That they are the drugs


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That they are the drugs

  1. 1. DRUGS PAGE 1 INTRODUCTION I choose this topic especially for us teens we realize how dangerous and addictive drugs are. At the time are being consumed by most teenagers, some are addicts and others die being consumed by his addiction. Usually people use drugs because they want to change something in their lives to be accepted, to escape or relax, to relieve boredom, to be mature, to be rebellious, to experiment. They think that drugs are a solution. But eventually, the drugs become the problem. The consequences of drug use are always worse than the problem one tries to solve them. Addictions often arise from problems within the family (misunderstanding, miscommunication, shock, intra-family abuse, rejection, stepparents, neglect, lack of funding, school difficulties, absolute poverty and heartbreak) to feel that they are ones at home, teens have the impression of not being heard or considered. Sometimes young people with an unhealthy curiosity, by observing that some teens her age mimic the act to try and feel the use of any drug. Also some drugs such as inhalants, are easily accessible to them, are authorized and sold at low cost at any supply, causing consumer advantage. It is very important to know everything about drugs and we should always be aware of them and maintain the position of saying NO. For that is our decision.
  2. 2. DRUGS PAGE 2 DRUGS What are drugs? With the drug name it is designated in generic sense to all mineral substance, vegetable or animal that it is used in the industry or in the medicine and that it possesses stimulating effects, depressors or narcotics or, like it establishes the World Organization of the Health (OMS), to any substance that, introduced in an alive organism, it can modify an or several of their functions. To penal effects, the drug (in spite of the different performance forms in the organism) concept also includes the stupefying substances and psychotropic, natural or synthetic, whose reiterated consumption provokes the physical or organic dependence, as well as the uncontrollable desire to continue consuming them in more dose in order to avoid the syndrome of abstinence. OMS mentions: The main stimulant drugs are: cocaine, the amphetamines, the methilfenidas, the fenometrazina and others that, be already inhaled, puffs of smoke or injected, they produce increment in the alert, excitement, euphoria, increase of the heart pulse and the sanguine pressure, insomnia. The depressive substances, as the barbiturates, the benzodiazepinas, the alcohol and the methaqualona, they provoke difficulty when speaking, disorientation, staggering when walking and intoxication. Narcotics are used in medicine, among them are opium, morphine, codeine, heroin, methadone and others and among its effects are euphoria, dizziness, decreased respiratory rate and nausea. The hallucinogens are substances that produce illusions, hallucinations, altered perceptions of the body and of the reality and emotional a lot of excitement. LSD is among those most used ones, the mushrooms, the mescaline, the peyote and other more. Another type of addictive substances is the cannabinoides, as the marijuana or the hashish that cause euphoria, desinhibición, increment of the appetite, deterioration of the memory and of the attention. The characteristics of the drugs make them extremely hazardous substances. The effects produced in the body are not always equal and vary according to the class of drugs, for example, some are stimulants and other, depressing. Also vary with the dose for the same drug can cause different effects depending on the amount consumed.
  3. 3. DRUGS PAGE 3 These effects are related with each person's characteristic psychophysical and with the particularities of the mean in that the consumption takes place. For these reasons, certainty never exists but probability that the drug produces the looked for effect. Addiction is the imperious necessity to consume drug regularly (not to be able to moderate the consumption or to suppress it). It´s comes determined by psychic and physical phenomena. Tachyphylaxis is the necessity to consume dose every bigger time to get the same effects. They present it many pharmaceuticals because the organism develops its mechanisms of degradation of the substance, but to the drugs a phenomenon is added of 'tolerance' psychological. The squares of abstinence are always psychological and, in the case of some drugs, they are also physical syndromes that can be mortal. They can be controlled with therapeutic symptomatic measures or substitutes (less noxious substances, of similar effects that retire progressively). There are legal and socially admitted and promoted drugs and other illegal. The tobacco, the coffee, the alcoholic drinks, the industrial solvents and the drugs are among the legal ones. The marijuana, the cocaine, the heroine, the amphetamines, etc are among the illegal. CAUSES OF ADDICTION Family problems The adolescents when living a crisis stage and when being about avoiding the problems, they look for easy exits or you form of forgetting them, for example by means of the alcohol and the drugs. Many times the addictions arise for problems inside the family (incomprehension, lack of communication, blows, intra-family abuse, rejection, stepfathers, abandonment, lack of economic resources, school difficulties, absolute poverty and indifference), when feeling that they are not wanted in the homes, the adolescents have the impression of not being listened or taken into account. Caen in an error when being about solving the conflicts by means of the drugs, believing that they will only ingest once the substance, but in fact it is generated the habit or the addiction, this causes that the family problems increase, since the consumed drug is stronger, and when not wanting or to be able to leave it, the adolescents sometimes opt to abandon the home, transforming into children of the
  4. 4. DRUGS PAGE 4 street, in which they are exposed to risks of great magnitude like to contract illnesses, to be hit, to support abuses, exploitation, hunger and abandonment. Influence social They also appeal to the drugs when they show up problems around in its. For example: When not being accepted by the friends or a condition to enter to certain group it is ingesting drug, to be as them, to imitate them, to make them believe that "the trips" are the maximum thing, or the worst thing, to fall in the social influence. The addicts can make the comments that you want on the person that is not willing to enter in the drugs; the adolescents should be very aware of themselves and to maintain their posture of NOT saying. To be problematic can be cause of the influence of the partners, as making them fall in the delinquency. Since the robberies that are carried out by addicts, are not primarily for issues of hunger, but for the necessity of to continue being drugged. This causes to have problems with the authorities and later on to be subjected to the jails. Curiosity Sometimes young people with an unhealthy curiosity, to observe that some adolescents of their age imitate the act of to prove and to feel the use of any drug. Also some drugs as the inhaling ones are of easy access for them, they are authorized and sold at low cost in any supply, what causes consumption advantage. When accepting the organism the tranquility and relaxation of the effect of the drug, it causes that this demands the consumption again, but with the same dose it is already insufficient, that makes increase more and more the quantity to feel the same effects, opening the way to the addiction. Some young that experience feeling of well-being or the simple one made of "walking in a trip" and that when consuming the drug their organism it rejects them in an abrupt way, in general these people don't attempt it again. Why young people use drugs and children? If you can understand some of the following reasons of the reason a boy or young can fall in the use of the drugs, it will be much easier to be able to chat their children about the problem. When you wonder to the children or adolescents that have used drugs reason do they make it? They respond us:
  5. 5. DRUGS PAGE 5  As revelion form toward people.  To feel that it is belonged to a group, gang or club.  Because they like risks.  Because they find amusing.  Because it is in fashion.  To be part of the amusement in the parties.  Because you makes you feel bigger.  As escape of the pressures of the modern life.  To feel boring.  Because once "inside of", it is very difficult to be left. CONSEQUENCES The consumption of drugs, legal and illegal, constitutes a problem of public very important health. The risks and damages associated to the consumption vary for each substance. Also, it is necessary to keep in mind the personal variables as the grade of knowledge or the user's experience, their motivation, etc. and the specific properties of each drug as well as the influence of the adulterant elements. That makes that an addiction is a noxious addiction it is that becomes against oneself and of the other ones. At the beginning certain apparent bonus is obtained, the same as with a habit. But earlier than it takes their behavior begins to have negative consequences in their life. The addictive behaviors produce pleasure, relief and other short term compensations, but they provoke pain, disaster, desolation and multitude of problems to half term. The negative consequences associated to the addictions affect too many aspects different from the life of a person. These consequences are very diverse and they can group in two big groups: By type Health: the consumption of drugs originates or it intervenes in the appearance of diverse illnesses, damages, damages and organic and psychological problems. For example: Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, cardiovascular Dysfunctions, Depression, Psychosis, Paranoia, etc. Psychic health: The addicts usually suffer a wide range of psychological dysfunctions, as negative states of spirit and irritability, defensive attitudes, loss of self-esteem and intense blame feelings.
  6. 6. DRUGS PAGE 6 Physical Health: The addiction usually bears multitudes of physical symptoms appearance including dysfunctions of the appetite, ulcer, insomnia, and tires, more the physical dysfunctions and illnesses provoked in particular by each substance. Social: The addicts to drugs are often involved in assaults, public disorder, racial conflicts, marginalization, etc. When you begin to need more to the drugs than to other people they can be ruined or to be destroyed the intimate relationships and to get lost the friendships. One can stop to participate in the world, to abandon goals and plans, to stop to grow as person, not to try to solve the problems constructively and to appeal to more drugs as "solution." Relate: The relationship with the family, friends or couple loses temper, frequent discussions appear, sexual indifference, the communication is interrupted, there are loss of trust, estrangement, etc. Work: When a person has an addiction usually subtracts the time to her work to look for the drug or to recover of her use, you usually arrives late, there are smaller productivity, deterioration of the quality of the work or loss of the own work. Behavior: As to get and to use the drug has become almost more important that any other thing, the addicts become selfish and egocentric: they don't care nobody more than themselves. Depending on the level Singular: they are the damages experienced by the own consumer of drugs. Community: the consumption of drugs generates multitude of negative consequences for the addict's family, on the friends, the neighbors, etc. Society: in the society it produces effects on the structure and organization of the same one (I increase of the demands in the services of health, increment of the civic insecurity for crimes against the property, witnesses of the organized crime through the nets of drug dealers. Effects of the drug in the family: Frequently the members of the family cease of acting in functional form when they are about fighting with the problems taken place by the drug in a to be wanted, some refuse that some problem exists, blocking their own feelings (in a same way that the addict to the drug). Another of the members of the family is about hiding the errors made by the addict to the drug. The concealment happens when a member of the family rescues the addict or he helps him in the obtaining of the
  7. 7. DRUGS PAGE 7 drug. One of the spouses maybe is about hiding the children the addiction to their couple's drug. SIGNS OF ADDICTION All addictions are diagnosable because its symptoms can be recognized and described. However, it is often difficult and costly to accept a person who has an addiction problem, which is why it's best to leave that addiction, is 'self-diagnosed'. Regrettably, the addict is usually the last in finding out his own problem, due to a denominated defense mechanism 'negation.' The 4 cardinal signs / symptoms of the addiction are: Obsession: The addictive behavior is, in general, urgent and obsessive. When it is addicted often one cannot think of another thing that it is not the drug, the way of getting it, the form of administering it, etc. In general, the addiction is lived as an obsession that will direct great part of its time, its energy and its attention. The lifestyle becomes monotonous and 'unimodal': everything rotates around the addiction, and the rest of people, things, interests, obligations... it passes to a secondary plan. Negative consequences: That makes that an addiction is a noxious addiction it is that becomes against oneself and of the other ones. At the beginning certain apparent bonus is obtained, the same as with a habit. But earlier than it takes their behavior begins to have negative consequences in their life. Control lack: The distinctive feature of the addictive behavior is that when being about controlling it, the will is insufficient. The substance or activities in question control the person, instead of being on the contrary. The false self-control perception is one of the big paradigms to understand the addictions. The addicts believe that they can control the drug: the quantity, the doses, the frequency, etc. however anything is more mistaken than this belief. To think that one possesses certain omnipotence in front of the drugs is an ingenuousness, and stiller when consumption antecedents already exist. If for people teetotallers it is difficult to control the ingestion of alcohol, for people that
  8. 8. DRUGS PAGE 8 have a consumption history and/or abuse of alcohol is very difficult to stop, to not say or to avoid a situation. Negation: As the addicts begin to accumulate problems (in the work, home, socially), inevitably they begin to deny two things: • That the drug or activity in question constitutes a problem that they cannot control • That the negative effects in their lives have some connection with the use of the drug or activity. As the negation it is a mental fictitious process, to deny the own addiction or their consequences means, literally, to be outside of contact with the reality. • The negation assumes many forms: • To deny absolutely: 'No, I don't have any problem' • To minimize: 'Not it is so serious' • To avoid the topic completely (to ignore it, to refuse to approach it or to deviate the attention to another topic) • To accuse others: 'Who this would not make in my situation' • To rationalize: 'Him mine is not so serious', 'I am not so hooked' TYPES OF ADDICTION Each substance takes place in the organism diverse effects, but these can vary according to its administration. It is necessary to consider that the use of any substance necessarily supposes the appearance of problems for the consumer. This use can be merely incidental, with an experimental objective or in a certain moment of the individual's history, and not to carry modifications in its personality, in the operation of its nervous system or in its lifestyle. The repetition of these experimental or incidental uses what you/they can lead to dependence. For general rule, the use and abuse of drugs can generate dependence due to the phenomenon of the neuroadaptation. This consists on a permanent (but reversible) change of the structure and operation of the neurons on which the effect s of the located drugs. In more complex levels, there are other mechanisms of adaptation: emotional, behavioral, cognitive, relational, etc. The changes that take place in a person for the use of drugs are not limited to the mere action of the substance on the nervous
  9. 9. DRUGS PAGE 9 cell, but rather it supposes a transformation that is defined in the mark of the relationship among the individual, the substance and the context. The consumption patterns are a group of variables that define the relationship between the individuals and self-administered substance. This way, you can consider:  What substance it is the main drug  How other drugs show up associate  Which the roads are for the one that are administered (oral, injected puff of smoke, inhaled, and others).  what is commonly consumed quantities  In what physical state the consumption takes place  If the administration takes place in form singular or in the mark group  In what period storm the consumption takes place  What you average of behavior they go associate  What norms and values exercise from cultural support to the consumption Experimental consumption It corresponds to the situations of contact initial with an or several substances, of which it can spend to an abandonment of the same ones or the continuity in the consumption. The adolescence is the stage in that most often this consumption type arises, although a high percentage doesn't backslide in the same one. The motivations can be several: curiosity, pressure of the group, attraction of that prohibited and of the risk, search of the pleasure and of that ignored, and I increase of the offer, among other. As evaluation indicators to define this consumption type is considered that the individual ignores the effects of the substance and that his consumption is carried out, generally, in the mark of a group that he invites him to prove it. Occasional consumption It is the intermittent use of the substances, without any fixed rhythm and with long intervals of abstinence. Among the main motivations facilitate the communication, the search of pleasure, relaxation, and to transgress the norms, among other. Some general characteristics that define this consumption type are: the individual continues using the substance in group, although it is able to carry out the same
  10. 10. DRUGS PAGE 10 activities without necessity of drugs; he already knows the action of the same one in his organism and for this reason it consumes it. Habitual consumption It supposes a frequent use of the drug. This practice can lead to the other consumption forms, depending on the substance, the frequency with which it is used, the person's characteristics, the environment that surrounds him, etc. Among the motivations expressed to maintain the use of the drugs they are: to intensify the sensations of pleasure; experience of belonging and need for recognition within it; to mitigate the solitude, the boredom, the anxiety; to reaffirm independence or aversion toward the society, and to reduce the hunger, the cold, the weakness or the fatigue. Some indicators that define this consumption form are: the fellow enlarges the situations in those that it appeals to the drugs; these are used so much individually as in group; his effects are perfectly well-known and looked for by the user. Since you have not lost control over their behavior, manifested to quit if unintentionally. Abusive consumption The individual needs the substance and all its life rotates around this in spite of the complications that it can cause it. Recurrent consumption of drugs that carries the nonfulfillment of obligations in the work, the school or at home (absences repeated or low yield; suspensions or expulsions of the school; I neglect of the children or of the obligations of the house). Recurrent use of drugs in situations in which it is physically dangerous (driving a car or operating machinery). Legal problems reiterated with the substance (arrests for scandalous behavior). Continued substance use despite recurrent social problems or interpersonal trouble caused or exacerbated by the effects of drugs (discussions with the wife about the consequences of the intoxication, physical violence, etc.). STAGES OF ADDICTION The drugs, all the drugs, present an expensive double. First appear with the positive, favorable image and that so much attracts to young and bigger. Later on, that face disappears. Quickly the drugs begin to be shown just as they are: pain, problems, misery and multiple dysfunctions.
  11. 11. DRUGS PAGE 11 In this duality that the drugs present part of the potential difficulty it resides to avoid new people to consummate them and abuse of them. If from the beginning, the prevailing face was the negative, the attractiveness and mystic that it surrounds the world of the drugs it would disappear. In many senses the addiction process has been compared with the one of beginning a relationship; but in this case it would be about an unhappy relationship. As we cross the successive stages, the commitment is intensified and the influence that exercises on the addict becomes stronger. In function of this analogy Dr. Arnold M. Washton in their book to Not Want is to be able to it establishes five stages in the addiction process. Amorousness The first experiences with the drugs usually leave a recorded mark. If this first contact has been pleasant, he takes place an amorousness or passionate attraction take the substance again or to carry out the activity. This distorted perception of the reality, however, it moves, it produces euphoria or it tranquilizes that makes increase the probability there to be a new taking or occasion to consume. It takes place a change of state of spirit that, in many cases, it is experienced at visceral (everything caused it by the logical alteration of the cerebral chemistry) level and that it generates that glare the same as one falls in love with a girl or boy. In the game, an initial strong gain increases the probabilities of acquiring addiction to the game. Betrayal However, what one glimpses during the honeymoon is not it that in fact obtains. With the step of the time, it is betrayed. This way, besides the deterioration suffered in the main spheres of their life, it is very probable that the addict is making things that he would not make usually, for maintain his addiction (to steal, to participate in other illicit activities). The artificial paradise that is promised in the previous phase turn into dark alleys filled with traps. The betrayal is real and the decline begins. In the ruin Now the addict should consume more and more to avoid that the growing feelings and negative states of spirit deepen in his conscience and to be about maintaining the positive effects that every time is smaller. It is developing tolerance and has to consume doesn't stop to obtain pleasure or relief but to avoid the uneasiness
  12. 12. DRUGS PAGE 12 associated to the syndrome of abstinence. The physical dependence created chemically by the action of the substance on the nervous system has captured the individual. Psychologically, the confrontation strategy developed up to now continues staying with that which, the problems far from being been solved increase even more. Trapped With the time, the addict arrives to a desperation state in his relationship with the substance or addictive activity, leaving aside everything the rest. He behaves of more and more impulsive way and uncontrolled prisoner of their addiction. This stage of the addictive relationship is a descent to the desperation and the personal destruction. The subservience to drugs does not allow truce and tends to self- perpetuate this spiral, unless something that stops it happens. The return nevertheless exists, although it is also a process hard and difficult. TREATMENT The treatment for the addiction consists on a series of clinical structured interventions in such a way that are useful to promote and to support the recovery of a person affected by the addiction toward a better quality of life. The treatment is individualized Each person is a human being different with different situations of life and different necessities. For this reason each treatment should be individualized so that the best thing is adapted possible to each person's contextual characteristics. To harness the person that will talk to the appropriate treatment is a key factor in the final success of the treatment, just as they indicate it the investigations recent envelope the topic (I Project MATCH) The treatment is a process The initial consultation, the evaluation, the diagnosis, the intervention and the treatment in themselves are parts of a process that not this fractured in stages but rather it is part of a continuum of care, where the phases transicionan so that some are overlapped others. To understand this reality is important to be able to take the relevant decisions at each moment of the process Principles about the treatment LEl National Institute of Alcohol and Drugs of USA have elaborated an excellent pamphlet on the treatment of which we recommend their reading. In this section we have picked up the beginning on the treatment that recojen the discoveries that
  13. 13. DRUGS PAGE 13 have been made through practices it clinic and the investigations about the treatment. Treatment Plan Design Keeping in mind the necessities and each person's individual characteristics the treatment plan is designed that should be product besides the consent of those implied in the process (usually the patient and the professional). This way one has a document it bases that it serves as guide for the changes that are had like goals of the recovery. In this section we study the details of the process of design of the treatment plan. Components of the treatment The components are modules or tools that are to our disposition to integrate them in the treatment plan. Here they show up the diverse classes of components that are usually used for the treatment of the addictions: 1. Picosociales components 2. Pharmacological components 3. Components of self-help 4. Alternative therapies The combination of these components can also be in function of the politicians of the treatment institution, the readiness in the area of the resource, of the patient's capacity to obtain the resource and of the disposition grade that the patient has to follow the medical recommendations. Principles of the Effective Treatments 1. Not there is a single treatment that is appropriate for all the people. It is very important to achieve an appropriate combination of the atmosphere type, the interventions and the services of treatments with the problems and the necessities peculiar of each individual, so that this person achieves the final success returning to work productively in the family, the work and the society. 2. The treatment should be easily available in all moment. Since addicted people to the drugs can have doubts on if to begin or not a treatment, is very important to take advantage of the opportunity when they indicate that they are clever to receive treatment. It can get lost to potential candidates for treatment if these treatments are not available immediately or if they are not easily accessible.
  14. 14. DRUGS PAGE 14 3. The effective treatment should embrace the person's multiple necessities, not only its use of drugs. To be effective, the treatment should go to the use of the person's drugs besides any medical, psychological, social, vocational and legal other problem. 4. The plan of the patient's treatment should be continually evaluated and, of being the case, modified to assure that the plan stays at the same time with the changes in the person's necessities. A patient can require combinations of services and components of treatments that vary during the course of her treatment and recovery. Besides the advice or psychotherapy, the patient can sometimes need medications, other medical services, family therapy, instruction to be better parents, vocational rehabilitation and social and legal services. It is essential that the treatment form is appropriate for the age, the sex, the ethnic group and the patient's culture. 5. So that the treatment is effective, it is essential that the patient continues him during an appropriate period of time. The appropriate duration of the treatment for a person depends on its problems and necessities. The investigations indicate that in most of the patients you begin to see a significant improvement after three months of treatment. When you arrive to this point, the additional treatments can achieve a quick recovery. Since many people frequently leave the treatment prematurely, the programs should include strategies that commit and maintain the patient’s low treatment. 6. The individual therapy or of group and other types of behavior therapies constitute critical components of the effective treatment for the addiction. During the therapy, the patients treat their motivation problems, they develop abilities to reject the use of the drug, they replace activities where the drugs are used by constructive and useful activities in those that the use of drugs doesn't enter, and they improve their aptitudes to solve problems. The behavior therapy also facilitates the interpersonal relationships and it improves the individual's ability to work inside the family and of the community. 7. For many patients, the medications form an important element of the treatment, especially when they combine with the different therapy types. Methadone and levo-alpha-acetyl (LAAM) they are very effective to help those addicted individuals to the heroine and other narcotics to stabilize their lives and to reduce the use of illegal drugs. The naltrexona is also an effective medication for addicted people to the opium and for some patients that at the same time suffer from dependence to the alcohol. For addicted people to the nicotine, the products
  15. 15. DRUGS PAGE 15 that replace to the nicotine (as the patches or chewing gums) or an oral (as the bupropión) medication can be component effective of their treatment. While the combination of treatments and of medications it can be of supreme importance for patient with mental dysfunctions. 8. In the case of individuals with addiction problems or abuse of drugs that at the same time have mental dysfunctions, it should be the two problems in an integrated way. As often addiction dysfunctions and mental dysfunctions are come in oneself individual, those patients that present anyone of the two conditions should be evaluated and treaties for the simultaneous presence of the other dysfunction type. 9. The medical detoxification is only the first stage of the treatment for the addiction and for itself recently to change the long term use of drugs. The medical detoxification manages the physical sharp symptoms of the syndrome of the abstinence that happen carefully when one stops to use some drug. Although the detoxification for itself rarely is enough to help addicted people to achieve long term abstinence, for some individuals it is good as a strongly suitable precursor for the effective treatment of the drug addiction. 10. The treatment doesn't have to be voluntary to be effective. The treatment process can be facilitated thanks to a strong motivation. The sanctions or the prizes inside the family, of the labor atmosphere or of the system of criminal justice they can increase the percentages of individuals that enter significantly and that they stay inside treatment programs for the drug addiction as well as the success of the same ones. 11. The possible use of drugs during the treatment should be constantly supervised. During the period of treatment they can have relapsed to the use of drugs. The objective supervision of the use of drugs and alcohol during the treatment, including analysis of the urine or other exams, can help the patient to resist their impulses of using drugs. This supervision class can also provide an early evidence of the use of drugs so that the plan of the patient's treatment can be readjusted. To give to know the results from the reports to the patients that register positively in the analyses of drugs, can serve as an important element in the supervision. 12. The treatment programs should include exams for the HIV / AIDS, the hepatitis b and c, the tuberculosis and other infectious illnesses, jointly with the necessary therapy to help the patients to modify or to change those behaviors that put to them or others in risk of being infected. The therapy can help the patients to
  16. 16. DRUGS PAGE 16 avoid behaviors of high risk. Can also help people that are already infected to manage their illness. 13. The recovery of the addiction can be a long term process and frequently it requires multiple beats of treatments. Just as in other chronic illnesses, the repetition in the use of drugs can happen during or after successful beats of treatment. The patients can require treatments lingering and multiple beats of treatments to be able to achieve the long term abstinence and a totally reestablished operation Participation in self-help programs during and after treatment provides support for maintaining abstinence. RECOVERY Treatment and Recovery: While the recovery is the process by means of which the addict stops his use and it produces positive changes in his lifestyle, the treatment is defined like a series of clinical structured activities that they are used with the purpose of helping the addict to recognize and to stop the active addiction; as well as to promote and to maintain the sustained recovery. It is necessary to clarify the relationship among these two processes that behave in a harmonic and coordinated way. The recovery is it stops a lifetime and its objective is the one of improving the quality of the addict's life in recovery. The treatment this defined to a period of time, although it could be several necessary treatment sessions throughout the addict's life. The objective of the treatment is to be able to attend the patient to achieve its recovery. The family intervention is a procedure directed to be able to help the addict to make the enter decision in recovery. This intervention should be guided by a trained professional and it is based on the power of the family like group of positive pressure. The clinical intervention can also be effective to begin the recovery process. Many times the first contact with the treatment makes it the addict to treat some secondary complication to the use. For example a sharp gastritis in the alcoholism, or a venereal illness in the addict to the sex. If in that moment the appropriate addiction diagnosis is made it is more probable than a recommendation of specific treatment is made for the addiction. But many times the diagnosis is not made by
  17. 17. DRUGS PAGE 17 the lack of training that exists in the professions of help in this area of the treatment of the addictions. It is advisable to be advised with a professional of the addiction that is trained in this area and fulfill the requirements to be able to be of help. Even so it is not necessarily indispensable the intervention professional because many addicts recovers without necessity of having contact with the system of health. It even exists a lot of ignorance in the professional community about the topic of the addiction, but there is also a population, every time but big, of professionals that are committed with the training, the upgrade and the quality of the necessary attention to work in the area of the treatment of the addictions. On the other hand, it is necessary to keep care and since wisdom, there is always a sector of humbugs that take advantage of the desperation of the families that suffer of the addiction to deceive with false promises or magic "cures." Not quick or magic "cures" exist; the simple one made of proposing them denotes a gross ignorance of the topic. That attitude is also in fact the center of the mental dynamics of the addiction: the obsessive search of the quick arrangement, the magic substance, the person, place or thing that it will "fix" us the life The treatment of the addictions should be integral, systemic and strategic approaching the biggest quantity in levels possible: personal, family, work, social, etc.; and it should be kept in mind to the person in an integral and complete way. The psychosocial changes are the focus where the biggest quantity in treatment energy will be invested, because it is there where the possibility of constructive change is bigger. The therapeutic different tools can and they should be used in an integral way and keeping in mind each person's special necessities, but never as substitute of the psychosocial treatment. Not they exist better treatments that other but rather each person has different necessities and each treatment modality offers different possibilities. Each plan of individual treatment should be based on the severity of the addictive process, the person's individual characteristics and the situation of psychosocial operation in that moment. The groups of self-help are treatment modalities that have been successful throughout the time and they are always advisable especially in the maintenance stage.
  18. 18. DRUGS PAGE 18 The studies demonstrate that a balanced plan made up of attendance to groups of self-help and professional tracing, it is the most effective therapy, in the patients that don't need to be interned. Stages of the Recovery The recovery process can be divided in stages, for its study and understanding. These stages are based on the evolutionary "pattern of the recovery" of Gorski. Each one of these stages takes I get a basic necessity of the recovery process, and it is associated to a series of tasks that assure that the recovery stays in March. 1. Transition: In this stage the basic task is to allow going the control necessity on the use, either of substances, in the chemical addictions, or of addictive behaviors in the behavioral ones. 2. Stabilization: In this phase the whole energy is focused in recovering of the harmful effects that the compulsive use has had about the person's life in recovery. 3. Early Recovery: In this phase the first internal changes take place, of thought, feelings and attitude with regard to the use. 4. Half Recovery: Here the external changes take place. The repair of the lifestyle damaged by the addiction and the development of a healthier and balanced lifestyle. 5. Advanced Recovery: This stage this defined one for the overcoming of the emotional matters and pending relatives that come from the upbringing, childhood and adolescence. 6. Maintenance: This stage is based on the capacity to maintain a balanced life and a personal continuous growth. All these stages overcome some to other and an exact definition that separates some of other, doesn't really exist but they work to be able to be located in the pertinent tasks to the moment that one lives in the recovery. The Relapse Process The addiction, as chronic illness is associated with a natural tendency to the relapse. That doesn't mean that it is unavoidable or appropriate to have relapses, but rather they are a reality, and the best form of preventing them, it is accepting the risk and knowing the process of the relapse well, also syndrome called relapse. One of the most common misconceptions is that relapse is just around the use. Although this is partially certain, in fact is called relapse to the whole process (1) that takes from a state of sustained abstinence (2), until the consumption or active
  19. 19. DRUGS PAGE 19 addiction (3). This process happens throughout the time (4) and it is manifested like a series of symptoms or changes that are in fact regressions to the old behavior patterns and thought that had already been overcome. Usually this process this formed by risky small decisions (5) that the person takes, and that, connected some with other, go taking to build the one on the way to the relapse. These small decisions, calls also "decisions of relative" risk (5), they are seemingly without importance, but their effect is accumulative and they go taking to the addict toward a situation impossible to resist (7), where it will be unavoidable the use, because the susceptibility margins are surpassed. An imaginary line, or no-return line exists (6) after which is not possible to give it goes behind to the search behavior and the use is imminent. Even this way in the transition area among the line of I don't return and the use, the relapse is primarily behavioral and of attitude, without has still happened the use. Definition of the Relapse The relapse is defined as the setback process to the behavior patterns and typical thought of the active addiction that had been overcome already, and that finally they take from turn to the use, going back until arriving from turn to the state of addictive illness that existed before beginning the recovery. To be able to speak of relapse a person it should have been previously in recovery, that is to say abstinent and with behavior changes, for a significant period of time. For the simple one made of not having used for a while, using again, it is not necessarily a relapse. It could be about alternating consumption episodes, in a period of active addiction. Although a relapse can be dangerous and it is translated finally in suffering and loss of time and energy, the relapses are sometimes also periods of learning, for a person that wants to recover. In spite of aware of their problem being and of having good disposition for the recovery, an addict can relapse, but it manages the situations of risk well or he neglects his process of changes. After a relapse it is but probable that the addict this clearer one in that you sew has been making bad. It is not even this way necessary to relapse to be able to learn or to advance in the recovery. Symptoms of a Relapse A person in recovery can begin to show symptoms of a relapse a lot before the consumption. To be able to identify these symptoms and to treat those on time can help to prevent a relapse:
  20. 20. DRUGS PAGE 20 1. I return of the obsessive thought with regard to the use: They could be relative thoughts to the use, dreams or desires of using that they return after they had disappeared. 2. Challenge attitude with regard to the recovery plan: To return to the places of risk, see people related with the use again. 3. Neglect the recovery plan: To stop to go to meetings, or to miss appointments with the therapist, to stop to read or to exercise. 4. Isolation or contact loss: with the new recovery relationships. 5. Irritability: especially in the addict's significant relationships. 6. Obsession with the image or the physical defects: excessive diets, excessive concern about the weight. 7. Depression feelings and floating anxiety: emotional uncomfortable states that are not necessarily related with any external event happen. 8. Reborn or the resentments are exalted toward other people. 9. Frequent discussions in the home and the family. 10. Defensiveness to talk about his recovery or to be fed back. 11. Insomnia, uneasiness and difficulty to rest. 12. Preoccupation obsessive for the money and for the financial security. These are alone some of the symptoms related to the syndrome of the relapse. Each person is different and therefore will show typical symptoms, but in general is markedly notable the presence and evolution of this syndrome. One of the paradoxes of the relapse is that while but marked they are the symptoms, less capacity has the addict to be able to accept the constructive critics of people that surround it, and that they could worry about the possibility of a relapse. OVERDOSE What is an overdose? The overdose is a natural reaction of the body in front of an excess of drugs, or a combination of them. When that happens, your body loses the capacity to tolerate the drug: you lose the knowledge, you stop to breathe, for the heart or you have convulsions. All these things can cause you the death. But the overdose doesn't have why to be mortal! Any person that uses drugs can suffer an overdose: both those who use them for the first time who have used them for long. There are many factors that can cause an overdose, and many of them don't have to do with the drugs. The problems of health, the depression or the lack of self- esteem, lack of appropriate housing, the illegality or the shortage of drugs and the lack of syringes don't have an immediate solution. It is important to recognize the
  21. 21. DRUGS PAGE 21 existence of these problems and to think how and why you use them. This can lead to a less dangerous use of the drugs. This pamphlet is about simple measures to reduce the risk of an overdose. Also explains what one can make to save the life of somebody that has taken an excessive dose of drug. As it happen the overdose The cause more common of death for overdose is the mixture of drugs (as heroine, pills and alcohol). The drugs that take their effects jointly can increase. The sedative or depressive (drugs that calm down), increase the risk of to lose the knowledge and to stop to breathe. The stimulants (drugs that hurry and they excite), the risk of convulsions or attacks increase to the heart. • Avoid mixing the drugs that have the same effects, as the heroine with other depressive (for example, alcohol, Xanax or clonopina) ones or cocaine with other stimulants (for example, amphetamines and ecstasy). If you plan to drink alcohol and also to use heroine, it uses smaller quantities, it uses the heroine and wait first before drinking. If you use heroine first and then you drink throughout several hours, your body has the opportunity to eliminate part of the heroine before begin the effects of the alcohol. Also, you will have the clear mind to measure heroine's dose. (The same thing happens with the sedative or depressive). Tolerance has much to do with the overdose. When using a drug for the first time, your body is not used to it. If you stop using drugs for a while, were you in jail or in a detoxification program your tolerance low and your body can not tolerate the same amount as tolerated?  Although no drug use or just for a few days, your body can react to them as the first time that did you use. By measuring your dose takes into consideration if your health has deteriorated or has lost weight. Decrease the dose.  It uses the drug so that makes you more slowly effect, for example, aspiring heroine or cocaine instead of injecting you.  It uses your drugs in a person's company that knows what to make in case you lose the knowledge. If you are alone, warn to a friendship so that it is pending of you.  Learn as much about the drugs you plan to use, you may now be stronger than the last time I used them.
  22. 22. DRUGS PAGE 22  Care if you will use a new drug, because it is difficult to determine the appropriate dose. Use it in a person's company that has had experience with that drug. Consuming too much drug in a short time can cause you an overdose, since the drugs accumulate in the body.  Hopes the drug makes you effect before using more. You could saturate to your organism if doesn't give enough time.  Buy only what you will use. If you buy but of what you will use, it is about hiding the excess in some side, for example, with a friend that is not user.  It is about controlling the quantity that you use. While but you use, the quantity of drugs increases in your body.  You control the preparation and the administration, you are the only one that you know how much you can tolerate. The control of the quality doesn't exist for the illicit drugs. Especially if you buy of a different salesperson every day, you never know what you are buying. The purity of the drugs that are sold in the street varies day by day. Often, they mix them with other cheaper drugs that can be dangerous.  Examine or buy all the drugs.  If you have doubts on what you have just bought, and in general you inject yourself, first aspire a little. Or otherwise:  Inject you a small quantity to see how powerful it is the drug that you bought.  If you got something particularly strong, tell your friends. If you obtain your needles in a program of exchange of syringes, ask them to notice people putting an announcement about the danger that is causing that drug.  It is about buying to a salesperson regularly in which you can trust. Speaks with other buyers and asks them about the quality of the product. The changes of health can place you in overdose risk. To be sick or to get off weight affects your tolerance and the capacity of your body to be adjusted to the drug.  It uses less quantity when you are sick or recovering of an illness.  If you have gotten off weight it uses less to determine how much you need.  In general the women weigh less than the men. If you are woman and you will use drugs with a man, make sure that this one took into account when the dose is measured for you.
  23. 23. DRUGS PAGE 23  Take care, eats and sleeps well, drinks abundant quantities of fruit juices and it dilutes, and it visits the doctor at least once a year. Consuming to alone the probability of a mortal overdose increases, because there is not anybody that is in charge of you when you lose the knowledge. It is about consuming in people of trust company, and talks with them about a plan in the event of overdose (see below).  It organizes a support system with people that know that you use drugs. When you plan to use them to alone, leave it to him to taste like this people of trust and ask them to be in charge of watching over you.  If you are alone and that will suffer an overdose, calls at the 911 or one of your friendships, while you can make it.  If you use drugs too alone you don't put the insurance to the door, so that the paramedics or your friends can enter in the event of being necessary.  Thinking each step well when using drugs can decrease the probabilities of having an overdose and the errors that cause the same one can diminish. TYPES OF DRUGS COCAINE It is a contained alkaloid in the leaves of the bush "Erythroxylon coca" being chemically a derived of the latropina. It is a cerebral extremely potent stimulant, of similar effects to the amphetamines. Also is an energetic vasoconstrictor and local anesthetic, being absorbed by the mucous ones nasal when it aspires it to him, it is metabolized in the liver and it is eliminated by the urine. In the decade of 1980, the experiments on consumption patterns and quantities certified their effects on the adrenaline, very related with the aggressiveness. The consumption of this substance is related closely with criminal facts and of violence. In the two útimas decades there was an enormous increment in the quantity from addicted people to the cocaine, standing out you like significant fact the simultaneous addiction to other substances. The consequences of their consumption are complex, involving damages of very diverse nature: cerebral, social, family, environmental, etc. The cocaine stimulates the nervous central system, acting directly on the brain. Their physiologic immediate effects are: sweating, increase in the muscular power, mydriasis, increment of heart activity and sanguine pressure, dilation of the sanguine outlying glasses, convulsions, and increase in the breathing rhythm and of the corporal temperature. These symptoms can provoke the death for heart unemployment or breathing flaws. They also show up irritations and ulcers in the
  24. 24. DRUGS PAGE 24 mucous one nasal. Commonly it causes nasal congestion that can show up or not with secretion it liquidates. The use for via injectable it exposes the addict to infections of AIDS, hepatitis B and C, tetanus and other illnesses infectious. The infection with the HIV can take place for direct transmission of virus when sharing needles and other polluted devices. Also, it can take place indirectly for prenatal transmission to a boy whose mother is infected with the HIV. The use and abuse of illicit drugs, including the crack and the cocaine, has transformed into the main factor of infection risk with the virus HIV. Added it, the hepatitis C is spreading quickly among the addicts that are injected; the infection index varies between the 65 and 90 percent in this group of people, according to the country. Until today, has not been discovered a vaccine against the virus of the hepatitis C, and the available only treatment is expensive, many fruitless times and with collateral serious effects. The cocaine is an extremely addictive drug whose effects are perceived in a lapse of 10 seconds and they last around 20 minutes. It acts directly on the cerebral centers in charge of the sensations of the pleasure. Given their high capacity to produce damages and until cellular destruction, the sensations that were pleasant in recently initiate fellows transform into unpleasant effects as agitation, cry, irritability, visual, auditory and tactile type hallucinations, paranoid delirium, amnesia, confusion, phobias or limitless terror, anxiety, stupor, serious depression and suicidal tendencies. The psychic effects recognized by most of the authors and picked up in recent publications they include euphoria, uncertainty, increase of the verbal communication and of the security in oneself, restlessness, anorexy, insomnia and hypomania. The addict experiences loss of interest and impossibility of feeling pleasure before the lack of the substance. This way, the cocaine transforms into the only objective and reason in the addict's life, displacing all type of feelings. The relationship with the criminal phenomena is specifically mentioned by the authors, associating its consumption to the bias to the crime. Cocaine is consumed by many different types of subjects and motifs. Consumers are subject to occasional weak and unstable personalities who develop psychological dependence quick. The cocaine has conditions that trigger that may be the strengthening of an insecure personality, which receives support in stimulating toxic. Instead of treating this pathological deficit or antidepressant drugs mood stabilizers are used to track fast apparently. The usual addicts are tolerant and require higher doses to achieve the same results. To this can be reached for various reasons but always related to family factors, social and environmental determinants.
  25. 25. DRUGS PAGE 25 Since the effects of cocaine exceeded its peak at thirty minutes, the individual requires several doses throughout the day to achieve some emotional stability and avoid dysphonic effect that causes the drug itself after several hours of ingestion. HEROINE The heroine is an addictive drug whose use constitutes a serious problem in the United States. Recent studies suggest that there has been a change in the form in that the heroine is used, passing of being injected it to inhale it or to smoke it, because now a heroine of more purity is gotten and that prevails the erroneous concept that these employment forms are safer. The heroine is a derived of the morphine, a substance that happens naturally and is extracted of the acorn of the poppy or Asian poppy. The heroine generally appears in form of white or brown powder. The street names related with this drug include "pasta", "H", white" "lady, white" "powder and "lenguazo" in Spanish and "smack", "H", "skag", and "junk" in English. Other names refer to heroine's type taken place in a geographical specific area, as "Mexican black tar (black "Mexican tar")." Dangers for the health The heroine's abuse is associated with serious consequences for the health, including the mortal overdose, the spontaneous abortion, and the occlusion of the veins and, particularly in the case of the users that inject it to him, infectious illnesses, including the HIV / AIDS and the hepatitis. The short term effects of the heroine's abuse appear soon after of the first dose and they disappear in some few hours. After heroine's injection, the user says to feel a bud of euphoria (a "rush") accompanied by a warm flushing of the skin, dry mouth and heaviness in the extremities. After this initial euphoria, the user passes to a sensation of being flying ("on the nod"), a state in that it is alternated among being totally awake and the sleepiness. The mental abilities are upset due to the depression of the nervous central system. The heroine's long term effects appear after having used the drug repeatedly for some period of time. The chronic users can suffer occlusion of the veins, infection of the endocardium and of the valves of the heart, abscesses, cellulitis, and illnesses of the liver. They can have lung complications that include several pneumonia types as a result of the not well state of health of the junkie one, as well as for the heroine's effects depressors on the breathing. The heroine's abuse during the pregnancy jointly with their related (for example, the lack of prenatal cares) many environmental factors, has been related to
  26. 26. DRUGS PAGE 26 adverse consequences including a first floor weight when being born, a factor of important risk for subsequent delays in the development. Besides the effects of the same drug, the heroine that is sold in the street can have preservatives that are not dissolved easily and they cause an obstruction in the sanguine glasses that go to the lungs, to the liver, to the kidneys or the brain. This can cause infection or until the death of small groups of cells in these vital organs. The Net of Alert about the Abuse of Drugs (DAWN, for their initials in English) * it registers the heroine / morphine among the four drugs mentioned with more frequency in the cases of deaths related to drugs in the one 2002. In the whole country, the mentions of visits to the emergency rooms related with the heroine stayed without statistical change among the 2001 at the 2002, but they have increased 35 percent from 1995. The tolerance, the addiction and the abstinence The heroine's regular use produces tolerance to the drug, what means that the user has to use a bigger quantity of heroine to obtain the same intensity of the effect. This use of higher dose takes with the time to the physical dependence and the addiction. With the physical dependence, the body adapts to the presence of the drug and it can suffer the symptoms of the syndrome of abstinence if the use decreases or discontinued. The syndrome of abstinence that in the abusive ones habitual it can happen as quick as at the few hours of the last administration of the drug, it provokes a vehement desire to use heroine, agitation, pains in the muscles and in the bones, insomnia, diarrhea, vomit, chills with hen ("cold turkey" or to "break in cold") skin, movements in form of kicks ("kicking the habit") and other symptoms. The main symptoms of this syndrome reach their maximum point between the 48 and 72 hours after the last dose and they calm down after approximately one week. Although the syndrome of abstinence of the heroine is considered less dangerous than that of the alcohol or that of the barbiturates, occasionally it can be mortal when a junkie one with a strong dependence to the drug and in not well state of health leaves it abruptly. MARIHUNA The cannabis sativa is a wild bush that grows in temperate and tropical areas, being able to arrive a height six meters, being extracted of its resin the hashish. Their more outstanding component psychoactive is the delta-9- tetrahidrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), containing the plant more than sixty related components. Wastes away preferably puff of smoke, although they can be carried
  27. 27. DRUGS PAGE 27 out infusions, with different effects. A cigarette of marijuana can contain 150 mg. of THC, and to arrive until twice as much if it contains oil of hashish, that which can take to the syndrome of abstinence according to some authors if wastes away between 10 and 20 days. The tolerance is credited, being crossed when wastes away jointly with opiate and alcohol. Regarding the dependence, it is considered primarily psychic. The characteristic symptoms of the intoxication are: anxiety, irritability, tremors, insomnias, very similar to those of the benzodiazepines. It can show up in different consumption modalities, be in leaves that are smoked directly, in resin of the bush or in removed oil of this last. Of the modality in that shows up the drug their denomination it will depend: "marijuana" is the name of the leaves of the crumbled hemp that after drying off and to be treated can be smoked (it is also known as "grass", "marijuana", marijuana", "speck", "mafú", "grass", "maría", "mount", "moy", "coffee", "chocolate", "chala", etc.; in English knows it to him as: "pot", "herb", "grass", "weed", "Mary Jane", "reefer", "skunk", "boom", "gangster", "kif", "ganja", etc.); their effect is approximately five times minor that that of the hashish. The name "hashish" derives (also well-known as "hashis") of the (hashiscins) Arabs that combatted in the crusades among the years 1090 and 1256. The hashish is obtained of the inflorescence of the female hemp, resinous substance that shows up in form of compact sheets with a characteristic scent. The marijuana is the most frequent form, containing from 0,3 to 3,5% of THC; the concentration of THC arrives to 10% in the hashish, being its diverse effect according to factors like the speed with which one smokes, the duration of the inhalation, inhaled quantity, time that the consumer retains the breathing after inhaling and the fellow's psychic state. The oral consumption, so much of marijuana as of hashish, it implies psychological similar effects to those expressed in the smoked form but of bigger intensity and duration and with noxious developed effects. Therapeutically sought advice for insomnia treatments and as sedative for the pain. It was also prescribed for therapies of nervous pathologies, as well as for the treatment of the cough, tremors in compulsive paralysis, bladder spasms and sexual impotence that it doesn't come from organic illness. Likewise it was recommended as aphrodisiac, antineuralgic, tranquilizer for maniac-depressive, antihysteric, tonic cerebral, I remedy for the nervous vomit, epilepsy and nervous illnesses. These recommendations were dissuaded later on unanimously by the medicine, being at the present time only in study the legalization of a derived pharmacy of this substance to mitigate the pains in sick cancerous. This therapeutic employment has created deep polemic. At the present time, the scientists sustain that the marijuana cannot be considered medication in none in the ways in that it is consumed by the addicts. When treating their possible use as
  28. 28. DRUGS PAGE 28 medication, is distinguished between the marijuana and pure THC and other specific derived chemists of the cannabis. The pure marijuana contains hundred of chemical, extremely harmful some of them to the health. THC in pill form for oral (it is not smoked) consumption could be used in the treatment of the side effects (you nauseate and vomit) effects in some treatments against the cancer. Another chemist related with THC (nabilone) has been authorized by "Food and Drug Administration" of United States for the treatment of the cancer sick persons that suffer nauseas. In their oral form, THC is also used in sick of AIDS, because it helps them to eat well and to maintain its weight. The scientists study the possibility that THC and other chemists related with the marijuana have certain medicinal values. Some think that these chemists could be used in the treatment of the severe pain, but it is necessary to have more evidence before using them for the treatment of medical problems. The available modalities of marijuana to the youths are more potent than those that existed in the decade of the'60. He owes it to that the secret laboratories of the traffickers have been able to carry out changes at genetic level in the cannabis sophisticated mediating biotechnology methods, being in a bigger concentration of THC. The power of the drug is measured according to the quantity average of THC that is in the samples of marijuana that confiscate the police agencies. The common marijuana contains an average of 3, 5% of THC. The hashish (gummy resin of the flowers of the female plants) can have until 28% of THC. The oil of hashish, a resinous liquid and I thicken that is distilled of the hashish, has an average of 16% of THC, but can end up having up to 43%. HASHISH It is elaborated pressing the resin of the plant female cannabis. As this vegetable in fact concentrates their active ingredients on the resin, the content of THC of a dose of hashish is superior to the one of one of marijuana without to process that is located in little more than 10%. The cannabis oil or of hashish it is obtained mixing the resin of the plant with some solvent as nail polish remover, alcohol or gasoline. Of this, a certain one leaves evaporates, giving place to a viscous mixture whose proportions of THC are very high (until 50%). The techniques applied to improve the cultivations of marijuana make that today contained THC in these plants is much more powerful that in previous decades. To this sinks that, at the present time, most of the marijuana that the traffickers sell comes pressed with chemical solvent preservatives as kerosene or benzene, what produces more severe damages.
  29. 29. DRUGS PAGE 29 Other denominations: Hash, chocolate. Aspect The hashish has the aspect of a bar of pressed mud, of brown very dark color, as the chocolate. Occasionally, shows up in pills. Administration road As much the Marijuana as the Hashish are inhaled and they ingest. The marijuana is generally smoked, in cigarettes made by hand or in specially designed (sometimes with canes long or small deposits of water to cool the fume that usually reaches high temperatures) pipes. Also eats up (in cakes or cookies). The hashish is smoked blended with tobacco. Effects / Risks The effects are of quick appearance and they vary according to the dose, the cannabis type and the individual's psychic and physical state that it consummates it. Immediate effects: Initially, low dose can produce pleasant sensations of calm and well-being, increase of the appetite, euphoria, desinhibición, concentration loss, decreased reflexes, like talking and laughing, red eyes,, acceleration of the heart rhythm, dryness in the mouth and throat, difficulty to execute mental complex (to surrender an exam, for example) processes, alterations of the temporary and sensorial perception, and it can diminish the short term memory. To it continues to a second depression phase and drowsiness. In high dose, it can provoke confusion, lethargy, excitement, anxiety, altered perception of the reality and, of more unusual way, wonderful states and hallucinations. Long term: It highlights the very discussed "syndrome amotivational ", (decrease of the personal initiative) together to a frequent drop of the concentration capacity and memorization. The chemical structure of the cannabis is very complex and the sequels taken place by all their components are not still known. Yes one can affirm that the fume of this plant contains carcinogens more agents than the tobacco, and as the smokers of marijuana or hashish they inhale the fume deeply without filtering and
  30. 30. DRUGS PAGE 30 they retain it in the lungs so much time as they can, the cannabis is still more noxious for the breathing system than the tobacco. Their use has also associated to the appearance of illnesses like sinusitis and bronchitis. We can also, to cause alterations in the reproductive masculine and feminine (infertility, for example) and immunologic systems, and as THC it crosses the barrier and mammary, their consumption supposes a risk for the fetus as much during the pregnancy and lactation. It can generate tolerance and dependence, with the consequent syndrome of abstinence (link to page where it is explained) in case it is suspended the use of the drug abruptly. This becomes in anxiety, insomnia, irritability, depression and anorexia, among other symptoms. It is proven the potential of cannabis as a trigger of psychosis and delusions and hallucinations boxes in people at risk. Not all cannabis user will necessarily experience with other more dangerous substances, but the risk exists. Also, it is the danger of to condition or to limit the possibilities to live free and autonomously the personal development in the adolescents. Also believe a psychological dependence: the user feels like the drug for his effects. ECSTASY The metilendioximetanfetamina (MDMA) (also well-known as "ecstasy", "ectasi", "XTC", "chalk", "glass", "X", etc.) is a drug synthetic psychoactive with hallucinogenic properties of moving great potential and psychological agitator, with similar effects to the amphetamines. It is a dangerous drug in end for their properties neurotoxic and high addiction, affecting to diverse areas of the nervous central system. Their production is carried out in secret laboratories starting from matters cousins relatively easy of getting. Of white color, without scent but with bitter flavor, shows up in form of tablets, capsules or powdered crystalline that is dissolved in liquids, being able to be drunk, ingested or injected. Their consumers are mainly young adults that look for in her a stimulant that takes them to dance during extensive periods of time (hence it usually denominates them to him "disk- drugs", "club-drugs", "dance-drugs", etc.). During the years sixty were used with therapeutic ends since according to certain sectors of the psychiatry helped to the communication and the treatment of phobic neurosis Then came the controversial medical - legal, attributing to their consumption impacts on crime,, for that finally was illegalized.
  31. 31. DRUGS PAGE 31 The ecstasy produces potential great agitator's whose duration fluctuates between the 3 and the 6 hours from its consumption psychic effects. Initially the fellow experiences sensations of trust and excitement, to those that it follows a hyperactivity state. The effects of the stimulant are diluted provoking psychological dysfunctions, confusion, problems with the dream (nightmares, insomnia), loss by heart, I want uncontrollable of consuming drugs, depression, violence, serious anxiety, psychosis and paranoia again. These effects even show up after several weeks of the consumption. Serious cases of psychosis were also informed. Among the physical symptoms they make an appointment: hiperpnea, tachycardia, anorexia, tension and muscular similar dysfunctions to the present in the illness of Parkinson, bruxism, nauseas, blurred vision, nystagmus, fainting, chills and excessive sweating, characteristic sign during the intoxication. It has been proven that the increase of the heart frequency and the arterial tension is causal of heart attacks and other dysfunctions cardiovascular. Forensic reports indicate that it is causal of sudden death. The Hyperactivity carries, besides the heart problems, hyperthermia, dehydration and renal flaws. The investigations demonstrate that MDMA destroys the neurons serotonin producers that regulate the aggression directly, the state of spirit, the sexual activity, the dream and the sensibility to the pain. It is probable that this action on the system producing of serotonin is the origin of the psychic properties. MDMA also keeps relationship in its structure and its effects with the methamphetamine, which has proven to cause degeneration of neurons containing the neurotransmitter substance dopamine. In laboratory experiments, a single exhibition to the methamphetamine in high dose or the use prolonged in low dose destroys until 50% of the cerebral cells. Although this damage is not immediately apparent, the scientific studies show that with the aging or the exhibition to other toxics symptoms of the illness of Parkinson can appear. These begin with coordination lack and tremors and to the long one they can cause a paralysis form. CRAK The crack is the popular name of the product that is obtained transforming the hydrochloride of cocaine into glasses or "rocks" by means of a chemical simple process. Instead of using the most volatile method in treatment of cocaine with ether, the crack is manipulated with ammonia or bicarbonate of sodium and it dilutes, it mixes that it is exposed to the fire to retire the hydrochloride the substance that is - similar
  32. 32. DRUGS PAGE 32 to the cocaine - it can be smoked. With this procedure a similar substance takes place to the cocaine that can be smoked. The term crack refers to the crack that one hears when the mixture warms, phenomenon in which mainly the bicarbonate of sodium would intervene. Other denominations: Rock, glass, baseball, Mrs. White, white snows, champagne, sugar. It points out historical The crack is considered a highly addictive drug. Their appearance is a recent phenomenon. In 1985, daily The New York Time mentioned "a new form of drug called crack" for the first time. One year later, this same publication affirmed that the crack was the biggest news after Vietnam and the North American former president's fall Richard Nixon. Other media ended up comparing the dispersion of this drug with the plagues that decimated the European population in the middle Ages. During good part of the decade of the 80, the drug dealers of San Francisco's bay, United States, sold tons from this drug to the gangs of the streets of The Angel. By means of the crack traffic, the street bands were able to obtain the money and the necessary connections to buy automatic weapons and to be made of the necessary infrastructure to sustain their illicit business. With this phenomenon it was that the first connection opened up for the most part between the posters of the Colombian drug and the neighborhoods black of Los Angeles, city well-known today like the world capital of the crack. Aspect The crack shows up in form of crystalline rocks of white or yellowish color. Administration road The crack is smoked and its consumers usually make it in glass pipes. Effects and Risks Immediate effects Euphoria. Stimulation of the nervous central system. Anxiety. Fear. Depression. Apathy.
  33. 33. DRUGS PAGE 33 It anguishes. In pregnant women, it can provoke deterioration of the fetus, to slow their growth in the uterus and premature childbirth, among other complications. Mouth dryness Sensation of ardor in the eyes Sweating Throbs Headache Muscular contractions I increase in the reflections. Dilation of the pupils Long term effects Irritability Insomnia Loss of weight Hypertension Heart arrhythmia Tremors Sexual indifference Chronic accesses of cough. Paranoia Visual miniaturized perceptions. Lung infections In pregnant women it can provoke fetal deterioration, I slow in the uterine growth, and I leave premature and other complications. AMPHETAMINES The consumption of this exciting one is broadly extended and distributed by all the social classes. Contrary to what happens to the cocaine that consume it preferably the sectors means and high, the amphetamines are consumed so much by executives that seek overexcitement like for housewives that look for an anorexic for their diets or for students that prepare exams. When impacting in the system orthosympathetic they cause hypertension, tachycardia, hyperglycemia, mydriasis, peripheral vasodilation, hyperpnoea, hyperoxia, etc. The state of the addict's spirit oscillates between the dystrophy and the hypomania, showing up anxiety, insomnia, migraine, tremors and vertigo. May appear paranoid depressive syndromes and amphetamine.
  34. 34. DRUGS PAGE 34 A normal dose, its effects vary by individual and intake conditions. They can produce pleasant effects, , hyperactivity and overflowing sensation of energy, but they also cause tremor, anxiety irritability, unmotivated and sudden anger, dysfunctions amnesiacs and incoherence. In the last phase depression, paranoid squares and paranoid deliriums, hallucinations and behavior dysfunctions are described. The consumption of amphetamines can lead to aggressive performances, the same as the barbiturates and the alcohol, for its great euphoric effect, coupled with a lack of control in the inhibitory instincts. Such situations take place when the given doses, usually intravenously over 2 gr. A bigger potential is demonstrated in the amphetamines that in the cocaine, so much in its more algid point as in the duration of the effects. React very serious they take place when consuming them with barbiturates in the well-known phenomenon of the pluritoxicomanía. Taken in important dose they are causing of confusion, tension, sharp anxiety and fear. Can also precipitate paranoid psychosis in no psychotic subject. The psychosis Amphetamine developed by the fellow resembles each other to the paranoiac psychosis and the paranoiac schizophrenia. INHALING Inside this group of substances they can make an appointment: 1) Adhesives: lines, toluene, xileno, nail polish remover, benzols, benzaldehido 2) aerosol-sprays-gases: propellant gases, nitrous oxide 3) Plastic cements: hexane 4) You pay of paintings and related: petroleum, butane, turpentine, paint thinner 5) Liquids for cleaning: xileno, benzol, ether of petroleum 6) Anesthetics: ethylic pure ether 7) Fuels: gasoline, naphthas 8) Thinner: halogenated hydrocarbons 9) Vasodilators: amyl nitrite, butyl nitrite, and many others The consumption of these substances presents sanitary serious problems. Their consumers are mainly marginal, especially children, although the addiction is also given with relative frequency in certain professional groups. The most frequent ages in the chronic use of inhaling are at the beginning or at the end of the adolescence. This owes you partly to the invitation or pressure on the part of the school partners and friends, curiosity and ignorance of the toxic effects and personal insecurity. The most important thing is the ignorance of the problem in the house and the negation of the parents that their children can have this problem.
  35. 35. DRUGS PAGE 35 The reasons of the consumption are due to the curiosity, boredom, and lack of stimuli, eradication and lack of ownership. In the case of the professionals, the habitual contact with the substances can create an involuntary addiction; the voluntary addiction is less frequent, although not exceptional. These products are generally easy to obtain and they are within reach of the addict, they are very cheap, and they don't specify of instruments for their use. Also, it is not necessary to contact a criminal to obtain them. Their use can be made in any place, they are easy to hide and difficult to detect. Another very important factor is the ignorance of the consequences and dangers of its use. These substances waste away in rural certain areas, I eat likewise in marginal atmospheres or of low resources, where they are from the few drugs to those that has easy access. It increases it the problem of a legal substance that is used in an incorrect way. The addiction to these substances is the previous step to other drugs, taking irreversible situations. This is usually ignored as much for the family as for the social environment, as these substances go unnoticed and are not related to addictions. There are three big groups of consumers: 1) children and excluded populations' adolescents that they consume in group; 2) adults that consent to the chemist for their profession or for association with people's groups with similar habits; 3) marginal adults that inhale the substances the same as the children, but in solitary. The family aspect is decisive to understand the phenomenon, there being you verified how the inhalers also present problems with the alcohol, being of a class half social drop and low, and with problems of family abandonment. TOBACCO The addiction to the derived products of the tobacco is the most extended. Their cultural acceptance considers in the first place to its consumption like a source of pleasure and in second as a simple bad habit or bad habit. It has been determined that the cigarettes and other products of tobacco, such as pure cigarettes, tobacco for pipe or snuff (powdered), they are addictive and that the nicotine is the drug of the causing tobacco of addiction. Also, it is known that the smoking is an important one causal of heart accidents and cerebrovascula, and it occupies the first places among the factors that provoke cancer. The nicotine provokes one of the most potent addictions, developing in the smoker a group of signs and symptoms denominated syndrome nicotinic. To bigger quantity of signs or symptoms present, bigger percentage of possibilities of being in front of an addicted nicotinómano.  Nicotinic Syndrome: signs and addiction symptoms to the nicotine  High consumption newspaper of cigarettes (15 or more per day)
  36. 36. DRUGS PAGE 36  To smoke cigarettes with high proportion of nicotine, dissatisfaction or increase from the consumption when changing to "soft" or "ligths"  Deep inhalation of the fume.  To smoke from the first hours of the day, or until the previous moment to the dream  To suffer compulsion smoking: not to support some few hours without smoking; to interrupt other tasks or entertainments to smoke or to buy cigarettes. The nicotine is an extremely addictive alkaloid that acts as stimulant and sedative of the nervous central system. Their ingestion has an almost immediate stimulus as a result because it produces a discharge of epinephrine of the suprarenal bark. This stimulates the nervous central system and some endocrine glands, what causes the sudden liberation of glucose. The stimulus goes followed by depression and it tires, situation that takes to the junkie one to look for more nicotine. The nicotine is absorbed with easiness of the fume of the tobacco in the lungs and it doesn't care if this fume comes from cigarettes or of pure. It is also absorbed easily when one chews the tobacco. With the regular use, they accumulate concentrations of nicotine in the body during the day that persist during the night. Therefore, people that smoke cigarettes to newspaper are exposed to the effects of the nicotine 24 hours a day. The nicotine absorbed when smoking cigarettes or cigars only takes seconds in arriving to the brain, but a direct effect in the body until for 30 minutes. The studies have shown that the nervous tension and the anxiety affect the tolerance to the nicotine and her dependence. The hormone taken place by the nervous tension or corticosterone reduces the effects of the nicotine, making necessary to consume bigger quantities to achieve the same effect. This increases the tolerance and it takes to a bigger dependence. It has been demonstrated scientifically that the tension can be the direct cause from a relapse to the self- administration of nicotine after a period of abstinence. This addiction produces symptoms of abstinence when a person is about stopping to smoke. Some reports indicate that when it is deprived of cigarettes during 24 hours to habitual smokers, it increases their anger and hostility, arriving to physical or psychic aggressions, and it diminishes the aptitude of social cooperation. People that suffer of abstinence also need more time to recover their emotional balance after the nervous tension. During the periods of abstinence or of longings of consuming nicotine, the smokers have shown reduction of a great quantity of functions psychomotor and cognitive, I eat the understanding of the language for example. The behavior studies in adolescents explain how the social influences, for example to observe adults and partners smoking, they influence in the adolescent's decision
  37. 37. DRUGS PAGE 37 of beginning to smoke cigarettes or not. It has also shown that the adolescents are usually resistant to many types of messages against the tobacco. Additionally, the problems affect at third that inhale the environmental fume of the tobacco (passive smokers). It has been demonstrated that this fume causes lung cancer and they increase the cases of asthmatic attacks, infections cardiorespiratory and sudden death significantly. ALCOHOL The causes of the alcoholism are very varied, there not being agreement scientist on this aspect. The cultural and biological-genetic factors explain great part of the pathology. This addiction affects to all the social classes, for what is not acceptable a theory that assists to the character sociocultural first floor as factor predisposing to the addiction, since in the high classes the consumption is extensive. Regarding the level of education is clear that lack of education and culture conditions the addiction, but of all the drugs. It cannot attribute him and unique explanation of the Addiction, since they influence social problems so varied as the crime, the family problems, the unemployment or the health. The addiction to the alcohol possesses cultural important aspects from the moment in that the consumption is licit and the minors, in spite of the prohibitions, don't have problem to consume it. The publicity and the permissibility increase the number of consumers. The alcoholic's profile etiology was made in diverse ways, assisting to biological, sociocultural, economic, environmental and psychological theories. The dynamic theories and psychopathological understand that the alcoholics arrive to the addiction conditioned by a previous pathology that unchain the phenomenon together to environmental situations. The family environment can be decisive: before the family distorted situation the fellow erects psychological defenses against the anxiety. On the other hand, the minors spread to follow the example of their adults. Other reasons of the alcoholism are the escape desires and of self- destruction, dice the great number of suicides that presents this illness. Important progress has been achieved in the understanding from the genetic bias to the alcoholism. Studies made on twins and siblings twins indicate that there is more than a gene responsible for this bias. The investigations have not deciphered the form in that the genes act exactly; it is still ignored if the genes are specifically decisive of the alcoholism, or if more generally interact on temperament increasing vulnerability. The success in the discovery of the genes involved in the bias to the alcoholism would help to recognize the vulnerable individuals, and would also help to prevent and to develop treatments against the alcoholism.
  38. 38. DRUGS PAGE 38 The effects of the alcohol are immediate because it is absorbed almost instantly, passing directly to the sanguine torrent. When arriving to the brain, it narcotizes the neurons hindering first and impeding the communication then among them. This takes place in first term in the regions of the brain in charge of the reasoning and other complex processes. As the alcoholization progresses the primitive regions they are affected. FLORIPONDIO Her name is Brugmansiavulcanicola and it is native of America of the South. One of their active principles is the hallucinogenic scopolamine Administration road: Oral. The leaves and milled flowers get ready in hot water or fry and takes as tea. Effects They include periods of violence and even temporary insanity. The hallucinations can be visual, auditory and tactile. It also provokes dilation of the pupils, increase of the pulse and the breathing, dry rhythm the mucous of the nose, mouth and throat. The effects begin between the 15 and later 30 minutes to their consumption they can last up to 72 hours. The lethal dose of scopolamine is near to the 100 mg; however, the exact dosage is not known that can contain a floripondio tea. Generally, a moderate dose is prepared with a flower, a high dose would be two to three flowers, but in this type of drug substances and there is no safe dose.
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  46. 46. DRUGS PAGE 46 Ecstasy Crack AMPHETAMINES