Mprhgd lec9 urbanization

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Introduction to Urbanization

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Mprhgd lec9 urbanization

  1. 1. Urbanization 1
  2. 2. Lecture covers: _______________________ • Definition & Indicators of urbanization • Historical and emerging trends in urbanization in different world regions. • Urbanization trends in developing and developed countries • Demographic causes of urban growth • demographic, health, environmental and social consequences of urbanization • policy options to deal with urban challenge in developing countries 2
  3. 3. Definitions __________________________ • Urbanization: Increase in the proportion of the population living in urban areas • Urban growth refers to an increase in the physical size of an urban area • Countries differ in their definitions 3
  4. 4. Definitions __________________________ • Generally refers to population living in any place (e.g. towns) 2,000 or more, especially if the population is non-agricultural. • Some countries also have a middle category designated as ‘Semi-Urban’ • Percent Urban: Population living in urban areas, expressed as a percentage of the area’s total population. • Singapore is 100% urban while Rwanda is only 5% urban% 4
  5. 5. Definitions __________________________ Metropolitan Area: A large concentration of population, usually an area of 100,000 or more people with an important city at its core plus suburban and exurban areas that surround the city and are socially and economically integrated with it, as measured by commuting patterns • Refers to size and economic integration, not density of settlement 5
  6. 6. Rural-urban migration as a result of push and pull factors. 6
  7. 7. World’s Urbanization Trends ___________________________ • World’s urban population is growing 60 million a year • Urbanization-the dominant demographic trend of the past halfcentury • In 1950, 760 million of the world’s people lived in cities, which almost tripled to 2.7 billion by 1998 7
  8. 8. World Urbanization Trends ___________________________ Year 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2040 world population (in billion) 2.5 3.7 5.3 6.8 8.1 8.6 world urban population (in billion) 0.8 1.4 2.3 3.5 5.0 5.6 Source: UN Population prospects, the 1998 revision. Percent Urban 30 37 43 52 61 65 8
  9. 9. World Urbanization Trends _________________________ • Proportion urban of the global population has increased from 1/3 in 1960s to 47% in 2000, and is expected to reach 65% by 2040 • The percent urban population in less developed countries more than doubled from 18% in 1950s to 40% in 2000 9
  10. 10. Share of World population growth in Urban and rural areas, 1975-2025 Percent ___________________________ 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 5 5 34 48 9 90 1 9 57 33 1 950-1 975 Urban (LDC) 1 975-2000 Urban (M DC) 2000-2025 Rural (A ll co untries) 10 Sources: UN Urbanization prospects, 1998
  11. 11. Regional Trends in Urbanization 1950-2050 ______________________________ 100 90 80 Percent 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Africa 1950 Asia 1975 LAC Europe 2000 2025 North Amrica 2050 Source:UN Urbanization prospect, 2007 11
  12. 12. Regional Trends in Urbanization ___________________________ • Africa is currently least urban, but most rapidly urbanizing • In next quarter century, increases in world urbanization will be attributed to Asia and SSA, as MDR and Latin America have already been highly urbanized • Increasing urbanization levels accompanied by concentration of urban population in larger cities-the share of urban population living in million plus cities will increase from 10% in 1975 to 20% in 2015. 12
  13. 13. Population of Urban Agglomerations with 10 Millions or more. __________________________ Year Cities Year Cities 1950 New York (12.3) Tokyo (11.3) 1975 Tokyo (26.6) New York (15.9) Mexico City (10.7) 2007 Tokyo (35.7) New York (19.0) Mexico City (19.0) Mumbai (19.0) 2025 Tokyo (36.4) Mumbai (26.4) Delhi (22.5) Dhaka (22.0) 13
  14. 14. Graphic Changes _____________________________________ 14
  15. 15. Population Spatial Distribution and Concerns in Developing countries __________________________ • High urban growth rates • Mismatch between population and resource distribution • Rural over population • Existence of small and scattered villages • International migration 15
  16. 16. Population Distribution in some selected Countries ________________________ • Rural-urban distribution: most important feature of population distribution within these countries • Percent urban for Asia increased from 16.8% in 1950 to 39.7% in 2005. with highest urban pop (66%) in Japan in 2005, Bangladesh has 25.7 % urban population while Sri Lanka has only 15 %. Both India and Pakistan have slightly 16 higher urban population .
  17. 17. Comparing Urbanization in MDC and LDC __________________________ • The levels of urbanization in LDC lag 75 years behind MDC • Taking place at lower level of economic development • Based on lower mortality and high fertility • Involves many more people • Governments are trying to intervene to modify it 17
  18. 18. Demographic Sources of Urban Growth ___________________________ • Natural increase within city dwellers • Net in-migration mainly due to rural to urban migration –the relative contributions of natural increase and net migration to urban growth depends on urban economies and urban fertility levels • Reclassification of urban boundaries to encompass formerly rural population • Circular migration: leading to seasonal fluctuation in the cities population 18
  19. 19. Demographics of Urban Population ___________________________ • Sex ratio • Age structure • Household size 19
  20. 20. Demographics of Urban Population: Sex Ratio ___________________________ • Sex selectivity of rural-urban migration Depends upon: –Relative urban job opportunities for men and women –Family norms regarding migration of men and women 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. • Sex ratio in of several Asian countries 22
  23. 23. Demographics of Urban Population in LDC: Age Structure ___________________________ • Smaller proportion of very young (<5 years) and very old (>65years) than rural populations due to –Lower urban fertility than rural fertility –Higher proportion of young adults among rural-urban migrants –Retirement to rural areas in old age • Result: Relatively higher proportion of population in economically active ages 23
  24. 24. Consequences of Urbanization: Demographic ____________________________ • Invariably lower fertility in urban areas due to : – Higher cost of child rearing – Social norms more conducive to small families – Better availability of FP services 24
  25. 25. Consequences of Urbanization: Health ___________________________ • Urban health advantage makes enormous disparities between urban poor and rich. –Infant mortality (or other indicators of health) may be worse in urban slums and squatter settlements compared to rural areas 25
  26. 26. Consequences of Urbanization: Health ___________________________ • Is urban health advantage narrowing over time? • Double burden of disease –Traditional diseases of developing countries e.g. malnutrition, Malaria, TB. –Diseases associated with modernization e.g. obesity, road accidents, cancer –Diseases associated with overcrowding and pollution e.g. asthma, mental diseases • Prime locations of newly emerging killers, 26 notably HIV/AIDS .
  27. 27. Consequences of Urbanization: Environmental ___________________________ • Heavier death tolls due to natural disaster like earthquakes, hurricanes etc. • More vulnerable to flooding and storm damage • Higher levels of environmental pollution • Contribution to global warming • However, many of these can be minimized by appropriate urban planning and management 27
  28. 28. Consequences of Urbanization: Economic __________________________ • Engines of economic development • Density of population offers significant cost advantage for delivery of essential goods and services • Increase in use of basic resources, such as energy and water 28
  29. 29. Consequences of Urbanization: Social ___________________________ • Imbalance between urban population size and employment opportunities, urban infrastructure, housing -growing inequalities-civil unrest, crime 29
  30. 30. Meeting the urbanization Challenge: Policy Options ___________________________ • Measures directed at slowing urban growth? OR • Measures directed at improving administration, governance and management 30
  31. 31. Policy Options: Slowing Urban Growth ___________________________ • �Is there an optimal city size? • �Over-urbanization? 31
  32. 32. Urbanization in Developing Countries: Policy options __________________________ • Rapid urbanization: inevitable • Ironically current policies focus on reducing in-migrant flows, though natural increase is equally responsible for contributing to rapid urban growth • Options: good management and governance 32
  33. 33. Urbanization in Underdeveloped Nations Mirror the Experience of Industrialized Nations? • No: cities there grow much faster • 1940s-50s: – More than 4% average annual gain in developing nations – Compared to 2% average annual gain in industrialized nations’ heyday of urbanization • Cause is not urban-rural migration but instead – Natural population growth in country as a whole – Developing country cities have improved mortality rates and only slightly lower fertility 33
  34. 34. Urbanization in Underdeveloped Nations Mirror the Experience of Industrialized Nations? – No decline in rural population, as occurred in developed countries – Problem: the rapidly growing population in countryside has been absorbed to a good extent by cities, leaving country side to be farmed more productively, and cities are taking care of some of the problems associated with fast-growing population – Rapid growing population requires the same amount of land to feed more people than before 34
  35. 35. Bangladesh Slum Clearance __________________________________ 35
  36. 36. Recycling as a Way of Life - Waste Collecting as Survival in Lagos, Nigeria ___________________________________ 36
  37. 37. Petrona Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 37
  38. 38. Los Angeles at Night _______________________________________ 38
  39. 39. Land Use In LDC ____________________________________ 39

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