interview </li></ul>
  • 9. Determine who you are going to interview <ul><li>Can be standard (business) or technical (technology adopters) users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard users provide the functional and data requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical (technology adopters) users provide the technical and data requirements </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Determine who you are going to interview <ul><li>Can be standard (business) or technical (technology adopters) users in your business area or the other business areas that communicate with yours </li></ul>
  • 11. Styles of Interviews <ul><li>Structured Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires significant preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unstructured Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No pre-determined questions or objectives </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Structured Interview <ul><li>Preparing for the interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish the objectives for the interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a clear agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepared in advance with a list of open and closed ended questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set the time and location for the interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform all participants of the objective, time and location </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Questions <ul><li>Should allow you to keep on track and avoid getting off topic during the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Can be prepared from any of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations made when existing form and reports may have been reviewed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations made when reviewing the strategic, tactical or operational plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations made when observing employees doing current job tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep length of questions reasonable (15-20 words or less) </li></ul>
  • 14. Questions <ul><li>Phrase questions to avoid misunderstandings - use simple terms and wording </li></ul><ul><li>Do not ask questions that give clues to expected answers </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid asking two questions in one </li></ul><ul><li>Do not ask questions that can raise concerns about job security or other negative issues </li></ul>
  • 15. Questioning Strategies How can order processing be improved? How can we reduce the number of times that customers return items they’ve ordered? How can we eliminate shipping the wrong products? High-level: very general Medium-level: moderately specific Low-level: very specific Top Down Bottom UP
  • 16. Questions <ul><li>Open ended questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages unstructured responses and generates discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful when you need to understand a larger process or to draw out opinions or suggestions from the person being interviewed </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Questions <ul><li>Closed ended questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited or restricted response – a simple definitive answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to get information that is more specific or when you need to verify facts </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Sample interview questions <ul><li>Open-ended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you think about the current system? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you decide what type of marketing campaigns to run? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed-ended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do customers place orders? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many orders to you receive a day? </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Structured Interview <ul><li>Conduct the interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dress appropriately; Arrive on time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Welcome the participants; introduce the attendees; state the objective and agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask permission if you want to tape record the interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions from script </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Structured Interview <ul><li>Conduct the interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen closely to the interviewee and encourage them to expand on key points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take thorough notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and document unanswered questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At end of interview, review outstanding questions that require follow up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set date and time for the next, follow-up interview </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. Fact Finding Methods <ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JAD sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAD </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Questionnaires <ul><li>A document which contains a number of questions </li></ul><ul><li>Can be paper form or electronic form (email or web-based) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the analyst to collect information from a large number of people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People outside the organization (I.e. customers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business users spread across a large geographic area </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Questionnaires <ul><li>Limited and specific information from a large number of stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary insight </li></ul><ul><li>Not well suited for gathering detailed information </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended questions vs. close-ended questions </li></ul>
  • 24. Questionnaires <ul><li>Similar process to interviewing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine who will receive the questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design the questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine objective of questionnaire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow up questionnaire </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Questionnaires <ul><li>Determine who will receive the questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a sample audience who are representative of an entire group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume 30-50% return rate for paper and email questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume a 5-30% return rate for web-based questionnaires </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Questionnaires <ul><li>Design the Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly state the following in the questionnaire: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of the questionnaire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why the respondent was selected to receive the questionnaire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the questionnaire is to be returned </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 27. Questionnaires <ul><li>Design the Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let the respondent know when/where they can see the accumulated questionnaire responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider providing an inducement to have the respondent complete the questionnaire (I.e. a pen) </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. Questionnaires <ul><li>Design the Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the questionnaire brief and user friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide clear instructions on how to complete the questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange the questions in a logical order; going from easy to more complex topics </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. Questionnaires <ul><li>Design the Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrase questions to avoid misunderstandings, use simple terms and wording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not ask questions that give clues to expected answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid asking two questions in one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit the use of open ended questions that will be difficult to tabulate </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. Questionnaires <ul><li>Design the Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not ask questions that can raise concerns about job security or other negative issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include a section at the end of the questionnaire for general comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test the questionnaire whenever possible on a small test group before finalizing it </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. Review Existing Reports, Forms, and Procedure Descriptions <ul><li>Purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary understanding of processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines / visual cues to guide interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify business rules, discrepancies, and redundancies </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious of outdated material </li></ul>
  • 32. Reviewing existing documentation <ul><li>Most beneficial to new employees or consultants hired to work on a project </li></ul><ul><li>Types of documentation that is reviewed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Company reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy and Procedures manuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation of existing systems </li></ul></ul>
  • 33. Reviewing existing documentation <ul><li>Allows the analyst to get an understanding of the organization prior to meeting with employees </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the analyst to prepare questions for either interviews or questionnaires (other fact finding techniques) </li></ul>
  • 34. Observation <ul><li>An effective way to gather requirements if obtaining complete information was not effective through other fact finding techniques (I.e. interviews and questionnaires) </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>An effective way to verify information gathered from other fact finding sources (such as interviews) </li></ul>
  • 35. Observation <ul><li>Observation can be done by having the analyst observe the client from a distance (without actually interrupting the client) or by actually doing the work of the client </li></ul>
  • 36. Observation <ul><li>Should be carried out for a period of time and at different time intervals, not just once, so that the analyst can observe different workloads and to ensure that what the client does is consistent over different periods of time </li></ul>
  • 37. Observation <ul><li>Allows the analyst to follow an entire process from start to finish </li></ul><ul><li>Can upset the client if they feel threatened by new activity going on around them – the client may behave differently from what they normally do </li></ul>
  • 38. Prototypes <ul><li>A demonstration system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents a graphical user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulates system behavior for various events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any data displayed on a GUI screen is hard-coded; not retrieved from a database </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructed to visualize the system </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the customer to provide feedback </li></ul><ul><li>An effective way to gather requirements for a new system </li></ul><ul><li>Supports JAD or RAD type sessions </li></ul>
  • 39. Other Methods <ul><li>Joint Application Development (JAD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of workshops that bring together all stakeholders (users and systems personnel) </li></ul></ul>
  • 40. Other Methods <ul><li>Joint Application Development (JAD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of the following types of attendees: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator: the person who conducts the meeting and keeps it on track (generally the analyst) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note taker: the person who records the information for the session </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clients/Customers/Users: the people who communicate the requirements, take decisions and approve the project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developers: the people who are part of the development team and need to gather information </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 41. Other Methods <ul><li>Joint Application Development (JAD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes advantage of the group dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require more than one session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One session may last a few hours, several days or several weeks </li></ul></ul>
  • 42. Other Methods <ul><li>Rapid Application Development (RAD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An approach to software development where the system solution is delivered – fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most appropriate for systems which are not the organization’s core business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Xtreme Programming </li></ul></ul>
  • 43. Other Methods <ul><li>Rapid Application Development (RAD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can result in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistent GUI designs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly documented systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software that is difficult to maintain </li></ul></ul></ul>

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