Universidad Central del Ecuador
Facultad de Filosofía, Letras
y Ciencias de la Educación
Escuela de Idiomas
Nombre: Katherine Guerra
Curso: Quinto “A” Plurilingüe
Tema: Multiple Intelligences
Multiple Intelligences Theory
This theory was proposed by Howard Gadner in 1983 as a
model of intelligence that differentiates it into specific
"modalities", rather than seeing it as dominated by a single
general ability. Gardner articulated seven criteria for a
behavior to be considered an intelligence.
Gardner chose eight abilities that he held to meet these criterial:
1-musical - rhythmic
2.- visual - spatial
3- verbal - linguistic
4.- logical - mathematical
5.- bodily - kinesthetic
Multiple Intelligence Theory was developed in 1983 by Dr.
Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. It
suggests that traditional ways of testing for intelligence may be biased
to certain types of individuals. Think back to the good old school days.
Do you remember the girl who was always picked for the lead role in
musicals? Who could forget the boisterous class clown? Or whatever
happened to the boy who never stopped drawing detailed doodles of
cars and planes? Much like then, the perception still exists that
intelligence can be measured in relation to reading, writing and
arithmetic skills alone, and a person’s future success is judged
accordingly. Dr. Howard Gardner, a Harvard Psychologist and Professor
of Education, has demonstrated through his extensive research that
this notion is, and always has been ridiculous. Instead, he became one
of the first to express howwe should not judge others according to this
narrow definition of intelligence. The original Multiple Intelligence
theory was developed in 1983 and first published in his book, ‘Frames
Multiple Intelligence has stimulated
teachers to find more ways of helping all
studentes in their clases.
1.- Identify our group of work
2.- Analyze what kind of intelligences they
3.- Try to find things or topics that they
4.- Motivate our students
5.- Be careful (Some students are so
6.- Choose didactic material
Gardner argues that by
calling linguistic and logical-
intelligences, but not
artistic, musical, athletic,
etc. abilities, the former are
Certain critics balk at this
widening of the definition,
saying that it ignores "the
intelligence ... [which] has
always connoted the kind of
thinking skills that makes
one successful in school.
Gardner defines an intelligence as "biopsychological potential to
process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve
problems or create products that are of value in a culture.“
According to Gardner, there are more ways to do this than just
through logical and linguistic intelligence. Gardner believes that the
purpose of schooling "should be to develop intelligences and to help
people reach vocational and avocational goals that are appropriate to
their particular spectrum of intelligences. People who are helped to
do so, he believes, feel more engaged and competent and therefore
more inclined to serve society in a constructive way.
MUSICAL – RHYTHMIC
This area has to do with sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones,
and music. People with a high musical intelligence normally
have good pitch and may even have absolute pitch, and are
able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music.
Since there is a strong auditory component to this intelligence,
those who are strongest in it may learn best via lecture. They
will sometimes use songs or rhythms to learn.
This area deals with spatial judgment and the
ability to visualize with the mind's eye. Spatial ability is one of the three
factors beneath in the hierarchical model of intelligence.
the ability to accurately perceive the visual world and to re-create,
manipulate and modify aspects of one's perceptions .
Visual-spatial intelligence deals with shapes, patterns,
designs and the entire spectrum of colour - and with the placement
and relationship of objects in space, including distance and
direction. It includes our capacity to visualise, dream and imagine.
VISUAL - SPATIAL
Attention to visual detail.
Good visual imagination.
Good sense of direction.
Good colour sense.
Can read maps.
May doodle or Mind-
May be good driver.
May have vivid dreams.
- Watch TV programmes or videos on the
topic being studied.
- If possible, choose books with lots of
illustrations (pictures, graphs, charts, etc.).
- Use Mind Maps.
- Draw flow-charts.
- lustrate your notes.
- Draw relevant doodles in the margins of
- Use coloured marker pens to highlight
significant information (use different
colours for different types of information).
Our sense of vision is processed in the occipital lobe at the rear of the brain. It contains
interlinked modules which deal with the various aspects of interpreting visual signals
(such as shape, colour, motion), co-ordinating these into our seamless "world-view".
People suffering from neglect (usually as the result of a stroke) will ignore things in one
half of their visual field. Their eyes see what is there but their brains ignore it.
Colour vision defects affect 1 in 12 men and 1 in 200 women, and usually result in the
inability to distinguish between certain colours (say, red and green). True colour
blindness can leave an individual incapable of distinguishing any colours at all, leaving
them to experience the world in monochrome.
Prosopagnosia is the inability to recognise faces, even those of near relatives and close
friends. The part of the brain that is set up to record and compare facial characteristics
simply does not work.
Localised brain damage can also lead to the inability to recognise particular categories
of objects (e.g. animals), suggesting that our visual recognition processing modules are
VERBAL – LINGUISTIC
People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with
words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling
stories and memorizing words along with dates. Verbal ability is one of
the most loaded abilities
People with Linguistic intelligence love and are talented with words.
They enjoy reading, writing and learning languages. They have an ability
to teach and explain things to others. They learn best by reading, taking
notes and going to lectures.
•Notices grammatical mistakes
•Often speaks of what they have
•Likes to use "fancy" words
•Loves word games
•Cherishes their book collection
•Easily remembers quotes and
•Likes puns and rhymes
•Enjoys foreign language
•Always enjoyed English class
•English / Writing Tutor
•Actor / Actress
LOGICAL - MATHEMATICAL
This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning,
numbers and critical thinking.This also has to do with
having the capacity to understand the underlying
principles of some kind of causal system. Logical
reasoning is closely linked to fluid intelligence and
to general intelligence People with Logical intelligence
are abstract thinkers and are attracted to logic and
reasoning. They are good at investigation and scientific
processes. They learn best by logic.
Some individuals are able to learn just about anything
using their logical skills. They are able to calculate and
work out relationships and connections between items.
They enjoy mental challenges seeking out solutions to
logical, abstract and mathematical problems and have
good deductive reasoning skills. On a lesser scale, thy
may simply excel at games involving skill and strategy
such as chess or computer battle games.
Individuals with Logical-
Mathematical Intelligence will fall
into one or perhaps all of the
- Educational Mathematical
- Studied maths at school / college
and achieved good grades
-Strong everyday Mathematical Skills
- Enjoys utilising ones mathematical
skills in everyday life
-Everyday Problem Solving Skills –
Naturally inquisitive, curious and
- Ability to apply logical reasoning
skills to solve everyday problems
- Strategic Games – Generally enjoys,
and is good at games involving skill
Develop Your Logical / Mathematical
- Play logical/mathematical games with friends
- Learn to use an abacus
- Work on logic puzzles and brain teasers
Learn basic computer programming
- Take a course in basic maths or science at an
- Draw flowcharts of all the key processes in your
department or area of work and then come up
with new ideas on how to make whatever service
you provide more effective
- Read the business sections of the newspaper
and look up unfamiliar economic or financial
conceptsVisit a science
- Help your kids with their maths/science
BODILY – KINESTHETIC
The core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are control of one's
bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully.Gardner elaborates
to say that this also includes a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a
physical action, along with the ability to train responses.
People who have bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should learn better by
involving muscular movement (e.g. getting up and moving around into the
learning experience), and be generally good at physical activities such as sports,
dance, acting, and making things.
This is the ability to solve problems or fashion products using one's body.
Highly developed bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is exhibited by people such as
dancers, athletes, surgeons, artisans, and musicians. Gardner (1993b) defined
characteristics of bodily-kinesthetic intelligence as including:
- Using one's body in highly differentiated and skilled ways, for expressive and
- Working skillfully with objects, both those that involve the fine
motor movements of one's fingers and hands and those that
exploit gross motor movements of the body
- Controlling bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects
This area has to do with interaction with others . In
theory, individuals who have high interpersonal
intelligence are characterized by their sensitivity to
others' moods, feelings, temperaments and
motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to
work as part of a group.
According to Gardner in How Are Kids Smart:
Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, "Inter- and
Intra- personal intelligence is often misunderstood
with being extroverted or liking other people.
"Those with this intelligence communicate effectively
and empathize easily with others, and may be either
leaders or followers. They typically learn best by
working with others and often enjoy discussion and
•Enjoy social events
•Love groups and crowds
•Enjoying teaching others
•Have many friends
•Enjoy team sports
•Like to counsel others
•Love meeting new people
•Cooperative in groups
•Sensitive to others' moods
This area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities.
This refers to having a deep understanding of the self; what your
strengths/ weaknesses are, what makes you unique, being able to
predict your own reactions/emotions. Personality refers to the pattern
of thoughts, feelings, social adjustments, and behaviors consistently
exhibited over time that strongly influences one's expectations, self-
perceptions, values, and attitudes. It also predicts human reactions to
other people, problems, and stress. There is still no universal
consensus on the definition of "personality" in psychology.
People with intrapersonal intelligence are adept at looking inward and
figuring out their own feelings, motivations and goals. They are
introspective and seek understanding. They are intuitive and typically
introverted. They learn best independently.
The Naturalist intelligence has to do with how we relate to our surroundings and
where we fit into it. People with Naturalist intelligence have a sensitivity to and
appreciation for nature. They are gifted at nurturing and growing things as well as
the ability to care for and interact with animals. They can easily distinguish
patterns in nature.
Naturalistic learners, much like kinaesthetic learners, flourish from being able to
touch, feel, hold, and try practical hands-on experiences, but generally outdoors
within the environment, nature and animals.
There are literally millions of ways to be Nature-Smart! Being Naturalistic generally
means you are very interested and curious of your surroundings.
Whether you like star-gazing, collecting bugs or rocks, gardening, looking after
animals, cooking or even just playing out with friends, these are all ways of being
If you are Naturalistic then you find that you learn best by having the hands-on
approach, noticing and using your environment.