A Forgotten History <ul><li>The study of psychological trauma depends on support of political movement. </li><ul><li>Hysteria in women linked to history of trauma. Lack of political context led to Freud withdrawing support of link between history of abuse and adult symptoms in women.
Shell shock connected to war experiences, now referred to as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.
Sexual and domestic violence work driven by feminist movement. After 1980 PTSD applied to survivors of rape, domestic battery, and rape. </li></ul><li>Without context of political movement, it is not possible to advance the study of psychological trauma. Examples? </li></ul>
Terror <ul><li>In 1980, PTSD added to Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM).
Three main categories of PTSD: </li><ul><li>Hyperarousal – a persistent expectation of danger.
Feelings of guilt exist when survivor is witness to others hurt or killed (vets, trauma—natural or man-made). Survivor guilt.
Survivor experiences feelings of shame & inferiority.
Above fosters withdrawal from close relationships—survivor may go between isolation & clinging to others. </li></ul>
Disconnection, cont'd <ul><li>Direct relationship between severity of trauma and its psychological impact.
Resilience matters: stress resistant individuals have high sociability (perhaps not in instances involving rape), thoughtful/active coping style, & strong perception of ability to control their destiny (internal locus of control).
Highly resilient people able to make use of opportunity for purposeful action w/others vs. being more easily paralyzed/isolated by terror.
Support essential, beginning w/building of trust (preserve attachment, assurance of safety & protection essential).
Social attitudes towards victims & vets impact recovery. </li></ul>
Captivity <ul><li>Repeated trauma occurs when victim is a prisoner, unable to flee, & under the control of the perpetrator (e.g., prisons, concentration camps, slave labor camps, religious cults, brothels, & families).
Political captivity recognized, while domestic captivity is frequently unseen.
Two steps in creating captive situations: 1) psychological domination, & 2) total surrender. </li></ul>
Instill terror & fear, & destroy the victim's sense of self in relation to others.
Generally unnecessary to use violence—threat of death or serious harm sufficient, & threats against others as effective as threats against victim.
Destroy victim's sense of autonomy (create dependency financially and emotionally).
Isolate victim from information, material aid, or emotional support. Destruction of attachment with others and internal images of connection to others. </li></ul></ul>
Captivity, cont'd <ul><li>Total Surrender </li><ul><li>Occurs when victim forced to violate her own moral principles and to betray her basic human attachments (victim is truly broken).
Victim is forced to witness or participate in violence toward others, perhaps particularly someone close to them.
Two stages of brokenness: 1) victim relinquishes inner autonomy, world view, moral principles, or connection w/others for sake of survival (reversible), & 2) victim loses the will to live (irreversible). </li></ul></ul>
Captivity, cont'd <ul><li>Chronic Trauma Syndrome </li><ul><li>Individuals subjected to prolonged, repeated trauma experience a form of PTSD that erodes the personality (Complex Trauma).