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RESPONSIBILITY    Fig. 2. During the game, Marcel Duchamp savors his cigar, while          Fig. 3. The concert program for...
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John Cage y Marcel Duchamp


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John Cage y Marcel Duchamp

  1. 1. R E SR E S P O N S I B I L I T Y P OReunion: John Cage, Marcel N S I BDuchamp, Electronic Music I L I T Yand Chess Lowell Cross A B S T R A C T T T he author chronicles his in- volvement in Reunion, a 1968 col- laborative performance featuring John Cage, Marcel Duchamp and he year 1999 marks the thirty-first anniversary of Re- by Lowell Cross of the Poly- Teeny Duchamp, with electronicunion, a performance in which games of chess determined technical Institute in Toronto. The music by David Behrman, Gordon gates switched by the pieces trig- Mumma, David Tudor and Lowellthe form and acoustical ambience of a musical event. The gered a passage of music by Cage, Cross. After addressing someconcert—held at the Ryerson Theatre in Toronto, Canada— Tudor, Mumma, or Behrman; misconceptions about Reunion,began at 8:30 on the evening of 5 March 1968, and con- since the sound-systems operated the author outlines specific detailscluded at approximately 1:00 the next morning. Principal all the time, even the reappear- about the conditions surroundingplayers were John Cage, who conceived (but did not actually ance of a move would lead to a dif- the performance and the sound- ferent sound. distributing chessboard he built,“compose”) the work; Marcel Duchamp and his wife Alexina Teeny Duchamp looked on then offers an interpretation of(Teeny); and composers David Behrman, Gordon Mumma, while Cage and Marcel Duchamp the event.David Tudor and I, who also designed and constructed the played the game. The evening be-electronic chessboard, completing it only the night before gan with a large audience. Cage an d Duchamp adjourned afterthe performance. Except for a brief curtain call with MerceCunningham and Dance Company in Buffalo, NY the follow-ing month [1], Duchamp made his last public appearance—in the role of chess master—in Reunion. Fig. 1. John Cage installs contact microphones inside the chessboard while David Tudor and Lowell Cross confer. (Photo: Shigeko Kubota)MISCONCEPTIONSIn the intervening 31 years, more fiction than fact regardingReuni on has appeared in documents about Cage andDuchamp, even from the pens of authors with prestigiousreputations. Nicolas Slonimsky wrote in the 1978 edition ofBaker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians: He [Cage] also became interested in chess and played demon- stration games with Marcel Duchamps [sic], the famous painter turned chessmaster, on chessboards designed by Lowell Cross to operate on aleatory principles with the aid of a computer and a system of laser rays. [2] Cage and Duchamp played only one public “demonstra-tion” game, the one in Reunion, and I have built only onesuch chessboard to date (I am building a second one in1999). We used no computer in conjunction with that chess-board and we used no system of “laser rays.” (My develop-ment of the first “laser light show” began during the follow-ing fall and winter [1968–1969]; I collaborated in that projectwith the sculptor and physicist C.D. Jeffries at the Universityof California, Berkeley and, eventually, with Tudor [3].) In his Cage biography, The Roaring Silence—John Cage: ALife, David Revill wrote: Early in 1968 Cage realized Reunion. A number of sound-sys- tems which operated continuously were prepared by Tudor, Mumma, and David Behrman. The sounds varied according to the position of pieces on a specially prepared chessboard builtLowell Cross (teacher, author, recording producer), School of Music, 2057 Music Build-ing, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1793, U.S.A. E-mail: <lowell-cross@uiowa.edu>.© 1999 ISAST LEONARDO MUSIC JOURNAL, Vol. 9, pp. 35–42, 1999 35
  2. 2. RESPONSIBILITY Fig. 2. During the game, Marcel Duchamp savors his cigar, while Fig. 3. The concert program for Reunion. Teeny Duchamp and John Cage smoke cigarettes. (Photo: Shigeko Kubota) several hours when the house was whereupon Cage (White) and Teeny covering of its 64 photoresistors (one empty. Next morning they finished the (Black) played a second game until per square), not upon the nine contact match; Duchamp had given himself the about 1:00 A.M. in the presence of a wan- microphones installed inside. At Cage’s handicap of a knight, but still beat his pupil [4]. ing audience of less than 10 persons, insistence, I provided internal locations one of whom shouted “Encore!” for contact microphones so that the au- Revill’s description contains some Duchamp memorized the last moves dience could hear the physical moves of very misleading statements. There were and positions of the chesspieces in this the pieces on the board if the appropri- sound-generating systems prepared by Tu- unfinished game, eventually won by ate conjunctions of inputs, outputs and dor, Mumma, Behrman and me; no pas- Teeny in New York a few days later. player movements were (by chance) to sages of music by Cage were presented There is no record of the moves in ei- occur (Fig. 1). At most, those sounds to the inputs of the chessboard. I had no ther of the games of Reunion. were soft “thunks,” even when greatly affiliation with [Ryerson] Polytechnical The following brief description, by amplified. The oscilloscopic images Institute; however, the performance was the Duchamp biographer Calvin emanated from my modified mono- in the theatre on the Ryerson campus. Tomkins, is close to being accurate, as chrome and color television screens, At the time I was a graduate student and far as it goes: which provided visual monitoring of Research Associate in the Electronic some of the sound events passing Music Studios at the University of Entitled Reunion, the event consisted of through the chessboard. Cage and Duchamp (and then Cage Toronto. I based my design of the chess- and Teeny) playing chess on a board board on photoresistors, not gates or that had been equipped with contact triggering circuits. microphones; whenever a piece was PRECONDITIONS Revill also gives the erroneous impres- moved, it set off a gamut of amplified One cold evening in late January or electronic noises and oscilloscopic im- sion that the event encompassed only ages on television screens visible to the early February 1968, John Cage tele- one game. In actuality, Teeny Duchamp audience [5]. phoned me at the Spadina Road apart- watched her husband (White) defeat ment in Toronto where my wife Nora Cage (Black) within a half hour—de- The functions of the chessboard actu- and I lived. He had already heard the spite his handicap of only one knight— ally depended upon the covering or un- results of electronic sound-motion pro- 36 Cross, Reunion
  3. 3. R E Sduced by the circuitry of my “Stirrer” imposing chair for Duchamp, the cigars THE CHESSBOARD P O[6]. Cage asked if I would build for him and cigarettes, the wine and chess—was N San electronic chessboard that would se- an obvious imitation of the scene at the Other than the stipulation about con- I Blect and spatially distribute sounds Duchamps’ second-floor New York tact microphones and his wish that the Iaround a concert audience as a game townhouse apartment when Cage chess game would result in the selec- L Iunfolded. Because I was in the process showed up one or two evenings per tion and distribution of sounds around T Yof completing my graduate work at the week for “lessons.” “The way Marcel an audience, Cage made no requestsUniversity of Toronto, at first I politely taught was to have Teeny and me play about the actual operation of the chess-refused his request. He said, “Perhaps chess. . . . ” recalled Cage. “Now and board. However, since I had an under-you will change your mind if I tell you then he would come over and remark standing of his aesthetic posture in thewho my chess partner will be.” After I that we were playing very badly. There late 1960s, I made several decisionssaid “OK–,” Cage said, “Marcel was no real instruction” [9]. In the about the chessboard circuitry that IDuchamp.” 1950s, Duchamp was considered by the knew would please him. I was persuaded, of course, and I im- American grand master Edward Lasker Immediately before the openingmediately began to design the chess- to be one of the top 25 chess masters in move, “silence” (in the Cageian sense)board, thesis or no thesis. (Cage figured the U.S. [10] (see Fig. 4). prevailed (see Fig. 5). The two pairs ofprominently in my thesis, which ex-plored the historical development ofelectronic music and the beginnings of Fig. 4. After meeting Marcel Duchamp, Lowell Cross receives instruction on a fine pointelectronic music studios between 1948 of chess from a master. (Photo: Shigeko Kubota)and 1953 [7].) Cage told me that he was naming thepiece Reunion because he wanted tobring together artists with whom he hadbeen affiliated in the past in a homeybut theatrical setting. He and Duchampwould play chess at center stage, and themoves of the game would result in theselection of sound sources and their spa-tial distribution around the audience.Duchamp would sit in a comfortableeasy chair (Cage would be content withan ordinary kitchen chair); Teeny wouldsit close by and watch; my “oscilloscopic”TV sets, on stage, should be in opera-tion; and the chess aficionados at centerstage would drink wine and smoke(Duchamp, cigars; Teeny and Cage,cigarettes) (Fig. 2). All the while, Cage’scomposer-collaborators Behrman,Mumma, Tudor and I would provide theelectronic and electroacoustical sounds Fig. 5. Teeny Duchamp, Marcel Duchamp and John Cage, just before the first game began.of the concert experience. Clearly, Re- Duchamp had not yet removed his king’s knight. (Photo: Shigeko Kubota)union was to be a public celebration ofCage’s delight in living everyday life asan art form. Cage left the remaining details up tome but told me to contact the Estonian-born Canadian composer Udo Kasemets,who was organizing a festival called“Sightsoundsystems” in Toronto, forwhich Reunion was to be the openingevent (Fig. 3). Chess had been part of Duchamp’severyday life for decades, and in the1960s it became part of Cage’s everydaylife, too. The composer had reveredDuchamp since their first meeting in1942, but kept his distance “out of admi-ration.” Cage eventually found enoughcourage to ask Duchamp for chess les-sons, essentially as a way of getting toknow him [8]. The setting for Reunionon the Ryerson Theatre stage—with the Cross, Reunion 37
  4. 4. RESP ranks on each side, where the chess-ON pieces repose before the game begins,SI were “off” (i.e. not passing a signal)B when their 32 photoresistors were cov-ILI ered; the four center ranks were “off”T when those remaining 32 photoresistorsY were exposed. With 16 inputs (allowing four signals each from the four collabo- rating composers) and eight outputs (each directed to a loudspeaker system), the complexity of the sound environ- ment enveloping the audience in- creased as the early part of the game progressed; it then diminished as fewer and fewer pieces were left on the board. I followed no particular plan while connecting the internal components of the chessboard except to ensure that each of the 16 inputs (designated 1–16) could appear at four of the eight differ- ent outputs (designated A–H). For ex- ample, during the course of a game, a signal at input 1 could appear at outputs B, E, F and/or G (see Fig. 6). My ar- rangement was arbitrary, unplanned and quasi-random, but any of the 16 in- Fig. 6. Distribution of inputs and outputs of the Reunion chessboard. puts had a “chance” of appearing in as many as four of the eight loudspeaker locations surrounding the audience. If one assumes that the stage was “north” of the theatre seats, the loudspeakers were arranged as points on a compass: Fig. 7. Basic cir- cuitry of the Re- union chessboard. 38 Cross, Reunion
  5. 5. R E Sloudspeaker A was northwest; B, north; P OC, northeast; D, east; E, southeast; F, N Ssouth; G, southwest; and H, west. Fig. 8. The chess- I B Cage’s hope for sound movement board partially con- Iduring the game was realized several nected. (Photo: L Itimes during the course of the evening. Shigeko Kubota) T YFor example, if Duchamp (White)moved his queen from queen 1 (Q1; in-put 1, output F) to king’s bishop 3 (KB3;input 1, output B), the sound present ininput 1 would move from the loud-speaker at back of the hall (F, south) tothe loudspeaker facing the audience,just below center stage (B, north). Ancil-lary effects of sound choices and motionresulted from the shadows of hands andarms as the players moved pieces; theseadditional elements pleased Cage im-mensely. While Reunion was supposed to pro-vide a homey atmosphere, it was alsoquite theatrical, with well-defined rolesfor stars (seated at center stage) and bitplayers. The use of photoresistors, oneimbedded in each of the 64 squares, re-quired that the surface of the board beflooded with bright illumination. Thechessboard was in the spotlight, and sowere the stars. Cage did not wish tomake the lighting requirements an is-sue, but he did tell me, “I’m so glad thatMarcel will be in the spotlight.” The photoresistors and fixed resistorsform a passive resistive matrix (Fig. 7). band attenuation figures (see above), its cided to buy the stars only one bottle ofThe inputs and the outputs are unbal- response is down no more than 0.3 dB at wine (Fig. 9). This decision was rein-anced “line level” and can operate with 20 Hz and 1.3 dB at 20 kHz. The penalty, forced by the knowledge that I would beeither consumer-grade or professional of course, is the requirement for gain paying for it myself and that despite myaudio equipment; however, the outputs makeup after attenuation. financial status as graduate student, Irequire a high-impedance load. The I built the device with two tourna- would be expected to provide a highpurely resistive circuitry attenuates the ment-size Masonite™ boards, one on quality vintage. The result was a 1964incoming signals. Accordingly, if a top with the photoresistors mounted in Château Kirwan [11], which I had tosquare is “on” (i.e., passing a signal), 12 the centers of the squares, and the other purchase with a special “license” todecibels (dB) gain is required to over- as the base. (The Reunion chessboard serve it in public, from the Head Officecome the attenuation in the two back may be turned over for a game of “non- of the Liquor Control Board of Ontariopairs of ranks, and 24 dB gain is re- electronic” chess.) The two Masonite™ (LCBO), on Toronto’s Front Street.quired for the four center ranks. boards are separated by ordinary two-by- “How many bottles of wine?” asked As seen in Fig. 7, each signal is attenu- fours painted black. The two-by-four on the LCBO clerk.ated by a T pad. The two back pairs of White’s right-hand side has two open- “One,” I replied.ranks have the photoresistors at the in- ings: one for access to the 24 RCA jacks “How many people will be in atten-put; the four center ranks have the (16 unbalanced inputs, 8 unbalanced dance at your event?”photoresistors connected to ground. In outputs) and the other for the nine “It’s a public concert, perhaps 500.”their “off” conditions, the two back pairs cables to the contact microphones “And you’re buying only one bottle ofof ranks (covered) attenuate incoming mounted inside (see Color Plate A No. 1 wine, eh?”signals by an additional 62 dB; the four and Fig. 8). Its dimensions are 420 ´ 420 “Yes.”center ranks (uncovered) attenuate in- ´ 77 mm, or 16.5 inches square by 3 He wrote this down, and then, with acoming signals by an additional 56 dB. inches high. quizzical shrug, he handed me my cop-The circuitry does not allow “off” to be ies of the requisite forms and quicklycompletely off, but it was close enough produced a bottle of 1964 Châteaufor Reunion. THE WINE Kirwan from the large storeroom be- The purely resistive circuitry of the As in the design of the chessboard, Cage hind the counter. Nora provided thechessboard adds an insignificant left the essential issue of wine entirely wine glasses for the evening.amount of distortion to audio signals, up to me. Knowing that Duchamp After Duchamp soundly defeated hisand the frequency response is very uni- would defeat Cage handily in a couple student-opponent in the first game (de-form. After accounting for its broad- of games within about an hour, I de- spite the handicap), 25 minutes and Cross, Reunion 39
  6. 6. RESP over one-half of the bottle of wine hadON been consumed. We still have the glassSI from which Duchamp drank; the otherB two and the empty bottle are gone. HisILI glass is now chipped, after our severalT moves since 1968. If he were alive today,Y I am sure that Duchamp would com- ment that the chips only complete the original design. THE FIRST GAME Shortly after the announced time of 8:30 P.M. on Tuesday, 5 March 1968, Re- union began. The collaborating compos- ers “gamely” began producing sounds from their own pre-existent works, all of which utilized special equipment built, or custom-modified, by the individual artists themselves. Behrman’s contribu- Fig. 9. John Cage makes a move; David Behrman and Gordon Mumma in background. tion was Runthrough, Mumma per- Note bottle of wine at Teeny Duchamp’s feet. (Photo: Shigeko Kubota) formed his Hornpipe and Swarmer, and Tudor—who did not enter into this en- gagement with great enthusiasm—was content with the title Reuni on. The works of Behrman, Mumma and Tudor were all examples of “live electronic” music, per formed continuously throughout the evening. My sonic con- tributions were two pieces of pre-re- corded tape music, Video II (B) [12] and Musica Instrument alis, which also pro- duced the oscilloscopic images on the television screens (see Fig. 3). As noted above, Duchamp (White) gave his student-opponent Cage (Black) a handicap in this first game, removing his king’s knight from its square (KN1) and replacing it with a U.S. quarter dol- lar (Fig. 10). With this action, he dem- onstrated his understanding of the func- Fig. 10. The Reunion chessboard in 1998, set up with the Duchamp handicap. (Photo: tion of the chessboard—and, indeed, his Lowell Cross) understanding of the entire event. Duchamp played his role as chess mas- ter that evening with quiet, unruffled dignity, as though the event was nothing more than that intended: a part of every- day life. As reported above, he decisively trounced Cage within about 25 min- utes—the handicap had no bearing on the outcome of that game (Fig. 11). Cage had made a special point of in- viting to Reunion Marshall McLuhan of the University of Toronto, then at the height of his fame as a media guru. McLuhan was one of the composer’s fa- vorite “thinkers” of this period, and I was a student in his seminar “Media and Society” during that 1967–1968 aca- demic year. Udo Kasemets later in- formed me that McLuhan was in the au- dience, remained for the first game, and left immediately thereafter. I never Fig. 11. Marcel Duchamp takes one of John Cage’s pieces. (Photo: Shigeko Kubota) asked McLuhan about Reunion, and he 40 Cross, Reunion
  7. 7. R E Snever mentioned the event to me or to P Othe members of the seminar. N S Fig. 12. The second I game. Duchamp B ITHE SECOND GAME dozes off; David L I Behrman in back-While the star performers exchanged T ground. (Photo: Yamenities, the break between games Shigeko Kubota)provided an intermission—and an op-portunity for the exodus of a large seg-ment of the audience. Then, at about9:15 P.M., the scene reverted to the actualcircumstances of the chess “lessons” atthe Duchamps’ New York townhouseapartment at 28 West 10th Street: Cageplayed Teeny, and Duchamp observed(or dozed off; see Fig. 12). The collabo-rating composers again dutifully pro-vided their electronic signals to the in-puts of the chessboard, while the gamebetween Cage and Teeny went on, andon, and on. They were well matched aschess players, and they played seriouslyand deliberately. Finally, at 1:00 A.M. on 6 March 1968,Duchamp made known his fatigue. Cageand Teeny agreed to adjourn and tocontinue the game in the future. Theevent came to its inconclusive ending.INTERPRETATIONA large part of Cage’s aesthetic of inde-terminacy centered on his wish to re-move his personality from his art. Hewas able to accomplish, and to justify, his tending Reunion permitted no correla- ized for reverent immurement in a uni-indeterminate “system”—and that is tion between Cage’s elegantly pro- versity” [15]. The editors of the conser-what it was, a well-defined system—by scribed application of his system of inde- vative Globe and Mail did not condescendutilizing extramusical means to realize terminacy and his underlying hope that to send a reporter to Reunion.his works: the I Ching, pitching pennies elegant games of chess could bring forth Two additional performances of theto arrive at chance operations, making elegant musical structures. The games work occurred that spring: one at theuse of the imperfections on score paper, clearly were not elegant, and I, for one, Electric Circus in New York, the other atrandomly dropping squiggle-lined trans- held no expectation that they could Mills College in Oakland, California.parencies on top of each other, and so have brought forth elegant, or even in- Even though they lived in New York, theon. The idea of using a chess game to teresting, musical structures. After this Duchamps stayed away from the Electricrealize a musical-theatrical work was one inconclusive event, what remained of Circus event; Cage found as his chessof his most creative: it simultaneously Reunion? High theatre, Cage’s appeal to partner the editor of The Saturdayexploited his never-concealed pen- intellectualism, and everyday life. Evening Post. In addition to setting upchants for high theatre, the appeal of the chessboard, I instructed Cage’schess to intellectualism, and the living of friend Jean Rigg in the fine art ofeveryday life. If nothing else, John Cage AFTERWARD margarita-making—in the absence ofwas an intellectual: self-taught, Ameri- The Toronto newspaper critics were the Duchamps, no wine was served. Acan and as original as they come. unanimous in their indignation about contact microphone was affixed to the His quest for “purposeful purposeless- Reunion, as evinced in the 6 March 1968 Waring Blender, margaritas were servedness or a purposeless play” [13] was el- afternoon editions of the Star and the all around as long as there were ingredi-egantly defined in his concept of Re- now-defunct Telegram. William Littler, ents, and a grand time was had by all.union, but as a musical performance, the music critic for the Star, produced a At Mills College, I was Cage’s oppo-work’s ultimate realization was indeed headline saying the event was “mighty nent at chess. In keeping with the Cage-inconclusive. One game ended too boring.” His colleague and cultural ob- Duchamp dress code, I wore a dark suitquickly to allow the underlying ideas to server Robert Fulford found it “infi- and tie, but Cage was dressed less for-be fully experienced by the audience; nitely boring” and an example of “total mally. The reporter for the Oakland Tri-the other dragged on for so long that it non-communication, all around” [14]. bune, Paul Hertelendy, suggested thathad to be postponed due to the exhaus- The Telegram’s Kenneth Winters con- Cage’s opponent looked like a membertion of the principals and the dwindling cluded that the “fusty, dusty, illustrious of the Mafia, or perhaps an FBI agent, inaudience. Finally, the circumstances at- visitors are just about sufficiently fossil- the incongruous role of chess player. I Cross, Reunion 41
  8. 8. RES 6. Lowell Cross, “The Stirrer,” Source, music of theP was White, and I made a very bold open- dor died in his sleep on 13 August 1996O avant garde No. 4 (1968) pp. 25–28.N ing, a variation on “Fool’s Mate.” Cage at his home in Tomkins Cove, NY at theS 7. Lowell Cross, “Electronic Music, 1948–1953” Per-I commented on my aggressiveness as I age of 70 [21].B spectives of New Music 7, No. 1, 32–65 (1968).I took some of his pieces, but that open- Gordon Mumma was born on 30L ing is dangerous when facing a prac- March 1935 in Framingham, MA. From 8. See Tomkins [1] pp. 410–411.IT ticed opponent, and he went on to win 1966 to 1974, he was a composer/musi- 9. See Tomkins [1] p. 411.Y decisively. After all, he had been practic- cian (with Tudor and Cage) with MCDC 10. See Tomkins [1], p. 289. ing quite a bit of chess over the past and was one of the first composers to 11. The château where this 1964 Margaux was pro- weeks, while I had been endeavoring to utilize electronic circuits of his own de- duced, Château Kirwan, was confirmed to me in end my career as a graduate student. sign [22]. He is retired from the music May 1998 by Mr. Wally Plahutnik, wine merchant I did not document either the name faculty at the University of California at for John’s Grocery, Inc. in Iowa City, after he care- fully inspected the wine label seen in Shigeko of the editor of The Saturday Evening Post Santa Cruz. Kubota’s photographs. or the dates and times of these later per- David Behrman was born on 16 August 12. The only work heard during Reunion that was formances. By this time, Reunion had be- 1937 in Salzburg, Austria [23]. He released as a recording was my tape music, Video II come part of my everyday life, and I was formed the Sonic Arts Union in 1966 with (B), issued on Source Records No. 5, 1971. The “live electronic” pieces by the other composers content to let it go at that. Mumma, Robert Ashley and Alvin Lucier were improvised and ephemeral, never to be heard and was a composer/performer with again as they were on that evening. However, the MCDC from 1970 to 1977. He has since entire event was recorded for possible release by THE PLAYERS taught electronic and computer music at CBS/Columbia (David Behrman, producer); present location and condition of the tapes are un- Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp was Bard, Mills and other U.S. colleges. known. born at home in Blainville, France on 28 Lowell Merlin Cross was born in 13. John Cage, “Experimental Music,” in Silence July 1887. He was one of the most influ- Kingsville, TX on 24 June 1938. He has (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1961) p. 12. ential figures in twentieth-century avant- taught in the School of Music at The 14. The Toronto Star (6 March 1968). garde art. He died on 2 October 1968 at University of Iowa since 1972. 15. The Toronto Telegram (6 March 1968). his apartment in Neuilly-sur-Seine (5 rue Parmentier), France [16]. Acknowledgments 16. See Tomkins [1] pp. 18, 449–450. John Milton Cage, Jr. was born the I am grateful to Juan Maria Solare, an Argentine 17. See Slonimsky [2], 8th ed. (1992) p. 282. son of an inventor in Los Angeles on 5 composer living in Germany, whose many email 18. Laura Kuhn, Executive Director of The John questions about Reunion prompted me to write this September 1912 [17]. He became one article 30 years after the event. I am also very grate- Cage Trust, e-mail correspondence to me (3 and 4 of the leaders of the twentieth-century ful to Professor Elizabeth Aubrey, musicologist, col- December 1998). The Reunion chessboard is part of league and dear friend, who patiently read the the collection of The John Cage Trust. musical avant-garde. Cage died of a mas- manuscript and made many helpful suggestions. 19. Teeny Duchamp’s birthdate and birthplace sive stroke on 12 August 1992 [18]. were confirmed to me by her children, Jacqueline Alexina (Teeny) Duchamp was born References and Notes Matisse Monnier (via fax) and Paul Matisse (via Alexina Sattler on 20 January 1906 in telephone), on 2 September 1999. 1. Calvin Tomkins, Duchamp (New York: Henry Holt Cincinnati [19] and married Marcel & Co., 1996) p. 446. 20. Calvin Tomkins, fax correspondence to me, 20 Duchamp in 1954. She died on 20 De- May 1998. 2. Nicolas Slonimsky, ed., Baker’s Biographical Dictio- cember 1995 at her home in Villiers- nary of Musicians, 6th ed. (New York: Schirmer, 1978) 21. See the biography section of the David Tudor sous-grez, France, at the age of 89 [20]. p. 267. In the seventh and eighth editions of Baker’s Pages, hosted by the Electronic Music Foundation David Eugene Tudor was born in (1984, 1992), with my prompting, Slonimsky cor- web site; accessible at <http://www.emf.org/tudor/ rected the spelling of Duchamp’s name and reported Life/biography.html>. Philadelphia on 20 January 1926. He be- on a singular chessboard, but retained the erroneous came one of the premier avant-garde statement about a computer and “laser rays.” 22. See the Gordon Mumma page in the on-line art- ist catalog for Lovely Music, accessible at <http:// pianists and electronic composers of our 3. Lowell Cross, “The Audio Control of Laser Dis- www.lovely.com/bios/mumma.html>. time, and began working with Cage as a plays,” db, the Sound Engineering Magazine 15, No. 7, 30–41 (July 1981). 23. David M. Cummings, ed., International Who’s member of Merce Cunningham and Who in Music and Musicians’ Director y, 15th Ed. Dance Company (MCDC) in the early 4. David Revill, The Roaring Silence—John Cage: A Life (Cambridge, UK: International Biographical Cen- (New York: Arcade Publishing, Inc., 1992), p. 223. tre, 1996) p. 65. 1950s. He took over as the Company’s Musical Director when Cage died. Tu- 5. Tomkins [1], pp. 445–446. Manuscript received 19 January 1999. 42 Cross, Reunion