Lighting of Killzone: Shadow Fall

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The presentation describes Physically Based Lighting Pipeline of Killzone : Shadow Fall - Playstation 4 launch title. The talk covers studio transition to a new asset creation pipeline, based on physical properties. Moreover it describes light rendering systems used in new 3D engine built from grounds up for upcoming Playstation 4 hardware. A novel real time lighting model, simulating physically accurate Area Lights, will be introduced, as well as hybrid - ray-traced / image based reflection system.
We believe that physically based rendering is a viable way to optimize asset creation pipeline efficiency and quality. It also enables the rendering quality to reach a new level that is highly flexible depending on art direction requirements.

Lighting of Killzone: Shadow Fall

  1. 1. LightingKillzone : Shadow FallMichal DrobotSenior Tech ProgrammerGuerrilla Games
  2. 2. Intro Guerrilla Games is SCEE studio based in Amsterdam Working on two Playstation 4 titles: Killzone: Shadow Fall New IP Killzone: Shadow Fall is a launch tile Annouced during Playstation 4 reveal Running on target 1080p 30fps
  3. 3. Focus Physically Based Lighting Physically Based Area Lights Rendering Pipeline
  4. 4. Motivation Killzone 3 Shipped in 2011 Matured PS3 technology Considered one of generation visual benchmark titles Killzone : Shadow Fall Next generation launch title How does it compare?
  5. 5. Generation change
  6. 6. Motivation Physically Based Lighting Easier to achieve hyperrealism / photorealism Consistent look in different HDR environments Simple material interface for artists Easy troubleshooting and extension
  7. 7. Theory
  8. 8. Light Flux Irradiance = integrated light incoming from all directions (diffuse) Radiance = light incoming from one direction (specular reflection)Irradiance (E)Radiance (L)
  9. 9. Courtesy of ILMImage Based Lighting (IBL)
  10. 10. Courtesy of ILM
  11. 11. Courtesy of ILM
  12. 12. Physically Based Lighting Model Physically Based Shading Model Responsible for surface response to incoming light depending on varioussurface physical properties Physically Based Lights Responsible for light flux calculation in the scene depending on various lightswith physical properties
  13. 13. Physically Based Shading : Real lifeexamples Specular Dominant part of visible lighting Every material exhibits specular lighting Angle dependent Material type dependant
  14. 14. Real life lightingCourtesy of John HableDiffuse Specular
  15. 15. Real life lightingCourtesy of John HableDiffuse Specular
  16. 16. Real life lightingCourtesy of John HableDiffuse Specular
  17. 17. Real life lightingDiffuse Specular+Courtesy of John HableDiffuse Specular
  18. 18. BRDFDiffuseSpecularEye
  19. 19. Fresnel‘Rough’ReflectionRefraction
  20. 20. Non metals
  21. 21. Metals
  22. 22. Roughness‘Smooth’‘Rough’
  23. 23. Roughness‘Smooth’
  24. 24. Visibility / Self Shadowing
  25. 25. Energy ConservativeNon - Energy Conservative
  26. 26. Workflow 3 main parameters Albedo (RGB8) Roughness (R8) Specular Reflectance (RGB8) Material response Decoupled from Lighting Works in any light environment Review assets in different IBLlighting environments
  27. 27. Smooth(1.0)Rough(0.0)Diffuse
  28. 28. Material properties Measured values for most materials Available in physical tables Every material can be roughly definedby those parameters We provided them as Photoshopcolor swatches Base for hand painted textures
  29. 29. Use case Material Old iron plate Covered in paint Scratches Bullet holes Rust
  30. 30. Simplified Roughness textureThin old paint, scratched,showing off iron underneathDue weathering effects smoothenedR = HighPure rustR = very lowRusting metalR = mixed, sparkles ofmedium smooth metalBullet holeHigh temperature smoothens iron(due to impact energy)R = very highPure old paintR = medium
  31. 31. Simplified Specular Reflectance textureThin old paint, scratched,showing off iron underneathSR = Low IronPure rust, non metalSR = Low, non metalRusting metal,SR = Medium, non metal,Sparkles of Low IronBullet hole exposes pure IronSR = IronPure paintSR = Low, Medium, High non metal,Depends on paint typeOld paint = LowNew paint = Medium / High
  32. 32. Simplified Albedo textureWhite thin old paint, scratched,showing off iron underneathA = Dark gray (showing off metal)Pure rust,A = Rusty in range of old concreteBullet hole exposes pure IronA = Very dark (metal)White old paintA = White in albedo range of concrete(light gray)
  33. 33.  Shadow Fall BRDF Based on Cook-Torrance Fresnel Smith Schlick Visiblity Function Normalization based onSpecular Reflectance Roughness as SpecularImportance Cone Angle Approximate translucency Density maps Translucency diffusion maps
  34. 34. IBL Point Based BRDF
  35. 35. IBL Point Based BRDF – factor visualization
  36. 36. IBL Ambient BRDF – factor visualization
  37. 37. IBL Ambient BRDF
  38. 38. IBL Point Based BRDF
  39. 39. IBL Ambient BRDF
  40. 40.  Big step for the studio Artists had to adapt Training and workshops Production and Quality Win
  41. 41. Physically Based Lights
  42. 42. Blinn-Phong Point Light
  43. 43. Blinn-Phong Point Light
  44. 44. Area Lights Every light source Size Shape Intensity Art Photography Light Direction
  45. 45. Spherical Light
  46. 46. Disc Light
  47. 47. Rectangular Light
  48. 48. Texture Rectangular Light
  49. 49. Area Size and Intensity
  50. 50. ααpC0pC1d0d1pC0 > pC1, due to d0 > d1Result : pC0 blurier than pC1
  51. 51. Irradiance Integral DA : I(p,n) = Integrate(A) [L * cos(fi) * cos(fo) * dA / d^2] dA – differential area of the light L – luminance of light A – Area of the lightnp’pd n’fifo
  52. 52. npYX3D – Word SpaceX , Y – set the light frameRadiance Integral
  53. 53. 2D – projectedon light frameXY
  54. 54. 2D – projectedon light frameXYArea of integration
  55. 55. XYPDF to integrateOver Area
  56. 56. IES Light Profiles
  57. 57. IES Light Profiles
  58. 58. IES Light Profiles
  59. 59. Lighting Pipeline Overview
  60. 60. IBL Reflection System 3 Tier Reflection Raytrace system Realtime Glossy Reflections Localized Cubemaps Skybox
  61. 61. Localized Cubemaps
  62. 62.  Picture of pretty cubemap in cross with mips
  63. 63.  Picture of pretty cubemap in cross with mips
  64. 64. IBL Render PassBreakdown
  65. 65. Render Pass BreakdownBaked Lightmaps Diffuse + Dynamic Lights
  66. 66. Ambient BRDF
  67. 67. Cubemaps
  68. 68. Lightmap Diffuse + Dynamic Lights + Ambient BRDF * Cubemaps
  69. 69. Real Time Glossy Reflections
  70. 70. Real Time Glossy Reflections : Mask
  71. 71. Final composite of IBL based lighting
  72. 72. Render Pass Breakdown
  73. 73. Takeaway Physically Based Lighting Higher quality Faster asset production Asset reuse in different environments Physical Area Lights Time to say goodbye to point lights Easier workflow High quality results Real Time Reflections Important visual clue
  74. 74. We are hiring!www.guerrilla-games.com/jobs
  75. 75. References Real Time Rendering 3rd Edition by Tomas Akenine-Moller, EricHaines, Naty Hoffman Physically Based Rendering, Second Edition: From Theory ToImplementation by Matt Pharr Industrial Light & Magic John Hable blog - http://filmicgames.com/

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