Results
DAY 1
Standardization of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) with Potassium Hydrogen phthalate (KHP)
                         ...
Buffer 7                       6.99
Buffer 10                     10.01

             Table of pH vs. NaOH volume used in ...
11.84                 40.13            41.11                  0.98                 40.42
   11.91                 41.11   ...
Table of pH vs. NaOH volume used in Potentiometric Titration of Mixed Acid


                                             ...
2.21   17.92   17.96   0.04   17.64   0.03   0.7500    0.7500    18.7500
2.22   17.96   18.00   0.04   17.68   0.01   0.25...
3.44   21.05   21.15   0.10   20.83   0.00   0.0000   -0.6000    -6.0000
3.46   21.15   21.19   0.04   20.87   0.02   0.50...
6.77                            39.71               39.81      0.10        39.49   0.17      1.7000        0.5182       5....
18.68                   39.83
                   ph 2.63                 ph 9.12



                                      ...
2nd derivative plot - weak acid

                                    100

                                     50
        ...
pH
       Initial       Final
       Volume        Volume
1.18          0.32          0.00   0.00         0.00   0.0661   ...
2.24   18.00   18.05   0.05        17.73   0.0058   0.245885   0.1020255
2.26   18.05   18.09   0.04        17.77   0.0055...
3.44   21.00   21.05   0.05        20.73   0.0004   0.016604   0.0075266
3.44   21.05   21.15   0.10        20.83   0.0004...
6.28   39.36   39.41   0.05        39.09   0.0000   3.36E-05   2.052E-05
 6.37   39.41   39.51   0.10        39.19   0.000...
Gran Plot - Strong acid

                          1.4

                          1.2
                                    ...
Volume = 15.72ml




      19
Table showing equivalence points obtained from the graphs above for both the weak and strong acid
                 pH Grap...
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Results Det 3

  1. 1. Results DAY 1 Standardization of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) with Potassium Hydrogen phthalate (KHP) Weight table (of KHP) Conical flask #1 0.3133g Conical flask #2 0.2949g Conical flask #3 0.2957g Standardisation Titration Results cm3 1 2 3 cm3 (Flask #2) (Flask #3) (Flask #1) Final Burette Reading 14.68 30.49 45.90 Initial Burette Reading 0.27 14.68 30.49 Volume of NaOH used 14.41 15.81 15.41 R.M.M of KHP = 204.2gmol-1 Calculation of concentration of NaOH (for flask #1, titration 3) 1 mole of KHP = 204.2g x mole of KHP = 0.3133g x = 0.3133g/202.4gmol-1 x = 1.534 x 10-3 mole KHP 1 : 1 Mole Ratio 15.81cm3 of NaOH contains 1.534 x 10-3 mole 1000cm3 of NaOH contains (1000cm3 x 1.534x10-3mole)/15.81cm3 = 0.0970M Calculated Concentrations for NaOH Flask 1 0.0970M Flask 2 0.0937M Flask 3 0.1005M AVERAGE 0.0971M pH meter used – (#2) OAKTON pH/MV/oC meter Calibration of instrument – Measurement of Buffers Buffer solution pH measured Buffer 4 4.03 5
  2. 2. Buffer 7 6.99 Buffer 10 10.01 Table of pH vs. NaOH volume used in Potentiometric Titration of Mixed Acid ∑ Volume used pH BURETTE READING (ml) Volume used (ml) (ml) Initial Volume Final Volume 1.38 0.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.36 0.69 1.71 1.02 1.02 1.34 1.71 2.69 0.98 2.00 1.36 2.69 3.71 1.02 3.02 1.38 3.71 4.72 1.01 4.03 1.42 4.72 5.70 0.98 5.01 1.46 5.70 6.73 1.03 6.04 1.50 6.73 7.75 1.02 7.06 1.56 7.75 8.68 0.93 7.99 1.61 8.68 9.69 1.01 9.00 1.67 9.69 10.70 1.01 10.01 1.76 10.70 11.71 1.01 11.02 1.86 11.71 12.79 1.08 12.10 1.99 12.79 13.81 1.02 13.12 2.16 13.81 14.71 0.90 14.02 2.48 14.71 15.72 1.01 15.03 2.94 15.72 16.68 0.96 15.99 3.37 16.68 17.74 1.06 17.05 3.62 17.74 18.69 0.95 18.00 3.81 18.69 19.70 1.01 19.01 3.96 19.70 20.72 1.02 20.03 4.09 20.72 21.79 1.07 21.10 4.20 21.79 22.80 1.01 22.11 4.29 22.80 23.73 0.93 23.04 4.39 23.73 24.75 1.02 24.06 4.48 24.75 25.73 0.98 25.04 4.57 25.73 26.79 1.06 26.10 4.65 26.79 27.80 1.01 27.11 4.74 27.80 28.75 0.95 28.06 4.84 28.75 29.72 0.97 29.03 4.94 29.72 30.71 0.99 30.02 5.05 30.71 31.79 1.08 31.10 5.18 31.79 32.80 1.01 32.11 5.33 32.80 33.82 1.02 33.13 5.49 33.82 34.70 0.88 34.01 5.76 34.70 35.79 1.09 35.10 6.39 35.79 36.88 1.09 36.19 11.25 36.88 38.21 1.33 37.52 11.55 38.21 39.15 0.94 38.46 11.73 39.15 40.13 0.98 39.44 6
  3. 3. 11.84 40.13 41.11 0.98 40.42 11.91 41.11 42.12 1.01 41.43 11.97 42.12 43.10 0.98 42.41 pH of solution vs. Volume of NaOH used 14.00 12.00 10.00 8.00 pH Series1 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 Volume of NaOH used ph 2.93 ph 8.51 equivalenc e volume 16.04 volume 36.11 DAY 2 pH meter used – (#2) OAKTON pH/MV/oC meter Calibration of instrument – Measurement of Buffers Buffer solution pH measured Buffer 4 3.99 Buffer 7 7.00 Buffer 10 10.00 Note: The results of the standardization of NaOH carried out on day two were rejected due to random errors that occurred during the process. The results obtained from day 1 were used. 7
  4. 4. Table of pH vs. NaOH volume used in Potentiometric Titration of Mixed Acid Change in BURETTE READING Volume ∑ Volume Change 1st 1st 2nd pH (ml) used (ml) used (ml) in pH Derivative Derivative Derivative Initial Volume Final Volume 1.18 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0000 0.00 0.0000 1.14 0.32 1.30 0.98 0.98 -0.04 -0.0408 -0.0408 -0.0416 1.14 1.30 2.31 1.01 1.99 0.00 0.0000 0.0408 0.0404 1.16 2.31 3.32 1.01 3.00 0.02 0.0198 0.0198 0.0196 1.17 3.32 4.32 1.00 4.00 0.01 0.0100 -0.0098 -0.0098 1.20 4.32 5.40 1.08 5.08 0.03 0.0278 0.0178 0.0165 1.23 5.40 6.35 0.95 6.03 0.03 0.0316 0.0038 0.0040 1.27 6.35 7.39 1.04 7.07 0.04 0.0385 0.0069 0.0066 1.30 7.39 8.31 0.92 7.99 0.03 0.0326 -0.0059 -0.0064 1.35 8.31 9.35 1.04 9.03 0.05 0.0481 0.0155 0.0149 1.39 9.35 10.31 0.96 9.99 0.04 0.0417 -0.0064 -0.0067 1.44 10.31 11.35 1.04 11.03 0.05 0.0481 0.0064 0.0062 1.51 11.35 12.35 1.00 12.03 0.07 0.0700 0.0219 0.0219 1.58 12.35 13.35 1.00 13.03 0.07 0.0700 0.0000 0.0000 1.67 13.35 14.38 1.03 14.06 0.09 0.0874 0.0174 0.0169 1.77 14.38 15.32 0.94 15.00 0.10 0.1064 0.0190 0.0202 1.90 15.32 16.35 1.03 16.03 0.13 0.1262 0.0198 0.0193 1.92 16.35 16.35 0.00 16.03 0.02 0.0000 -0.1262 0.0000 1.92 16.35 16.38 0.03 16.06 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.94 16.38 16.41 0.03 16.09 0.02 0.6667 0.6667 22.2222 1.94 16.41 16.48 0.07 16.16 0.00 0.0000 -0.6667 -9.5238 1.96 16.48 16.65 0.17 16.33 0.02 0.1176 0.1176 0.6920 1.96 16.65 16.71 0.06 16.39 0.00 0.0000 -0.1176 -1.9608 1.96 16.71 16.78 0.07 16.46 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.96 16.78 16.80 0.02 16.48 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.99 16.80 16.85 0.05 16.53 0.03 0.6000 0.6000 12.0000 1.99 16.85 16.92 0.07 16.60 0.00 0.0000 -0.6000 -8.5714 2.01 16.92 17.00 0.08 16.68 0.02 0.2500 0.2500 3.1250 2.01 17.00 17.05 0.05 16.73 0.00 0.0000 -0.2500 -5.0000 2.03 17.05 17.10 0.05 16.78 0.02 0.4000 0.4000 8.0000 2.03 17.10 17.20 0.10 16.88 0.00 0.0000 -0.4000 -4.0000 2.05 17.20 17.22 0.02 16.90 0.02 1.0000 1.0000 50.0000 2.07 17.22 17.30 0.08 16.98 0.02 0.2500 -0.7500 -9.3750 2.07 17.30 17.35 0.05 17.03 0.00 0.0000 -0.2500 -5.0000 2.09 17.35 17.42 0.07 17.10 0.02 0.2857 0.2857 4.0816 2.09 17.42 17.49 0.07 17.17 0.00 0.0000 -0.2857 -4.0816 2.13 17.49 17.53 0.04 17.21 0.04 1.0000 1.0000 25.0000 2.13 17.53 17.58 0.05 17.26 0.00 0.0000 -1.0000 -20.0000 2.14 17.58 17.61 0.03 17.29 0.01 0.3333 0.3333 11.1111 2.14 17.61 17.70 0.09 17.38 0.00 0.0000 -0.3333 -3.7037 2.16 17.70 17.80 0.10 17.48 0.02 0.2000 0.2000 2.0000 2.18 17.80 17.89 0.09 17.57 0.02 0.2222 0.0222 0.2469 2.18 17.89 17.92 0.03 17.60 0.00 0.0000 -0.2222 -7.4074 8
  5. 5. 2.21 17.92 17.96 0.04 17.64 0.03 0.7500 0.7500 18.7500 2.22 17.96 18.00 0.04 17.68 0.01 0.2500 -0.5000 -12.5000 2.24 18.00 18.05 0.05 17.73 0.02 0.4000 0.1500 3.0000 2.26 18.05 18.09 0.04 17.77 0.02 0.5000 0.1000 2.5000 2.29 18.09 18.19 0.10 17.87 0.03 0.3000 -0.2000 -2.0000 2.31 18.19 18.29 0.10 17.97 0.02 0.2000 -0.1000 -1.0000 2.32 18.29 18.31 0.02 17.99 0.01 0.5000 0.3000 15.0000 2.34 18.31 18.39 0.08 18.07 0.02 0.2500 -0.2500 -3.1250 2.36 18.39 18.41 0.02 18.09 0.02 1.0000 0.7500 37.5000 2.38 18.41 18.49 0.08 18.17 0.02 0.2500 -0.7500 -9.3750 2.40 18.49 18.52 0.03 18.20 0.02 0.6667 0.4167 13.8889 2.42 18.52 18.59 0.07 18.27 0.02 0.2857 -0.3810 -5.4422 2.44 18.59 18.68 0.09 18.36 0.02 0.2222 -0.0635 -0.7055 2.47 18.68 18.79 0.11 18.47 0.03 0.2727 0.0505 0.4591 2.49 18.79 18.81 0.02 18.49 0.02 1.0000 0.7273 36.3636 2.52 18.81 18.85 0.04 18.53 0.03 0.7500 -0.2500 -6.2500 2.54 18.85 18.90 0.05 18.58 0.02 0.4000 -0.3500 -7.0000 2.58 18.90 18.99 0.09 18.67 0.04 0.4444 0.0444 0.4938 2.61 18.99 19.03 0.04 18.71 0.03 0.7500 0.3056 7.6389 2.64 19.03 19.08 0.05 18.76 0.03 0.6000 -0.1500 -3.0000 2.67 19.08 19.15 0.07 18.83 0.03 0.4286 -0.1714 -2.4490 2.71 19.15 19.23 0.08 18.91 0.04 0.5000 0.0714 0.8929 2.74 19.23 19.30 0.07 18.98 0.03 0.4286 -0.0714 -1.0204 2.76 19.30 19.38 0.08 19.06 0.02 0.2500 -0.1786 -2.2321 2.79 19.38 19.40 0.02 19.08 0.03 1.5000 1.2500 62.5000 2.80 19.40 19.45 0.05 19.13 0.01 0.2000 -1.3000 -26.0000 2.83 19.45 19.50 0.05 19.18 0.03 0.6000 0.4000 8.0000 2.87 19.50 19.58 0.08 19.26 0.04 0.5000 -0.1000 -1.2500 2.92 19.58 19.65 0.07 19.33 0.05 0.7143 0.2143 3.0612 2.94 19.65 19.70 0.05 19.38 0.02 0.4000 -0.3143 -6.2857 2.96 19.70 19.75 0.05 19.43 0.02 0.4000 0.0000 0.0000 2.99 19.75 19.80 0.05 19.48 0.03 0.6000 0.2000 4.0000 3.04 19.80 19.98 0.18 19.66 0.05 0.2778 -0.3222 -1.7901 3.07 19.98 20.04 0.06 19.72 0.03 0.5000 0.2222 3.7037 3.10 20.04 20.12 0.08 19.80 0.03 0.3750 -0.1250 -1.5625 3.12 20.12 20.20 0.08 19.88 0.02 0.2500 -0.1250 -1.5625 3.14 20.20 20.22 0.02 19.90 0.02 1.0000 0.7500 37.5000 3.16 20.22 20.27 0.05 19.95 0.02 0.4000 -0.6000 -12.0000 3.20 20.27 20.35 0.08 20.03 0.04 0.5000 0.1000 1.2500 3.22 20.35 20.40 0.05 20.08 0.02 0.4000 -0.1000 -2.0000 3.22 20.40 20.43 0.03 20.11 0.00 0.0000 -0.4000 -13.3333 3.25 20.43 20.50 0.07 20.18 0.03 0.4286 0.4286 6.1224 3.27 20.50 20.54 0.04 20.22 0.02 0.5000 0.0714 1.7857 3.30 20.54 20.62 0.08 20.30 0.03 0.3750 -0.1250 -1.5625 3.30 20.62 20.69 0.07 20.37 0.00 0.0000 -0.3750 -5.3571 3.33 20.69 20.74 0.05 20.42 0.03 0.6000 0.6000 12.0000 3.34 20.74 20.79 0.05 20.47 0.01 0.2000 -0.4000 -8.0000 3.37 20.79 20.85 0.06 20.53 0.03 0.5000 0.3000 5.0000 3.39 20.85 20.91 0.06 20.59 0.02 0.3333 -0.1667 -2.7778 3.41 20.91 21.00 0.09 20.68 0.02 0.2222 -0.1111 -1.2346 3.44 21.00 21.05 0.05 20.73 0.03 0.6000 0.3778 7.5556 9
  6. 6. 3.44 21.05 21.15 0.10 20.83 0.00 0.0000 -0.6000 -6.0000 3.46 21.15 21.19 0.04 20.87 0.02 0.5000 0.5000 12.5000 3.49 21.19 21.29 0.10 20.97 0.03 0.3000 -0.2000 -2.0000 3.51 21.29 21.34 0.05 21.02 0.02 0.4000 0.1000 2.0000 3.53 21.34 21.42 0.08 21.10 0.02 0.2500 -0.1500 -1.8750 3.53 21.42 21.49 0.07 21.17 0.00 0.0000 -0.2500 -3.5714 3.55 21.49 21.53 0.04 21.21 0.02 0.5000 0.5000 12.5000 3.59 21.53 21.68 0.15 21.36 0.04 0.2667 -0.2333 -1.5556 3.61 21.68 21.78 0.10 21.46 0.02 0.2000 -0.0667 -0.6667 3.61 21.78 21.80 0.02 21.48 0.00 0.0000 -0.2000 -10.0000 3.63 21.80 21.85 0.05 21.53 0.02 0.4000 0.4000 8.0000 3.63 21.85 21.90 0.05 21.58 0.00 0.0000 -0.4000 -8.0000 3.65 21.90 21.99 0.09 21.67 0.02 0.2222 0.2222 2.4691 3.65 21.99 22.01 0.02 21.69 0.00 0.0000 -0.2222 -11.1111 3.67 22.01 22.10 0.09 21.78 0.02 0.2222 0.2222 2.4691 3.69 22.10 22.19 0.09 21.87 0.02 0.2222 0.0000 0.0000 3.69 22.19 22.25 0.06 21.93 0.00 0.0000 -0.2222 -3.7037 3.71 22.25 22.31 0.06 21.99 0.02 0.3333 0.3333 5.5556 3.73 22.31 22.40 0.09 22.08 0.02 0.2222 -0.1111 -1.2346 3.75 22.40 22.50 0.10 22.18 0.02 0.2000 -0.0222 -0.2222 3.77 22.50 22.61 0.11 22.29 0.02 0.1818 -0.0182 -0.1653 3.77 22.61 22.70 0.09 22.38 0.00 0.0000 -0.1818 -2.0202 3.80 22.70 22.79 0.09 22.47 0.03 0.3333 0.3333 3.7037 3.93 22.79 23.80 1.01 23.48 0.13 0.1287 -0.2046 -0.2026 4.07 23.80 24.82 1.02 24.50 0.14 0.1373 0.0085 0.0084 4.20 24.82 25.90 1.08 25.58 0.13 0.1204 -0.0169 -0.0156 4.32 25.90 26.99 1.09 26.67 0.12 0.1101 -0.0103 -0.0094 4.41 26.99 27.89 0.90 27.57 0.09 0.1000 -0.0101 -0.0112 4.50 27.89 28.90 1.01 28.58 0.09 0.0891 -0.0109 -0.0108 4.60 28.90 29.91 1.01 29.59 0.10 0.0990 0.0099 0.0098 4.70 29.91 30.91 1.00 30.59 0.10 0.1000 0.0010 0.0010 4.80 30.91 31.93 1.02 31.61 0.10 0.0980 -0.0020 -0.0019 4.90 31.93 32.91 0.98 32.59 0.10 0.1020 0.0040 0.0041 5.00 32.91 33.89 0.98 33.57 0.10 0.1020 0.0000 0.0000 5.12 33.89 34.90 1.01 34.58 0.12 0.1188 0.0168 0.0166 5.26 34.90 35.91 1.01 35.59 0.14 0.1386 0.0198 0.0196 5.42 35.91 36.91 1.00 36.59 0.16 0.1600 0.0214 0.0214 5.65 36.91 37.95 1.04 37.63 0.23 0.2212 0.0612 0.0588 5.98 37.95 38.90 0.95 38.58 0.33 0.3474 0.1262 0.1329 6.00 38.90 39.00 0.10 38.68 0.02 0.2000 -0.1474 -1.4737 6.02 39.00 39.05 0.05 38.73 0.02 0.4000 0.2000 4.0000 6.05 39.05 39.10 0.05 38.78 0.03 0.6000 0.2000 4.0000 6.07 39.10 39.12 0.02 38.80 0.02 1.0000 0.4000 20.0000 6.12 39.12 39.21 0.09 38.89 0.05 0.5556 -0.4444 -4.9383 6.15 39.21 39.25 0.04 38.93 0.03 0.7500 0.1944 4.8611 6.18 39.25 39.30 0.05 38.98 0.03 0.6000 -0.1500 -3.0000 6.21 39.30 39.36 0.06 39.04 0.03 0.5000 -0.1000 -1.6667 6.28 39.36 39.41 0.05 39.09 0.07 1.4000 0.9000 18.0000 6.37 39.41 39.51 0.10 39.19 0.09 0.9000 -0.5000 -5.0000 6.47 39.51 39.60 0.09 39.28 0.10 1.1111 0.2111 2.3457 6.60 39.60 39.71 0.11 39.39 0.13 1.1818 0.0707 0.6428 10
  7. 7. 6.77 39.71 39.81 0.10 39.49 0.17 1.7000 0.5182 5.1818 7.23 39.81 39.99 0.18 39.67 0.46 2.5556 0.8556 4.7531 8.28 39.99 40.09 0.10 39.77 1.05 10.5000 7.9444 79.4444 10.16 40.09 40.19 0.10 39.87 1.88 18.8000 8.3000 83.0000 11.07 40.19 40.31 0.12 39.99 0.91 7.5833 -11.2167 -93.4722 11.35 40.31 40.39 0.08 40.07 0.28 3.5000 -4.0833 -51.0417 11.45 40.39 40.41 0.02 40.09 0.10 5.0000 1.5000 75.0000 11.59 40.41 40.50 0.09 40.18 0.14 1.5556 -3.4444 -38.2716 11.66 40.50 40.55 0.05 40.23 0.07 1.4000 -0.1556 -3.1111 11.73 40.55 40.60 0.05 40.28 0.07 1.4000 0.0000 0.0000 11.81 40.60 40.68 0.08 40.36 0.08 1.0000 -0.4000 -5.0000 11.89 40.68 40.75 0.07 40.43 0.08 1.1429 0.1429 2.0408 11.93 40.75 40.80 0.05 40.48 0.04 0.8000 -0.3429 -6.8571 11.97 40.80 40.83 0.03 40.51 0.04 1.3333 0.5333 17.7778 12.00 40.83 40.90 0.07 40.58 0.03 0.4286 -0.9048 -12.9252 12.04 40.90 40.99 0.09 40.67 0.04 0.4444 0.0159 0.1764 12.10 40.99 41.05 0.06 40.73 0.06 1.0000 0.5556 9.2593 12.15 41.05 41.15 0.10 40.83 0.05 0.5000 -0.5000 -5.0000 12.19 41.15 41.20 0.05 40.88 0.04 0.8000 0.3000 6.0000 12.22 41.20 41.30 0.10 40.98 0.03 0.3000 -0.5000 -5.0000 12.54 41.30 42.20 0.90 41.88 0.32 0.3556 0.0556 0.0617 12.71 42.20 43.11 0.91 42.79 0.17 0.1868 -0.1687 -0.1854 12.83 43.11 44.10 0.99 43.78 0.12 0.1212 -0.0656 -0.0663 12.93 44.10 45.12 1.02 44.80 0.10 0.0980 -0.0232 -0.0227 12.99 45.12 45.99 0.87 45.67 0.06 0.0690 -0.0291 -0.0334 Graph of pH vs. volume of NaOH used 14.00 12.00 Volume of NaOH used (ml) 10.00 8.00 Series1 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 pH equivalence volume volume 11
  8. 8. 18.68 39.83 ph 2.63 ph 9.12 1st derivative plot - weak acid 20.0000 15.0000 10.0000 Series1 5.0000 0.0000 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 -5.0000 1st Derivative plot - strong acid 1.6000 1.4000 1.2000 1.0000 0.8000 Series1 pH 0.6000 0.4000 0.2000 0.0000 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 -0.2000 Volume used (ml) 12
  9. 9. 2nd derivative plot - weak acid 100 50 derivative 0 Series1 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 -50 -100 -150 Volume (ml) 2nd derivative weak acid volume 39.93 2nd derivative plot - strong acid 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 derivative 20.00 Series1 10.00 0.00 -10.000.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 -20.00 -30.00 -40.00 Volume (ml) 2nd derivative strong acid volume 19.105 Table showing pH, Volume of NaOH used and Gran Plot parameters pH BURETTE READING (ml) Volume ∑ Volume 10^-pH (Vs + vt*10^-pH used (ml) used (ml) Vt)*10^- 13
  10. 10. pH Initial Final Volume Volume 1.18 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0661 1.651734 0 1.14 0.32 1.30 0.98 0.98 0.0724 1.882085 0.0709947 1.14 1.30 2.31 1.01 1.99 0.0724 1.955253 0.1441628 1.16 2.31 3.32 1.01 3.00 0.0692 1.937127 0.2075493 1.17 3.32 4.32 1.00 4.00 0.0676 1.960641 0.2704332 1.20 4.32 5.40 1.08 5.08 0.0631 1.89792 0.3205263 1.23 5.40 6.35 0.95 6.03 0.0589 1.827182 0.3550727 1.27 6.35 7.39 1.04 7.07 0.0537 1.722261 0.3796815 1.30 7.39 8.31 0.92 7.99 0.0501 1.653417 0.4004486 1.35 8.31 9.35 1.04 9.03 0.0447 1.520064 0.4033553 1.39 9.35 10.31 0.96 9.99 0.0407 1.425424 0.4069729 1.44 10.31 11.35 1.04 11.03 0.0363 1.30817 0.4004751 1.51 11.35 12.35 1.00 12.03 0.0309 1.144336 0.3717625 1.58 12.35 13.35 1.00 13.03 0.0263 1.000291 0.3427239 1.67 13.35 14.38 1.03 14.06 0.0214 0.835088 0.3005975 1.77 14.38 15.32 0.94 15.00 0.017 0.679297 0.2547365 1.90 15.32 16.35 1.03 16.03 0.0126 0.516537 0.2018057 1.92 16.35 16.35 0.00 16.03 0.012 0.493289 0.192723 1.92 16.35 16.38 0.03 16.06 0.012 0.49365 0.1930837 1.94 16.38 16.41 0.03 16.09 0.0115 0.471776 0.1847379 1.94 16.41 16.48 0.07 16.16 0.0115 0.47258 0.1855416 1.96 16.48 16.65 0.17 16.33 0.011 0.453174 0.1790549 1.96 16.65 16.71 0.06 16.39 0.011 0.453832 0.1797128 1.96 16.71 16.78 0.07 16.46 0.011 0.4546 0.1804803 1.96 16.78 16.80 0.02 16.48 0.011 0.454819 0.1806996 1.99 16.80 16.85 0.05 16.53 0.0102 0.424974 0.1691503 1.99 16.85 16.92 0.07 16.60 0.0102 0.42569 0.1698666 2.01 16.92 17.00 0.08 16.68 0.0098 0.407312 0.1630032 2.01 17.00 17.05 0.05 16.73 0.0098 0.407801 0.1634918 2.03 17.05 17.10 0.05 16.78 0.0093 0.389914 0.1566001 2.03 17.10 17.20 0.10 16.88 0.0093 0.390847 0.1575333 2.05 17.20 17.22 0.02 16.90 0.0089 0.373434 0.1506214 2.07 17.22 17.30 0.08 16.98 0.0085 0.357308 0.1445232 2.07 17.30 17.35 0.05 17.03 0.0085 0.357733 0.1449488 2.09 17.35 17.42 0.07 17.10 0.0081 0.342202 0.138994 2.09 17.42 17.49 0.07 17.17 0.0081 0.342771 0.139563 2.13 17.49 17.53 0.04 17.21 0.0074 0.312907 0.1275795 2.13 17.53 17.58 0.05 17.26 0.0074 0.313278 0.1279501 2.14 17.58 17.61 0.03 17.29 0.0072 0.306364 0.125255 2.14 17.61 17.70 0.09 17.38 0.0072 0.307016 0.125907 2.16 17.70 17.80 0.10 17.48 0.0069 0.29389 0.1209321 2.18 17.80 17.89 0.09 17.57 0.0066 0.281257 0.1160838 2.18 17.89 17.92 0.03 17.60 0.0066 0.281455 0.116282 2.21 17.92 17.96 0.04 17.64 0.0062 0.262916 0.1087674 2.22 17.96 18.00 0.04 17.68 0.006 0.257172 0.1065325 14
  11. 11. 2.24 18.00 18.05 0.05 17.73 0.0058 0.245885 0.1020255 2.26 18.05 18.09 0.04 17.77 0.0055 0.235039 0.0976534 2.29 18.09 18.19 0.10 17.87 0.0051 0.219864 0.0916483 2.31 18.19 18.29 0.10 17.97 0.0049 0.210458 0.0880133 2.32 18.29 18.31 0.02 17.99 0.0048 0.205763 0.0861056 2.34 18.31 18.39 0.08 18.07 0.0046 0.196868 0.0825958 2.36 18.39 18.41 0.02 18.09 0.0044 0.188095 0.0789657 2.38 18.41 18.49 0.08 18.17 0.0042 0.179963 0.0757452 2.40 18.49 18.52 0.03 18.20 0.004 0.171982 0.0724555 2.42 18.52 18.59 0.07 18.27 0.0038 0.164508 0.0694606 2.44 18.59 18.68 0.09 18.36 0.0036 0.157431 0.0666611 2.47 18.68 18.79 0.11 18.47 0.0034 0.147296 0.0625845 2.49 18.79 18.81 0.02 18.49 0.0032 0.140731 0.0598325 2.52 18.81 18.85 0.04 18.53 0.003 0.131459 0.0559597 2.54 18.85 18.90 0.05 18.58 0.0029 0.125686 0.0535853 2.58 18.90 18.99 0.09 18.67 0.0026 0.114864 0.0491071 2.61 18.99 19.03 0.04 18.71 0.0025 0.107295 0.0459276 2.64 19.03 19.08 0.05 18.76 0.0023 0.100248 0.0429767 2.67 19.08 19.15 0.07 18.83 0.0021 0.093707 0.0402578 2.71 19.15 19.23 0.08 18.91 0.0019 0.085618 0.0368716 2.74 19.23 19.30 0.07 18.98 0.0018 0.08003 0.0345379 2.76 19.30 19.38 0.08 19.06 0.0017 0.076568 0.0331225 2.79 19.38 19.40 0.02 19.08 0.0016 0.071489 0.0309441 2.80 19.40 19.45 0.05 19.13 0.0016 0.069941 0.030319 2.83 19.45 19.50 0.05 19.18 0.0015 0.065347 0.0283693 2.87 19.50 19.58 0.08 19.26 0.0013 0.059705 0.025981 2.92 19.58 19.65 0.07 19.33 0.0012 0.053296 0.0232398 2.94 19.65 19.70 0.05 19.38 0.0011 0.050955 0.0222512 2.96 19.70 19.75 0.05 19.43 0.0011 0.048717 0.0213046 2.99 19.75 19.80 0.05 19.48 0.001 0.045516 0.0199337 3.04 19.80 19.98 0.18 19.66 0.0009 0.04073 0.0179301 3.07 19.98 20.04 0.06 19.72 0.0009 0.038063 0.0167844 3.10 20.04 20.12 0.08 19.80 0.0008 0.035586 0.0157277 3.12 20.12 20.20 0.08 19.88 0.0008 0.034045 0.0150805 3.14 20.20 20.22 0.02 19.90 0.0007 0.032527 0.0144163 3.16 20.22 20.27 0.05 19.95 0.0007 0.031098 0.013802 3.20 20.27 20.35 0.08 20.03 0.0006 0.028412 0.0126381 3.22 20.35 20.40 0.05 20.08 0.0006 0.027163 0.0120994 3.22 20.40 20.43 0.03 20.11 0.0006 0.027181 0.0121175 3.25 20.43 20.50 0.07 20.18 0.0006 0.025407 0.011348 3.27 20.50 20.54 0.04 20.22 0.0005 0.024285 0.0108588 3.30 20.54 20.62 0.08 20.30 0.0005 0.022704 0.0101741 3.30 20.62 20.69 0.07 20.37 0.0005 0.022739 0.0102092 3.33 20.69 20.74 0.05 20.42 0.0005 0.021245 0.0095512 3.34 20.74 20.79 0.05 20.47 0.0005 0.020784 0.0093566 3.37 20.79 20.85 0.06 20.53 0.0004 0.019422 0.0087577 3.39 20.85 20.91 0.06 20.59 0.0004 0.018572 0.008388 3.41 20.91 21.00 0.09 20.68 0.0004 0.017772 0.0080455 15
  12. 12. 3.44 21.00 21.05 0.05 20.73 0.0004 0.016604 0.0075266 3.44 21.05 21.15 0.10 20.83 0.0004 0.01664 0.0075629 3.46 21.15 21.19 0.04 20.87 0.0003 0.015905 0.0072364 3.49 21.19 21.29 0.10 20.97 0.0003 0.014876 0.0067858 3.51 21.29 21.34 0.05 21.02 0.0003 0.014222 0.0064958 3.53 21.34 21.42 0.08 21.10 0.0003 0.013605 0.0062271 3.53 21.42 21.49 0.07 21.17 0.0003 0.013626 0.0062477 3.55 21.49 21.53 0.04 21.21 0.0003 0.013024 0.0059778 3.59 21.53 21.68 0.15 21.36 0.0003 0.011916 0.0054904 3.61 21.68 21.78 0.10 21.46 0.0002 0.011405 0.0052678 3.61 21.78 21.80 0.02 21.48 0.0002 0.011409 0.0052727 3.63 21.80 21.85 0.05 21.53 0.0002 0.010908 0.0050471 3.63 21.85 21.90 0.05 21.58 0.0002 0.010919 0.0050588 3.65 21.90 21.99 0.09 21.67 0.0002 0.010448 0.0048513 3.65 21.99 22.01 0.02 21.69 0.0002 0.010453 0.0048558 3.67 22.01 22.10 0.09 21.78 0.0002 0.010001 0.0046565 3.69 22.10 22.19 0.09 21.87 0.0002 0.00957 0.0044653 3.69 22.19 22.25 0.06 21.93 0.0002 0.009582 0.0044775 3.71 22.25 22.31 0.06 21.99 0.0002 0.009162 0.0042877 3.73 22.31 22.40 0.09 22.08 0.0002 0.008767 0.0041115 3.75 22.40 22.50 0.10 22.18 0.0002 0.00839 0.0039442 3.77 22.50 22.61 0.11 22.29 0.0002 0.008031 0.0037854 3.77 22.61 22.70 0.09 22.38 0.0002 0.008046 0.0038007 3.80 22.70 22.79 0.09 22.47 0.0002 0.007523 0.0035613 3.93 22.79 23.80 1.01 23.48 0.0001 0.005696 0.0027587 4.07 23.80 24.82 1.02 24.50 0.0001 0.004213 0.0020853 4.20 24.82 25.90 1.08 25.58 0.0001 0.003191 0.001614 4.32 25.90 26.99 1.09 26.67 0.0000 0.002473 0.0012765 4.41 26.99 27.89 0.90 27.57 0.0000 0.002045 0.0010726 4.50 27.89 28.90 1.01 28.58 0.0000 0.001694 0.0009038 4.60 28.90 29.91 1.01 29.59 0.0000 0.001371 0.0007433 4.70 29.91 30.91 1.00 30.59 0.0000 0.001109 0.0006104 4.80 30.91 31.93 1.02 31.61 0.0000 0.000897 0.000501 4.90 31.93 32.91 0.98 32.59 0.0000 0.000725 0.0004103 5.00 32.91 33.89 0.98 33.57 0.0000 0.000586 0.0003357 5.12 33.89 34.90 1.01 34.58 0.0000 0.000452 0.0002623 5.26 34.90 35.91 1.01 35.59 0.0000 0.000333 0.0001956 5.42 35.91 36.91 1.00 36.59 0.0000 0.000234 0.0001391 5.65 36.91 37.95 1.04 37.63 0.0000 0.00014 8.424E-05 5.98 37.95 38.90 0.95 38.58 0.0000 6.66E-05 4.04E-05 6.00 38.90 39.00 0.10 38.68 0.0000 6.37E-05 3.868E-05 6.02 39.00 39.05 0.05 38.73 0.0000 6.09E-05 3.699E-05 6.05 39.05 39.10 0.05 38.78 0.0000 5.68E-05 3.456E-05 6.07 39.10 39.12 0.02 38.80 0.0000 5.43E-05 3.302E-05 6.12 39.12 39.21 0.09 38.89 0.0000 4.85E-05 2.95E-05 6.15 39.21 39.25 0.04 38.93 0.0000 4.53E-05 2.756E-05 6.18 39.25 39.30 0.05 38.98 0.0000 4.23E-05 2.575E-05 6.21 39.30 39.36 0.06 39.04 0.0000 3.95E-05 2.407E-05 16
  13. 13. 6.28 39.36 39.41 0.05 39.09 0.0000 3.36E-05 2.052E-05 6.37 39.41 39.51 0.10 39.19 0.0000 2.74E-05 1.672E-05 6.47 39.51 39.60 0.09 39.28 0.0000 2.18E-05 1.331E-05 6.60 39.60 39.71 0.11 39.39 0.0000 1.62E-05 9.894E-06 6.77 39.71 39.81 0.10 39.49 0.0000 1.1E-05 6.706E-06 7.23 39.81 39.99 0.18 39.67 0.0000 3.81E-06 2.336E-06 8.28 39.99 40.09 0.10 39.77 0.0000 3.4E-07 2.09E-07 10.16 40.09 40.19 0.10 39.87 0.0000 0.0000 3E-09 11.07 40.19 40.31 0.12 39.99 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 11.35 40.31 40.39 0.08 40.07 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 11.45 40.39 40.41 0.02 40.09 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 11.59 40.41 40.50 0.09 40.18 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 11.66 40.50 40.55 0.05 40.23 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 11.73 40.55 40.60 0.05 40.28 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 11.81 40.60 40.68 0.08 40.36 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 11.89 40.68 40.75 0.07 40.43 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 11.93 40.75 40.80 0.05 40.48 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 11.97 40.80 40.83 0.03 40.51 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 12.00 40.83 40.90 0.07 40.58 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 12.04 40.90 40.99 0.09 40.67 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 12.10 40.99 41.05 0.06 40.73 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 12.15 41.05 41.15 0.10 40.83 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 12.19 41.15 41.20 0.05 40.88 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 12.22 41.20 41.30 0.10 40.98 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 12.54 41.30 42.20 0.90 41.88 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 12.71 42.20 43.11 0.91 42.79 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 12.83 43.11 44.10 0.99 43.78 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 12.93 44.10 45.12 1.02 44.80 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 12.99 45.12 45.99 0.87 45.67 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 17
  14. 14. Gran Plot - Strong acid 1.4 1.2 y = -0.158x + 3.0545 2 1 R = 0.9997 0.8 Gran parameter Series1 0.6 Linear (Series1) 0.4 0.2 0 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 -0.2 Volume (ml) Volume = 19.33ml Gran Plot - Weak acid 0.0012 0.001 y = -0.0002x + 0.0023 0.0008 R2 = 0.9974 0.0006 Gran parameter Series1 0.0004 Linear (Series1) 0.0002 0 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 -0.0002 -0.0004 Volume (ml) 18
  15. 15. Volume = 15.72ml 19
  16. 16. Table showing equivalence points obtained from the graphs above for both the weak and strong acid pH Graph (day 1) pH Graph (day 2) 1st derivative 2nd derivative Gran Plot Strong acid 16.04 18.68 18.53 19.105 19.33 Weak acid 36.11 39.83 22.38 22.45 15.72 Sample calculation of Concentration of Acid ∗ Concentration of Strong Acid – HCl 2nd derivative 1dm3 NaOH = 0.0971M NaOH 19.105ml NaOH = 19.105ml/1000ml * 0.0971mole = 1.8551 x 10-3 mole NaOH 1:1 mole ratio 25ml (pipetted) HCl = 1.8551 x 10-3 mole 1000ml HCl = (1000ml * 1.8551 x 10-3 mole)/25ml = 0.074M HCl ∗ Concentration of Weak Acid – CH3COOH 2nd derivative 1dm3 NaOH = 0.0971M NaOH 22.45ml NaOH = 22.45ml/1000ml * 0.0971mole = 2.1799 x 10-3 mole NaOH 1:1 mole ratio 25ml (pipetted) CH3COOH = 2.1799 x 10-3 mole 1000ml HCl = (1000ml * 2.1799 x 10-3 mole)/25ml = 0.087M CH3COOH Table Showing the Calculated Concentration of the Hydrochloric Acid and Acetic Acid Obtained From the Average Concentration and Equivalence Volume of the Sodium Hydroxide Ph Graph Ph Graph 1st Derivative 2nd Derivative Gran Plot (Day 1) (Day 2) [HCl] 0.062 0.073 0.072 0.074 0.075 [Acetic Acid] 0.140 0.155 0.087 0.087 0.061 20

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